How the Americas Changed By: Tommy Marinelli Professor Arguello History 141
The Americas in the 19th Century The United States had finally begun to experience an age of independence. People were advocating freedom and a just government. Colonies were expanding westward, and eventually doubled the size of the country. In the 1780’s, the U.S. constitution was first drafted in an effort to appoint responsibilities and restrictions on both the federal and independent state governments. This document also made all men equal.
The 19th Century Continued… In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected as president, sparking a war between the states. In 1863, Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation which abolished slavery. The British were afraid of American expansion, allowing Canada to win it’s independence without conflict. Mexico went through an array of government styles, and eventually a liberal reform movement began. The Constitution of 1857, the La Reforma began. Mexicans were now able to be a part of political changes, and were given the resources to live comfortably.
The Little Ice Age the Little Ice Age which took place from the 1300’s to the 1800’s There are many theories on what may have sparked the Little Ice Age including sun spots, heightened volcanic activity, and ocean current circulation. The average temperature was lowered by 4 degrees with drastic freezing periods during the colder months In 1816, the freezing period lasted so long that this year became known as the “Year Without a Summer.”
Frontiers of America The Haitian Revolution was a series of conflicts that lasted from 1791-1804. The slaves rose up and fought until they drove the whites out of Saint-Domingue. The Republic of Haiti became independent and slavery was abolished. The first expedition to the West coast was the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The goal was to study geography, vegetation, animal life, and so forth of the land to the west. They were also in search of a water passage across the continent that would allow for trade with Asia. This expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson. The expedition lasted from 1804-1806.
Frontiers of America continued… The Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed on April 30th, by James Monroe, Robert Livingston (on behalf of the president, Thomas Jefferson), and Barbé Marbois in France. The U.S. paid France 15 million dollars for the territory of Louisiana, a chunk of land about 828,800 sq. miles. This purchase doubled the size of the United States. The states that make up this territory today are: Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma, and large portions of Minnesota, N. Dakota, S., Dakota, Louisiana, Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, and Texas. This purchase helped to relieve France of it’s overwhelming debt due to war. Thomas Jefferson announced the signing of this treaty on July 4th, 1803. This treaty was one of the most important acquisitions in the history of the U.S.
Crossroads of Freedom:The Napoleonic Wars Opposing coalitions set off a series of conflicts against Napoleon’s French Empire. These conflicts eventually defeated Napoleon’s military and restored France’s Bourbon Monarchy. The Holy Roman Empire was essentially terminated because of these wars and began a nascent nationalism in Germany and Italy. This nationalism would eventually result in the consolidation of Germany and Italy. The British Empire was at the top of the world, becoming the leading world power. This began the Pax Britannica. In 1815, Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic wars and the Second Treaty of Paris was signed. The Napoleonic wars lasted from 1803 to 1815.
Crossroads of Freedom:The U.S.-Mexican War From 1846 to 1848, a territorial war pursued between the U.S. and Mexico. The U.S. wanted to completely take over Texas, but Mexico was still claiming this as part of Mexican territory. For $18 million, Alta California and New Mexico became part of the U.S. The Rio Grande River became the border between Mexico and the U.S. in exchange for the relief of Mexico’s debt to the U.S. and the loss of Texas.
Crossroads of Freedom:The Crimean War The Russian Empire fought against a major alliance between the Ottoman, French, and British Empires, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Territorial conflict over the land of the Ottoman Empire. One of the first wars to be documented extensively, also using photographs. Technical changes occurred during this war which would change warfare for centuries to come, making this one of the first wars known as “modern.” The first tactical use of the telegraph and the railways.
Crossroads of Freedom:The Pendulum of War The War between the Confederacy and the Union. The Union lead by Abraham Lincoln. After the conquer at Bull Run, General George McClellan was appointed General in Chief by Lincoln. McClellan was now in command of the Union Army of the Potomac, but eventually Lincoln took this duty away after many losses. In 1862, the more than 6,000 soldiers lost their lives during Battle of Antietam.