How the Americas Changed<br />By: Tommy Marinelli<br />Professor Arguello<br />History 141<br />
The Americas in the 19th Century<br />The United States had finally begun to experience an age of independence.<br />People were advocating freedom and a just government.<br />Colonies were expanding westward, and eventually doubled the size of the country. <br />In the 1780’s, the U.S. constitution was first drafted in an effort to appoint responsibilities and restrictions on both the federal and independent state governments.<br />This document also made all men equal. <br />
The 19th Century Continued…<br />In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected as president, sparking a war between the states.<br />In 1863, Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation which abolished slavery.<br />The British were afraid of American expansion, allowing Canada to win it’s independence without conflict.<br />Mexico went through an array of government styles, and eventually a liberal reform movement began.<br />The Constitution of 1857, the La Reforma began. Mexicans were now able to be a part of political changes, and were given the resources to live comfortably. <br />
The Little Ice Age<br />the Little Ice Age which took place from the 1300’s to the 1800’s<br />There are many theories on what may have sparked the Little Ice Age including sun spots, heightened volcanic activity, and ocean current circulation.<br />The average temperature was lowered by 4 degrees with drastic freezing periods during the colder months<br />In 1816, the freezing period lasted so long that this year became known as the “Year Without a Summer.” <br />
Frontiers of America<br />The Haitian Revolution was a series of conflicts that lasted from 1791-1804.<br />The slaves rose up and fought until they drove the whites out of Saint-Domingue.<br />The Republic of Haiti became independent and slavery was abolished.<br />The first expedition to the West coast was the Lewis and Clark Expedition.<br />The goal was to study geography, vegetation, animal life, and so forth of the land to the west.<br />They were also in search of a water passage across the continent that would allow for trade with Asia.<br />This expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson.<br />The expedition lasted from 1804-1806.<br />
Frontiers of America continued…<br />The Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed on April 30th, by James Monroe, Robert Livingston (on behalf of the president, Thomas Jefferson), and Barbé Marbois in France.<br />The U.S. paid France 15 million dollars for the territory of Louisiana, a chunk of land about 828,800 sq. miles.<br />This purchase doubled the size of the United States.<br />The states that make up this territory today are:<br />Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma, and large portions of Minnesota, N. Dakota, S., Dakota, Louisiana, Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, and Texas.<br />This purchase helped to relieve France of it’s overwhelming debt due to war.<br />Thomas Jefferson announced the signing of this treaty on July 4th, 1803. This treaty was one of the most important acquisitions in the history of the U.S.<br />
Crossroads of Freedom:The Napoleonic Wars<br />Opposing coalitions set off a series of conflicts against Napoleon’s French Empire.<br />These conflicts eventually defeated Napoleon’s military and restored France’s Bourbon Monarchy. <br />The Holy Roman Empire was essentially terminated because of these wars and began a nascent nationalism in Germany and Italy.<br />This nationalism would eventually result in the consolidation of Germany and Italy.<br />The British Empire was at the top of the world, becoming the leading world power.<br />This began the Pax Britannica.<br />In 1815, Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic wars and the Second Treaty of Paris was signed.<br />The Napoleonic wars lasted from 1803 to 1815.<br />
Crossroads of Freedom:The U.S.-Mexican War<br />From 1846 to 1848, a territorial war pursued between the U.S. and Mexico.<br />The U.S. wanted to completely take over Texas, but Mexico was still claiming this as part of Mexican territory.<br />For $18 million, Alta California and New Mexico became part of the U.S.<br />The Rio Grande River became the border between Mexico and the U.S. in exchange for the relief of Mexico’s debt to the U.S. and the loss of Texas.<br />
Crossroads of Freedom:The Crimean War<br />The Russian Empire fought against a major alliance between the Ottoman, French, and British Empires, and the Kingdom of Sardinia.<br />Territorial conflict over the land of the Ottoman Empire. <br />One of the first wars to be documented extensively, also using photographs.<br />Technical changes occurred during this war which would change warfare for centuries to come, making this one of the first wars known as “modern.”<br />The first tactical use of the telegraph and the railways.<br />
Crossroads of Freedom:The Pendulum of War<br />The War between the Confederacy and the Union. The Union lead by Abraham Lincoln.<br />After the conquer at Bull Run, General George McClellan was appointed General in Chief by Lincoln.<br />McClellan was now in command of the Union Army of the Potomac, but eventually Lincoln took this duty away after many losses.<br />In 1862, the more than 6,000 soldiers lost their lives during Battle of Antietam.<br />
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