A political party is an organized group of citizens who profess to share the same political views and who by acting as a political unit, try to control the government. Political parties agree on some policies and progamme for the society with a view to promote the collective good .Since there can be different views on what is good for all ,parties try to persuade people why their policies are better than others .They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections.
WHY DO WE NEED POLITICAL PARTIES: Political parties are useful for the electoral process. The two parties serve as a pretty good way of getting like-minded people together. If they were not there, it would be much harder to identify good candidates, get them to run for office, support them, etc.
Political parties serve as an opposing factor to the interest groups. If it were not for parties, the interest groups would be unopposed. The parties try to pull people together in broad coalitions. The interest groups try to pull them apart on single issues. They are needed for organizing things in Congress, especially. If there were no political parties, how would Congress be organized? Who would appoint the committees? Who would try to set an agenda? It would be chaos.
FUCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES: Basically, political parties fill political offices and exercise political power. Parties do so by performing a series of functions: Parties contest elections. In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Parties form and run governments. Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments.
TYPES OF POLITICAL PARTIES NATIONAL PARTIES:A party that secures at least six percent of total votes in LokSabha elections or Assembly elections in four States and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognized as a national party. Example:Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party. regional parties:A party that secures at least 6 per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognized as a State party. Example:Asom gana parishad,Rashtriya lok dal.
Symbols of political partiesIndian National Congress:Bharatiya Janata Party:Bahujan Samaj Party:Communist Party of IndiaMarxist:Communist Party of India :Nationalist Congress Party:
CHALLENGES OF POLITICAL PARTIES To fulfill the needs of people. To maintain their position as national party. To run government democratically. To decrease corruption. Another challenge is of internal democracy within parties. Dynastic succession is another challenge to political parties because the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage to favour people close to them or even their family members. In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family.
ROLE OF PRESSURE GROUPS ANDMOVEMENTS Pressure groups are voluntary association formed with the purpose of promoting interest of a particular group or group of society. Unlike the political parties they do not contest elections .They are called pressure because they attempts to get their demands accepted through pressure .They adopt various techniques for pressure rising the government ,these may be democratic or some time agitation. There are various pressure groups for example Anna Hazare’s pressure group.
AnnA HAzAre’s pressure groupIn 2011, Hazare initiated a Satyagraha movement forpassing a stronger anti-corruption Lokpal bill in theIndian Parliament as conceived in the Jan LokpalBill (Peoples Ombudsman Bill). The Jan Lokpal Bill wasdrafted earlier by N.Santosh Hegde, former justice ofthe Supreme Court ofIndia and Lokayukta of Karnataka, Prashant Bhushan, asenior lawyer in the Supreme Court and Arvind Kejriwal,a social activist along with members of the India AgainstCorruption movement. This draft bill incorporated morestringent provisions and wider power tothe Lokpal (Ombudsman) than the draft Lokpal billprepared by the government in 2010. These includeplacing "the Prime Minister within the ambit of theproposed lokpal’s powers"
THANK YOU Made by:- Mridu Paban Mahanta. Roll no-15 Class: 10 - C