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  • 1. Security Management Practices
  • 2. Security Management Practices Information Security Management The Big Three - CIA The Information Classification process Security Policy implementation The roles and responsibilities of Security Administration Risk Management Assessment tools Security Awareness training
  • 3. Information Security Management To protect an organization’s valuable resources, such as information, hardware, and software Identification of an organization’s information assets The development, documentation, and implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines Ensure Availability, Integrity and Confidentiality
  • 4. Information Security Management Cont… Through the selection and application of appropriate safeguards, Information Security helps the organization’s mission by protecting its physical and financial resources, reputation, legal position, employees, and other tangible and intangible assets Information systems are often critical assets that support the mission of an organization However, including Information Security considerations in the management of information systems does not completely eliminate the possibility that these assets will be harmed.
  • 5. Availability, Integrity and ConfidentialityAvailability  Availability is the assurance that a computer system is accessible by authorized users whenever needed.The Threat  Denial of Service & Distributed Denial of Service  Natural disasters (e.g., fires, floods, storms, or earthquakes)  Human actions (e.g., bombs or strikes)
  • 6. Availability Cont…The Action  Contingency planning — which may involve business resumption planning, alternative-site processing, or simply disaster recovery planning — provides an alternative means of processing, thereby ensuring availability.  Physical, Technical, and Administrative controls are important aspects of security initiativesThe Physical controls  Restrict unauthorized persons from coming into contact with computing resources and Facilities
  • 7. Availability Cont…The Technical controls  Fault-tolerance mechanisms (e.g., hardware redundancy, disk mirroring, and application checkpoint restart)  Electronic vaulting (i.e., automatic backup to a secure, off-site location)  Access control software to prevent unauthorized usersThe Administrative controls  access control policies, operating procedures, contingency planning, and user training
  • 8. IntegrityIntegrity  Protection of Information System or Processes from intentional or accidental unauthorized changes  Protect the process or program used to manipulate the data from unauthorized modification.The Threat  Hackers, Masqueraders, Unauthorized user activity  Unprotected downloaded files, networks, and unauthorized programs (e.g., Trojan horses and viruses)  Authorized users can corrupt data and programs accidentally or intentionally
  • 9. Integrity Cont…The Action  Granting access on a need-to-know (least privilege) basis  Separation of duties  Rotation of dutiesNeed-to-Know Access (Least Privilege)  Grant access only to those files and programs that they absolutely need to perform their assigned job functions  Restrict through use of well-formed transactions (recording of data/ program modifications in a log)
  • 10. Integrity Cont…Separation of Duties  No single employee has control of a transaction from beginning to endRotation of Duties  Change Job assignments periodically  Works well when used in conjunction with a separation of duties  Helps organization when losing a key employee “The security program must employ a careful balance between ideal security and practical productivity”
  • 11. ConfidentialityConfidentiality  Protection of information within systems so that unauthorized people, resources, and processes cannot access that informationThe Threat  Hackers, Masqueraders, Unauthorized user activity  Unprotected downloaded files, networks, and unauthorized programs (e.g., Trojan horses and viruses)  Social EngineeringThe Action  Granting access on a need-to-know (least privilege) basis  Well-Formed Transaction  Awareness
  • 12. Risk Analysis and AssessmentRisk Management  The processes of identifying, analyzing and assessing, mitigating, or transferring risk are generally characterized as Risk ManagementRisk Management Process  What could happen (threat event)?  If it happened, how bad could it be (threat impact)?  How often could it happen (threat frequency, annualized)?  How certain are the answers to the first three questions (recognition of uncertainty)?  What can be done (risk mitigation)?  How much will it cost (annualized)?  Is it cost-effective (cost/benefit analysis)?
  • 13. Risk Analysis and Assessment Cont…Risk Analysis  This term represents the process of analyzing a target environment and the relationships of its risk-related attributesQualitative / Quantitative  Quantitative risk analysis attempts to assign independently objective numeric numbers (i.e., monetary values) to all elements of the risk analysis  Qualitative risk analysis, on the other hand, does not attempt to assign numeric values at all, but rather is scenario oriented
  • 14. Risk Analysis and Assessment Cont…Risk Assessment  This term represents the assignment of value to assets, threat frequency (annualized), consequence (i.e., exposure factors), and other elements of chanceInformation Asset  Information is regarded as an intangible asset separate from the media on which it resides  Simple cost of replacing the information  The cost of replacing supporting software  Costs associated with loss of the information’s confidentiality, availability, and integrity  Supporting hardware and network
  • 15. Risk Analysis and Assessment Cont…Exposure Factor (EF)  A measure of the magnitude of loss or impact on the value of an asset  A percent, ranging from 0 to 100%, of asset value loss arising from a threat eventSingle Loss Expectancy Single Loss Expectancy = Asset Value X Exposure FactorAnnualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO)  The frequency with which a threat is expected to occur  For example, a threat occurring once in ten years has an ARO of 1/10 or 0.1
  • 16. Risk Analysis and Assessment Cont…Annualized Loss Expectancy (ALE) Annualized Loss Expectancy = Single Loss Expectancy X Annualized Rate of OccurrenceProbability  The chance or likelihood that an event will occur  For example, the probability of getting a 6 on a single roll of a die is 1/6, or 0.16667  The Probability can between 0 to 1Safeguard  Risk Analysis and Assessment Cont… occurrence of a specified threat or category of threats
  • 17. Risk Analysis and Assessment Cont…Safeguard Effectiveness  The degree, expressed as a percent, from 0 to 100%, to which a safeguard can be characterized as effectively mitigating a vulnerability and reducing associated loss risksUncertainty  The degree, expressed as a percent, from 0.0% to 100%, to which there is less than complete confidence in the value of any element of the risk assessment
  • 18. Tasks of Information Risk ManagementEstablish Information Risk Management Policy  IRM policy should begin with a high-level policy statement and supporting objectives, scope, constraints, responsibilities, and approach  Communicate and EnforceEstablish an IRM Team  Top Down Approach will work wellEstablish IRM Methodology and Tools  Determine current status of Information Security  Plan Strategic risk assessmentIdentify and Measure Risk  Perform Risk Assessment based on the IRM policy and IRM methodology & tools
  • 19. Information Protection Environment Threat Analysis Asset Identification and Valuation Vulnerability Analysis Risk Evaluation Risk Evaluation Interim Reports and Recommendations Establish Risk Acceptance Criteria  Example : do not accept more than a 1 in 100 chance of losing $1,000,000 Mitigate Risk Safeguard Selection and Risk Mitigation Analysis Cost/Benefit Analysis Final Report Monitor Information Risk Management Performance
  • 20. Security Technology and ToolsQualitative versus Quantitative Approach  The Qualitative Approach is much more subjective approach to the valuation of information assets and the scaling of risk  In General the risks are described as “low,” “medium,” or “high”  The Quantitative is talks about real numbers  Uses Algorithms  ALE=ARO X (Asset Value X Exposure Factor = SLE)  Assume the asset value is $1M, the exposure factor is 50%, and the annualized rate of occurrence is 1/10 (once in ten years)  ($1M X 50% = $500K) X 1/10 = $50K
  • 21. Pros an Cons of Qualitative ApproachPros  Calculations, if any, are simple  Usually not necessary to determine the monetary value of Information (CIA)  Not necessary to determine quantitative threat frequency and impact data  Not necessary to estimate the cost of recommended risk mitigation measures and calculate cost/benefit because the process is not quantitative.  A general indication of significant areas of riskCons  The risk assessment and results are essentially subjective in both process and metrics  The perception of value may not realistically reflect actual value at risk  Only subjective indication of a problem  It is not possible to track risk management performance objectively when all measures are subjective
  • 22. Pros and Cons of Quantitative ApproachPros  Meaningful statistical analysis is supported  The value of information (CIA), as expressed in monetary terms with supporting rationale, is better understood. Thus, the basis for expected loss is better understood  Information security budget decision making is supported  Risk management performance can be tracked and evaluated.  Risk assessment results are derived and expressed in management’s language, monetary value, percentages, and probability annualized. Thus, risk is better understood.Cons  Calculations are complex.  Not practical to execute a quantitative risk assessment without using a recognized automated tool and associated knowledge bases,  A substantial amount of information gathering is required  Standard, independent Threat population and threat frequency knowledgebase not yet developed and maintained, so vendor dependent
  • 23. Information ClassificationInformation Protection Requirements Data confidentiality, integrity, and availability are improved because appropriate controls are used for all data across the enterprise The organization gets the most for its information protection dollar because protection mechanisms are designed and implemented where they are needed most, and less costly controls can be put in place for non-critical information The quality of decisions is improved because the data upon which the decisions are made can be trusted The company is provided with a process to review all business functions and informational requirements on a periodic basis to determine appropriate data classifications
  • 24. Data Classification Classification is part of a mandatory access control model to ensure that sensitive data is properly controlled and secured DoD multi-level security policy has 4 classifications:  Top Secret  Secret  Confidential  Unclassified Other levels in use are:  Eyes only  Officers only  Company confidential  Public
  • 25. Data Classification Cont… Top Secret - applies to the most sensitive business information which is intended strictly for use within the organization. Unauthorized disclosure could seriously and adversely impact the company, stockholders, business partners, and/or its customers Secret - Applies to less sensitive business information which is intended for use within a company. Unauthorized disclosure could adversely impact the company, its stockholders, its business partners, and/or its customers Confidential - Applies to personal information which is intended for use within the company. Unauthorized disclosure could adversely impact the company and/or its employees Unclassified - Applies to all other information which does not clearly fit into any of the above three classifications. Unauthorized disclosure isn’t expected to seriously or adversely impact the company
  • 26. Information Classification Cont…Information Protection Environment Getting started: questions to ask • Is there an executive sponsor for this project? • What are you trying to protect, and from what? • Are there any regulatory requirements to consider? • Has the business accepted ownership responsibilities for the data? Policy • An essential tool in establishing a data classification scheme • Define information as an asset of the business unit • Declare local business managers as the owners of information • Establish IT as the custodians of corporate information • Clearly define roles and responsibilities of those involved in the ownership and classification of information • Define the classifications and criteria that must be met for each • Determine the minimum range of controls to be established for each classification
  • 27. Information Classification Cont… Risk Analysis  Identify major functional areas of information  Analyze the classification requirements  Determine the risk associated  Determine the effect of loss  Build a table Establishing classifications  Public: information that, if disclosed outside the company, would not harm the organization, its employees, customers, or business partners.  Internal Use Only: information that is not sensitive to disclosure within the organization, but could harm the company if disclosed externally.  Company Confidential: sensitive information that requires “need- toknow” before access is given
  • 28. Information Classification Cont… Defining roles and responsibilities  Information owner - A business executive or business manager who is responsible for a company business information asset  Information custodian - The information custodian, usually an information technology or operations person, is the system administrator or operator for the Information Owner, with primary responsibilities dealing with running the program for the owner and backup and recovery of the business information  Application owner - Manager of the business unit who is fully accountable for the performance of the business function served by the application  User manager - The immediate manager or supervisor of an employee
  • 29. Information Classification Cont… Defining roles and responsibilities  Security administrator - Any company employee who owns an “administrative” user ID that has been assigned attributes or privileges that are associated with any type of access control system  Security analyst - Person responsible for determining the data security directions (strategies, procedures, guidelines) to ensure information is controlled and secured based on its value, risk of loss or compromise, and ease of recoverability  Change control analyst - Person responsible for analyzing requested changes to the Information Technology infrastructure and determining the impact on applications  Data analyst - This person analyzes the business requirements to design the data structures and recommends data definition standards and physical platforms
  • 30. Information Classification Cont…► Defining roles and responsibilities  Solution provider - Person who participates in the solution (application) development and delivery processes in deploying business solutions  End user - Any employee, contractor, or vendor of the company who uses information systems resources as part of their job  Process owner - This person is responsible for the management, implementation, and continuous improvement of a process that has been defined to meet a business need  Product line manager - Person responsible for understanding business requirements and translating them into product requirements, working with the vendor/user area
  • 31. Information Classification Cont… Identifying owners  The proper owner must be from the business  Senior management support is a key success factor  Information owners must be given the necessary authority Classifying information and applications  Collect the metadata about their business functions  Review the definitions for the information classifications Ongoing monitoring  Ensure compliance with policy and established procedures  periodically review the data to ensure they are still appropriately classified
  • 32. Policies, Procedures, Standards, Baselines Policy - An information security policy contains senior management’s directives to create an information security program, establish its goals, measures, and target and assign responsibilities Standards - Standards are mandatory activities, actions, rules, or regulations designed to provide policies with the support structure and specific direction they require to be meaningful and effective Procedures - Procedures spell out the step-by-step specifics of how the policy and the supporting standards and guidelines will actually be implemented in an operating environment Guidelines - Guidelines are more general statements designed to achieve the policy’s objectives by providing a framework within which to implement controls not covered by procedures
  • 33. The Policy Chart
  • 34. Awareness Program Security policies, standards, procedures, baselines, and guidelines Threats to physical assets and stored information Threats to open network environments Laws and regulations they are required to follow Specific organization or department policies they are required to follow How to identify and protect sensitive (or classified) information How to store, label, and transport information Who they should report security incidents to, regardless of whether it is just a suspected or an actual incident Email/Internet policies and procedures Social engineering
  • 35. Implementation (Delivery) Options Posters Posting motivational and catchy slogans Videotapes Classroom instruction Computer-based delivery, such as CD-ROM, DVD, intranet access, Web-based access, etc. Brochures/flyers Pens/pencils/keychains (any type of trinket) with motivational slogans Post-it notes with a message on protecting the Information Technology system Stickers for doors and bulletin boards
  • 36. Implementation (Delivery) Options Cont… Cartoons/articles published monthly or quarterly in an in- house newsletter or specific department notices Special topical bulletins (security alerts in this instance) Monthly email notices related to security issues or email broadcasts of security advisories Security banners or pre-logon messages that appear on the computer monitor Distribution of items as an incentive
  • 37. ?

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