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  1. 1. In the name of Allah, the merciful the most beneficent
  2. 2. Internet
  3. 3. Group Members: <ul><li>Sehrish Andaleeb </li></ul><ul><li>Zainab Buzdar </li></ul><ul><li>Tayyaba Ashfaq </li></ul><ul><li>Sadaf Javed </li></ul><ul><li>Amna Khalid </li></ul><ul><li>Altaf Hussain </li></ul><ul><li>Mansoor Shaheed Khawar </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Internet? <ul><li>The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is a global data communications system </li></ul><ul><li>It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers </li></ul><ul><li>Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet . </li></ul><ul><li>It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources , linked by hyperlinks and URLs . </li></ul>
  6. 6. History <ul><li>The USSR 's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO . </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The opening of the network to commercial interests began in 1988 . </li></ul><ul><li>Other commercial electronic e-mail services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve. In that same year, three commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) were created. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Technology
  9. 9. Protocols <ul><li>The complex communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>the hardware can often be used to support other software systems </li></ul><ul><li>it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Structure <ul><li>The Internet structure and its usage characteristics have been studied extensively </li></ul><ul><li>Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Governance ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey , California , United States
  12. 12. What Is Governance? <ul><li>The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. </li></ul><ul><li>It operates without a central governing body. </li></ul><ul><li>ICANN is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet, </li></ul>
  13. 13. Modern Uses <ul><li>The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections and web applications </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet can now be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, especially through mobile Internet devices . </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet has also become a large market for companies. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Services <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Data transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Social impact </li></ul>
  16. 16. What Is ISP ? <ul><li>An Internet service provider ( ISP ), </li></ul><ul><li>is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet . </li></ul><ul><li>ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol datagrams , such as dial-up , DSL , cable modem , wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects. </li></ul>
  17. 17. End-user-to-ISP connection <ul><li>ISPs employ a range of technologies to enable consumers to connect to their network. </li></ul><ul><li>For users and small businesses , the most popular options include dial-up , DSL (typically Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line , </li></ul>
  18. 18. End-user-to-ISP connection <ul><li>For customers with more demanding requirements, such as medium-to-large businesses, or other ISPs, DSL (often SHDSL or ADSL ), Ethernet , Metro Ethernet , Gigabit Ethernet , Frame Relay , ISDN ( BRI or PRI ), ATM , satellite Internet access and synchronous optical networking (SONET) are more likely to be used. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Typical home user connection <ul><li>Dial-up </li></ul><ul><li>DSL </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband wireless access </li></ul><ul><li>Cable Internet </li></ul><ul><li>FTTH </li></ul><ul><li>ISDN </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi </li></ul>
  20. 20. Typical business-type connection <ul><li>DSL </li></ul><ul><li>SHDSL </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet technologies </li></ul>
  21. 21. Function of ISP <ul><li>Locality </li></ul><ul><li>ISP interconnection </li></ul><ul><li>Peering </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual ISP </li></ul><ul><li>Free ISP </li></ul>
  22. 22. Locality <ul><li>When using a dial-up or ISDN connection method, the ISP cannot determine the caller's physical location </li></ul>
  23. 23. Services: <ul><li>Broadband Internet access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed wireless access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple play </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet hosting service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web hosting service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail hosting service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS hosting service </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Internet Service Provider List of Pakistan <ul><li>There are 38 Internet Service Providers in Pakistan. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That’s all </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>