Conflict Management 101

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  • The interaction between these different preferences leads to four conflict pair types. In conflict situations these pairs may look like:
  • Dugan,1996
  • Lederach,1995
  • Conflict Management 101

    1. 1. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 101
    2. 2. Major portion of this presentation are from:U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of TrainersManual: Conflict Transformation and Peace Building in RwandaAuthors: Babu Ayindo and Janice Jenner from the Center forJustice and Peace buildingCore Negotiation Skills: One Day Primer from Velsoft TrainingFuture Leadership, Old Issues, New Method by Douglas Johnson IIUnderstanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer CenterCollated by Rimalyn SiribanNo copyright infringement intended. For study purposes only.
    3. 3. COURSE OBJECTIVE: FIRST PART 1. Definition of Conflict 2. Functions of Conflict3. Causes or Sources of Conflict 4. Avoiding Deep Chaos5. Management of Deep Chaos 6. Power
    4. 4. COURSE OBJECTIVE: SECOND PART 8. Conflict Mapping 9. Conflict Analysis 10. Personality Profile11. Roles Played in Conflict
    5. 5. COURSE OBJECTIVE: THIRD PART 12. Communication Tools13. Terms and Conditions in Conflict Resolution 14. Thinking gray and free FOURTH PART 14. Basic Outcomes of Conflict15. Ministry Positioning Statement
    6. 6. DEFINITION OF CONFLICTConflict is a natural and necessary part of ourlives. The paradox of conflict is that it is boththe force that can tear relationships apartand the force that binds them together.This dual nature of conflict makes it animportant concept to study and understand. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    7. 7. DEFINITION OF CONFLICT “Conflict” usually refers to a hostile encounter, a collision of divergent ideas, interests, or persons.Synonyms include “disagreement”, “clash”, “divergence”, “argument”, “quarrel”, “discord”.Conflict is the collision of differing desires. Blessed are the Peacemakers by Neil Anderson and Charles Mylander
    8. 8. DEFINITION OF CONFLICTConflict is a difference in opinion or purpose that frustrates someone’s goals or desires - Attorney Ken SandeConflict begins when people disagree, often sharply. It emerges when people want their own way and believe it is the right way. Blessed are the Peacemakers by Neil Anderson and Charles Mylander
    9. 9. DEFINITION OF CONFLICT People hold competing loyalties, fight over limited resources and want power to bring about change. That could start good and end up bad.People creates problems, and problems have process, a history. Blessed are the Peacemakers by Neil Anderson and Charles Mylander
    10. 10. Conflict is an inevitable and DEFINITION OF CONFLICTnecessary feature in every organization.The challenge facing leaders is notelimination of conflict, but rather, how toeffectively address conflict when it arises.In an organization in conflict, leadershipshould organize a body or a panel arecalled on to serve as a mediator. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    11. 11.  Conflict Resolution require particular skills and techniques to tackle the issues in a constructive fashion. Conflict can be managed negatively through avoidance at one extreme and the use of threat of force at the other. Conflict can be managed positively through negotiation, joint problem solving and consensus building. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    12. 12. Some of our learned responses areconstructive, but others can escalate conflictand raise the level of danger. How we chooseto handle confrontation is largely based uponour past experience in dealing with conflict andour confidence in addressing it.One can start to change destructive responsesto conflict by learning to assess the totalimpact of negative responses and acquiringconfidence in using tools and techniques ofprofessional peacemakers. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    13. 13. Constructive conflict management is much ascience as an art. It is based on a substantial bodyof theory, skills and techniques developed fromdecades of experience in internationalpeacekeeping, peacemaking and peace building.Acquiring better understanding of the conceptualtools and skills professional managers use canhelp gain confidence in addressing conflict in amanner which resolves the issues and maintainsor even strengthens relationships. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    14. 14. Understanding conflict and seeking rightsolution require a biblical worldview, andthat requires an understanding of thespiritual battle that is going on in theheaven lies, spiritual realm. Blessed are the Peace Makers, Neil Anderson and Charles Mylander
    15. 15. FUNCTIONS OF CONFLICTWe all know how destructive conflict can be.Conflict can have positive side, one that builds relationships; creates coalition; fosters communication; strengthen institutions; and creates new ideas, rules and law.Our understanding of how conflict can benefit us is an important part of the foundation of constructive conflict management. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    16. 16. FUNCTIONS OF CONFLICT 1. Conflict helps establish our identity and independence. 2. Intensity of conflict demonstrates the closeness and importance of relationships. 3. Conflict can build new relationships. 4. Conflict can create coalitions.5. Conflict serves as a safety-valve mechanism which helps to sustain relationships. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    17. 17. FUNCTIONS OF CONFLICT6. Conflict helps parties assess each other’s power and can work to redistribute power in a system. 7. Conflict can build new relationship. 8. Conflict establishes and maintains group identities.9. Conflict enhance group cohesion through issue and belief clarification.10. Conflict creates or modifies rules, norms, laws and institutions. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    18. 18. 1. DATA OR INFORMATION CONFLICT 5.INTEREST 2. RELATIONSHIP CONFLICT CONFLICT 4. STRUCTURAL 3. VALUE CONFLICT CONFLICT5 CAUSES OF DISPUTE AND CONFLICTS
    19. 19. 1. DATA OR INFORMATION CONFLICT- involves lack of information andmisinformation, as well as differing viewson what data are relevant, theinterpretation of that data and how theassessment is performed. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    20. 20. 2. RELATIONSHIP CONFLICT- results from strongemotions, stereotypes, miscommunicationand repetitive negative behavior. It is thistype of conflict which often provides fuelfor disputes and can promote destructiveconflict even when the conditions toresolve the other sources of conflict canbe met. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    21. 21. 3. VALUE CONFLICT- arises over ideological differences ordiffering standards on evaluation of ideasor behaviors. The actual or perceiveddifferences in values do not necessarilylead to conflict. It is only when values areimposed on groups, or groups areprevented from upholding their valuesystem, that conflict arises. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    22. 22. 4. STRUCTURAL CONFLICT- is caused by unequal or unfairdistributions of power or resources. Timeconstraints, destructive patterns ofinteractions and non-conducivegeographical or environmental factorscontribute to structural conflict. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    23. 23. 5. INTEREST CONFLICT- involves actual or perceived competitionover interests, such as resources, the waya dispute is to be resolved, or perceptionsof trust or fairness. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    24. 24. An analysis of different types of conflict the parties are dealing with helps the intervener determine strategies for effective handling of disputes.
    25. 25. 1. Internal Division – widening thegap between the needs and wants ofpeople and the possibilities ofsatisfying them. Future Leadership, Old Issues, New Method by Douglas Johnson II
    26. 26. 2. External Division – which is linkedto the organization’s ability to adaptto its environment. Future Leadership, Old Issues, New Method by Douglas Johnson II
    27. 27. All accepted methods of control loosetheir value in a state of Deep Chaos.Means such aseducation, training, and rewards donot work.New Directions are necessary.Studies reveal that only chaos cancope with chaos. Future Leadership, Old Issues, New Method by Douglas Johnson II
    28. 28. We do know that a state of deep chaosis a transition that may lead to eithertransformation or disintegration of thesystem.The leader’s role is to preventdisintegration and to assist theorganization in its transformation andrenewal. Future Leadership, Old Issues, New Method by Douglas Johnson II
    29. 29. Attempts to motivate people bypreaching, pressure, rewards andpunishments generally lead to failure. Theproblem is not one of applying pressure tochange the existing state, but how to freethe organization from the binds it itself hascreated. The models are filters throughwhich organizations perceive reality andgive meaning to incoming information. Future Leadership, Old Issues, New Method by Douglas Johnson II
    30. 30. The work of brokenness is a beautifulthing. It causes our lives to become thesweet fragrance before God that wasintended to be. But we can also delay thework of brokenness by not realizing thatGod is the One working behind thedifficult scenes of our lives. Self-lovealways delays the process of brokenness. The Beauty of Christ through Brokenness KP Yohannan
    31. 31. POWERPower is an inherent, often confusing partof any human interaction, includingconflict. To successfully analyze andintervene in a conflict, the powerdynamics in the situation must beunderstood. Some types of power areeasy to see and comprehend; others aremuch more difficult. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    32. 32. 1. POSITIONAL POWERPower is based upon the role, orposition, an individual occupies in society.It is passed from one individual to anotheras he or she moves in or out of the role. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    33. 33. 2. RELATIONAL POWERdoes not reside in a particular individualbut is a property of social relationships.For example, when you listen to a friendspeak and respect her opinion, you gaveher power. When she listens to you andrespects your opinion, you are given thepower. In relationships, power is fluid andhard to measure. It can be expanded orlimited as you interact. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    34. 34. 3. POWER OF FORCErefers to physical strength and coercivemechanism (like guns) Individuals mayuse their own strength to impose their willupon others. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    35. 35. 4. 44. POWER OF STATUScomes from wealth or social standingwithin a society. Individuals can use theirmoney or their social and family ties tomaintain a situation that is to theiradvantage or to get what they want. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    36. 36. 5. POWER OF KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE refers to the additional credit and influence given to those in a society with a special knowledge and expertise. Power comes from what they know. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    37. 37. 5. POWER OF A GROUPcomes from people acting together for acause. The phrase “people-power” is oftenquoted. It refers to the individuals whenpart of a group. Labor unions and massprotest, movements have power becauseof their numbers. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    38. 38. For those involved in conflictresolution efforts, there are 3 centralconcerns regarding roles of otheractors. One is to ensure that thenecessary roles to each type of activity(e.g. convener, envisioner, orfacilitator) are being filled.The second is to ensure that the rolesplayers work cooperatively to achievecommon goals.
    39. 39. CONFLICT ANALYSIS: CONFLICT MAPPINGTo begin to deal with the spiritual root of conflict, pray this simple prayer, Lord, open my eyes to false desires and selfish desires. Blessed are the Peacemakers by Neil Anderson and Charles Mylander
    40. 40. TOOLS FOR CONFLICT ANALYSIS: CONFLICT MAPPING 1. Identify all stakeholders2. Assess stakeholders’ relationships 3. Assess power dynamics 4. Identify and assess alliances U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    41. 41. TOOLS FOR CONFLICT ANALYSIS: CONFLICT MAPPING5. Identify and carefully evaluate some possible entry points for investigation and intervention6. Assess intervener relationships with stakeholders --7.Assess your own position regarding issues and actors U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    42. 42. CONFLICT RESOLUTION OR PEACE PROCESS 1. A conflict resolution / peace process is an opportunity for the education of the whole organization.2. Conflict causes disequilibria (lack or loss of equilibrium; instability) within other realms of existence, hence the need for efforts of resolution.3. In the process of responding to conflict, we must still respect humans by saving their face and avoid embarrassing and or shaming people.U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    43. 43. CONFLICT RESOLUTION OR PEACE PROCESS 4. The language of conflict resolution should encourage resolution by avoiding embarrassment and breaking barriers. 5. Face saving creates the space for self- examination and invites all the parties to listen to each other.6. The process of resolving conflicts should be inclusive. The language was designed to accommodate different level of meaning so that everyone was included.U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    44. 44. CONFLICT ANALYSISConflict analysis is the process of looking critically at a particular conflict to understand the 1. Causes 2. Context 3. Participants 4. Stakeholders and others aspects of the conflict.Too often, people attempt to intervene in a conflictbefore understanding it, with less than positiveresults. A thorough conflict analysis provides a basisfor determining interventions that will haveincreased possibilities of success. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    45. 45. The following questions and dilemmas are ones that are useful in a conflict analysis process: 1. Who are the parties relevant to the conflict situation? 2. What are the positions of each party in the conflict?3. What are the needs and interests of each party? [In other words, what are they saying without saying? what lies beyond the spoken word?] U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    46. 46. The following questions and dilemmas are ones that are useful in a conflict analysis process: 4.What is the relative power, status, and resources of each part in the conflict?5. What are the processes they are using to pursue their interest in conflict with each other? 6. Within what framework, structure or system is the conflict taking place? U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    47. 47. The following questions and dilemmas are ones that are useful in a conflict analysis process:7. How are the decisions being made and conflict resolved/ transformed in the situation? 8. What the external factors impact the conflict?9. What outcome does each party expect? U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    48. 48. The following questions and dilemmas are ones that are useful in a conflict analysis process:10. What are the possible changes as the result of the resolution / transformation of the conflict at following levels: a. Personal b. Relational c. Structural / Systems d. Culture e. Spiritual U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    49. 49. THOMAS-KILMANN MODEL16 personality typesrespond to conflict according to their preferences.
    50. 50. MEYERS BRIGGS TEMPERAMENT INDICATOR 1. How we gather Energy  Introvert or Extrovert 2. How we gather data  Sensor or INtuitive 3. How we make decisions  Thinker or Feeler 4. How we organize our lives  Judge or Perciever
    51. 51. “If we could read the secret ofhistory of our enemies, we shouldfind in each person’s life sorrowand suffering enough to disarm allhostility.” -Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
    52. 52. Through their thirty-plus years of workingwith the MBTI instrument, Damian Killen andDanica Murphy have developed a model forapplying type to how people respond toconflict situations.Killen and Murphy believe that the dichotomyin which people have the greatest difficultyusing their non-preferred function is Judging-Perceiving.Conflict caused by this tension is accentuatedwhen coupled with a difference in thedecision-making process (Thinking-Feeling). Tomstuart.org
    53. 53. THOSE WITH A PREFERENCE FOR THINKING FOCUS MOST STRONGLY ON: 1. What the conflict is about 2. Opinions and principles 3. Analyzing and tolerating differences 4. Maintaining a firm stance
    54. 54. THOSE WITH A PREFERENCE FOR FEELING FOCUS MOST STRONGLY ON: 1. Who is involved 2. Needs and values3. Accepting and appreciating differences 4. Ensuring give and take
    55. 55. THOSE WITH A PREFERENCE FOR JUDGING TEND TO: 1. Seek resolution 2. Focus on the past and future3. Be concerned primarily with the outcome of the situation4. Experience satisfaction once the conflict is over Tomstuart.org
    56. 56. THOSE WITH A PREFERENCE FOR PERCEIVING TEND TO: 1. Seek clarification 2. Focus on the present3. Be concerned primarily with the input of participants 4. Experience satisfaction once the conflict is being addressed Tomstuart.org
    57. 57. TJ’s – decisive, planned, and organized; at times critical and blunt.TP’s – objective; searches for what is right; at times stubborn. FJ’s – warm; seeks harmony; at times wants to smother with kindness.FP’s – sensitive; attuned to people’sneeds; at times worry for everyone. Tomstuart.org
    58. 58. COLLABORATING AVOIDING COMPETING COMPROMISING ACCOMODATINGSource: Kenneth W. Thomas and Ralph H. Kilmann (1974),Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. Tuxedo, NY: Xicom Inc.
    59. 59. COLLABORATING ESFJ ENFJAVOIDING COMPETINGINTJ ISTJ ENTJ ESTJISFJ INFJ Males COMPROMISING ENTJ ESTJ Females ACCCOMODATING ISTP INTP ESTP ESFJ ENFJ ENTP
    60. 60. COMPETING: ENTJ ESTJ MALESbehavior is based on a high attempt to satisfyone’s own interests and a low attempt to satisfythe other party’s interests. A person chooses touse power to win with his or her position. Thedownside of this style is that it intimidatesothers to the point where problems may gounderground and develop into actions thatescalate the conflict.Competing: Being assertive and pursuing your ownconcerns, sometimes at expense of others.
    61. 61. COMPETING:ENTJ ESTJ MALES1. Standing up for your rights or beliefs 2. Being assertive. 3. Pursuing your own beliefs, values and concerns.4. At times, asserting your opinion at the expense of others. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    62. 62. COMPETING IS BEST USED WHEN: 1. The issue is vital to you, your family, or your organization, and you need to stand up for your values and beliefs. 2. It appears that someone needs to take charge of a challenging situation. 3. There is an emergency or question of safety and a quick decision needs to be made. 4. An unpopular course of action needs to be implemented (i.e., you need to enforce rules in a situation involving safety or discipline). Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    63. 63. COMPETING PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL COSTS 1. This style generally sets up “win-lose” situations.2. It’s difficult to promote democratic decision- making and/or creative problem-solving when a competing style is used often. 3. The sense of power gained by individuals using this style does not create an inclusive environment for others. 4. Frequent use of a competitive style can escalate anger and conflict.5. If you use this style all of the time, people may develop a negative view of you. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    64. 64. ACCOMODATING: ENFP AND ESFP MALESbehavior is based on giving up one’s own interestsin order to satisfy the other party’s interests. Achoice is made to yield. This style is appropriatewhen the issue is not of great importance to youand harmony is, or when the other party has allthe power. The downside is that if usedexcessively, neither you nor others have anopportunity to understand your real strength.Accommodating: Letting go of your own ideas inorder to satisfy others’ interests above your own. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    65. 65. ACCOMODATING: ENFP AND ESFP MALES 1. Letting go of your own ideas in a conflict, often for the purpose of satisfying someone else’s interests above your own. 2. Being cooperative, conceding to the wishes of others. 3. The opposite of competing. 4. A quick way to resolve a conflict. 5. May involve selfless charity or generosity. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    66. 66. ACCOMODATING IS BEST USED WHEN: 1. The issue is more important to the other person than to you. 2. You want to demonstrate that you are reasonable, and/or you realize that you are wrong. 3. You recognize that by ending the conflict through accommodation, you will not risk losing everything. 4. It’s important to preserve harmony or avoid disruption.5. You believe that the sense of cooperation you are building now will enhance relationships in a way that will be beneficial over time. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    67. 67. ACCOMODATING: ACCOMODATINGPERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL COSTS1. If used too often, an accommodating style may deprive you of the influence, respect, and recognition you deserve.2. Your professional growth may be slowed if you don’t give yourself the chance to offer your own ideas and perspectives. 3. The person(s) to whom you make accommodations may get their desired results, but the underlying cause of conflict may remain unaddressed. Resentment can occur on the part of all involved. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    68. 68. COMPROMISING: ENTJ AND ESTJ FEMALES, ANDTHE ISTP, INTP, ESTP, ENTP OF BOTH GENDERS. behavior in which each party sacrifices some of this or her is also a fallback process when collaboration is not going to produce a fully win/win solution. This downside is that there may be missed opportunity for a more creative solution that would increase resources, productivity and satisfaction. Compromising: Middle ground between competing and accommodating, where you give up some of your ideas but not all of them. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    69. 69. COMPROMISING: ENTJ AND ESTJ FEMALES, ANDTHE ISTP, INTP, ESTP, ENTP OF BOTH GENDERS. 1. Compromising is the middle ground between competing and accommodating, in which each of the people involved in a conflict gives up some things and not others. 2. Compromise can be thought of as “sharing the pie” or “splitting the difference.” 3. It requires both assertiveness (e.g., standing up for what is really important to you) and some level of cooperation (being willing to give up that which is less important to you). Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    70. 70. COMPROMISING IS BEST USED WHEN: 1. All or some of the issues being discussed are situation are moderately important to you. 2. The people involved realize that it is more important to solve the problem than to “win.” 3. There is a sense that it is possible to reach a “fair” or temporary settlement. 4. A quick middle-ground solution makes sense and brings at least partial satisfaction to all involved. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    71. 71. COMPROMISING PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL COSTS 1. Compromises may cover up the “real issues” and lead to a future power struggle. 2. Over-use of compromising may result in a climate of constant negotiation and/or “game playing.”3. The fact that “everybody wins” may make you feel like a group of individuals rather than a real team.4. You may experience a sense of personal cost if you “give in” on values and beliefs that are very important to you. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    72. 72. If you are too agreeable you are likely toend up feeling like your needs are notbeing met. Sometimes you have to riskmaking a stand.People who are prepared to disagree withyou are likely to be more trustable.
    73. 73. AVOIDING: INTJ, ISTJ, ISFJ, and INFJbehavior in which there is no attempt to satisfyeither one’s own or the other party’s interests isfound. A choice is made to remain apart frominteractive engagement on the issue. This style isappropriate when the issue is of no importance toyou or when used as a strategy to buy time forthinking or “cooling down,” or if the other personhas unyielding power over you. The downside isthat issues may persist and remain unresolved.Avoiding: Not addressing the existence of conflict. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    74. 74. AVOIDING: INTJ, ISTJ, ISFJ, and INFJ 1. Withdrawing from a “hot” situation. 2. Deciding that this is not a high priority issue for you. 3. Waiting for a more appropriate time to deal with the conflict.4. Concerned that a confrontation may be damaging to you or others. 5. Don’t feel you have the power or authority to address the issue. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    75. 75. AVOIDING IS BEST USED WHEN YOU ARE: 1. Deciding that you don’t want to take on a particular conflict. 2. Choosing not to engage in a particular conflict. 3. Not addressing the existence of a difficult issue or conflict. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    76. 76. AVOIDING PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL COSTS 1. Important decisions may happen without your input. 2. You may have important information, input or perspectives that others don’t have.3. Underlying interests/issues that really are important to you may not get resolved.4. Over time, your silence may make you feel like your opinions don’t really matter. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    77. 77. COLLABORATING: ESFJ AND ENFJbehavior that seeks a way to satisfy fully both partiesinterests a win/win solution is found. Issues areexamined that are important to both people andcommitment is made to exploration of alternativeresolutions that address all concerns. The downsideis that the process may involve more time than isavailable.Collaborating: An approach in which people gobeyond their own interests and solutions to createsomething new. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    78. 78. COLLABORATING: ESFJ AND ENFJ 1. An approach in which people go beyond their own interests and solutions to create something new. 2. Asserting your own self interests, while respecting and cooperating with the interests of others. 3. Meeting the interests of all parties to the maximum extent possible. 4. “One for all-all for one.” Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    79. 79. COLLABORATION IS BEST USED WHEN:1. You want to find a solution that meets all needs and doesn’t compromise anyone’s critical beliefs, values, or outcomes. 2. You are using a team approach in which you are trying to equalize power, gain commitment, and merge insights.3. You have time to work towards a true collaborative solution. 4. You have authority to implement the solution. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    80. 80. COLLABORATING PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL COSTS 1. Real collaboration may take a lot of time. It requires lots of investment in terms of time, energy and hard work. 2. Problems that need to be solved very quickly or in the face of threats to safety may not be the best candidates for collaborative approaches. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    81. 81. COLLABORATING PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL COSTS 3. Collaboration cannot happen unless team members have a sense of trust and respect for one another, as well as a sense of shared participation and power. 4. There is a need for all group members to check in with each other to make sure that true collaboration is occurring. All members need to feel hear and included. If not, this may lead to some people feeling that one or two people are resolving issues while others are accommodating. Understanding Conflict: University of Vermont and Pacer Center
    82. 82. ROLES PLAYED IN CONFLICT SITUATIONSU.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    83. 83. This extensive list of roles shows thecomplexity and maintaining peace process.The range ofskills, knowledge, resources, and aptituderequired to be effective in these roles isunlikely to be found in one person orintervening body. Whether by design orhappenstance, when a number of actors areengaged in different aspects of interventionwork, there are certain challenges that willemerge.
    84. 84. EXPLORERCarries messages betweenparties and reassures them aboutthe room for negotiation andnotes areas of common ground.
    85. 85. ANALYSTConducts political, social oreconomic analysis of the conflictto assist other interveners indetermining causes of conflictcourses of action.
    86. 86. DESIGNERHelps parties and interveners increating a resolution processwhich will appropriately andeffectively address the conflictissues.
    87. 87. ANALYSTConducts political, social oreconomic analysis of the conflictto assist other interveners indetermining causes of conflict andcourses of action.
    88. 88. COMMUNICATORserves as the communicationinterface between parties involvedin the process and those outsidethe process, such as themedia, general public orinternational community.
    89. 89. DECOUPLERFind ways for external parties whohave become involved in the conflictto disengage while saving face andattempts to engage other externalactors who can play less biased rolesin endorsing the process orencouraging parties to participate.
    90. 90. UNIFIERHelps with intrapartynegotiations to repair divisionsand assist them in creating acommon understanding of theconflict and their goals andobjectives.
    91. 91. ENSKILLEREmpowers parties with the skillsrequired tonegotiate, communicateinterests, analyze scenarios andresearch aspects of the conflict.
    92. 92. EDUCATORProvide expert opinion ortechnical information to partiesabout aspects of the conflictissues.
    93. 93. ENVISIONERHelps parties think about theconflict and possible solutions innew ways by using creativeoption generating processes orbringing relevant data.
    94. 94. EVALUATORHelps parties access possiblesolutions and their impact on theresolution of the conflict.
    95. 95. GUARANTOREnsures that parties do not incurunacceptable costs either throughinvolvement on the process or ifthe process breaks down.
    96. 96. LEGITIMIZEREnsues that parties to accept theprocess by granting theirmoral, political or financialapproval.
    97. 97. FACILITATORAssists parties in communicating toone another by creating a safeprocess for discussions, framing orreframing the issues and parties’understanding of the conflict andfostering a forum for effectivelistening and problem solving.
    98. 98. ENHANCERBrings in resources to expand theoptions for settlement or rewardparticipation in the process.
    99. 99. ENFORCERMonitors agreements and codesof conduct so that the momentumfor the process can be sustained.
    100. 100. RECONCILERPrepare parties for long-termrelationship-building activitieswhich are designed to reducepatterns of negative behaviors,destructive stereotyping andmiscommunication.
    101. 101. INFORMATION- unprocessed data of every description which may be used in the production of intelligence. The meaning a human assigns to data.KNOWLEDGE- facts, including procedures, that have been learned and can be reproduced from memory.WISDOM- use of judgment to give knowledge relevance with specific situational context; soundness of judgment about the nature of people and the world. Future Leadership, Old Issues, New Method by Douglas Johnson II
    102. 102. TRANSITION STATEMENT 1.SMG 2.PPF 3.PREP 4.PROBE South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    103. 103. SMG1.Story (Good for giving2.Message advice or for3.Gain framing your personal testimony) South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    104. 104. SMG4 Elements of a good story: 1. Character 2. Scenario 3. Conflict 4. Resolution South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    105. 105. SMG Message and GainM G should be 1 sentence each only or no longer than 10 seconds total. Story can be 1:50 s minutes long fill it with details. South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    106. 106. SMGTRANSITIONAL STATEMENTS 1. I remember when…. 2. My message is… 3. So that… South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    107. 107. SMGTRANSITIONAL STATEMENTS 1. Naalala ko…. 2. Ang mensahe ko… 3. Upang… South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    108. 108. PPF1. Past (Good for2. Present disagreeing3. Future without being too disagreeable) DIPLOMACY South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    109. 109. PPFTRANSITIONAL STATEMENTS 1. In the past…. 2. Now a days… 3. I hope that in the future… South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    110. 110. PPFTRANSITIONAL STATEMENTS 1. Dati…. 2. Ngayon… 3. Sana sa hinaharap… South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    111. 111. PREP1. Position (Good for2. Reason convincing3. Example people about4. Position your own convictions. Is very persuasive when given clear, and specific examples) South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    112. 112. PREPTRANSITIONAL STATEMENTS 1. I believe that…. 2. Because… 3. For example… 4. That is why I believe that… South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    113. 113. PREPTRANSITIONAL STATEMENTS 1. Naniniwala ako…. 2. Dahil / kasi… 3. Halimbawa… 4. Dahil diyan naniniwala ako… South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    114. 114. PROBE1. Praise (Good for2. Request presenting before3. Options hostile crowd, or a4. Best Option skeptical audience.5. Explain But requires that your facts are complete and accurate) South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    115. 115. PROBETRANSITIONAL STATEMENTS 1. Thank you for …. 2. My request is that… 3. Our options are… 4. I therefore recommend that… 5. So that… South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    116. 116. PROBETRANSITIONAL STATEMENTS 1. Salamat sa …. 2. Ang aking hiling… 3. Ang ating mga pagpipilian… 4. Akin ngayon iminumungkahi … 5. Upang… South East Asia Speakers and Trainers Bureau
    117. 117. 3 COMMUNICATION STEPS TO DIFUSE TENSE SITUATIONSBefore tensions get worse, leaders should turn down the heat and get everyone back on track.1. Empathize. Listen, and then show that you’ve heard by recapping how it looks from the member’s point of view.2. Offer support. Demonstrate commitment to offer to lending a helping hand if the situation gets worse.3. Invoke higher principles. To get perspective to remind people of vision, purpose and principles that make the frustrations worth enduring.
    118. 118. HANDLING HECKLERS 1. Ask as many people as you can.2. Write down all their questions and discuss later. 3. Ask them to share what they know. 4. Leave them alone. 5. Affirm and acknowledge only with “thank you”.6. Have an assistant approach and intercede for you.7. Declare a short break and pacify in private.
    119. 119. ARGUING 101 1.Go on the defensive by asking questions. 2.Be truthful. 3.Appeal to the interests of the other person.4.Defend what is defensible.
    120. 120. THINKING GRAY- not to form opinions about ideas or people unless you have to. A well developed ability to them to think gray is the best defense a leader can have against this kind of assault in his intellectual independence. Value of suspending binary instincts – free from all restraints. The Contrarian, from Renegade Pastors of Nelson Searcy
    121. 121. Binary Thinking- Good or bad; true or false; black or white - Instant in their judgment The Contrarian, from Renegade Pastors of Nelson Searcy
    122. 122. THINKING GRAY- not to form opinions about ideas or people unless you have to. A well developed ability to them to think gray is the best defense a leader can have against this kind of assault in his intellectual independence. Value of suspending binary instincts – free from all restraints. The Contrarian, from Renegade Pastors of Nelson Searcy
    123. 123. Flip Flopping - A leader have an argument against theproposition and decides that the proposition must be false
    124. 124. THINK GRAY. THINK FREE. THINK GRAY- not to form opinions about ideas or people unless you have to. THINK FREE - train yourself to move several steps beyond traditional brainstorming by considering really outrageous solutions and approaches. The Contrarian, from Renegade Pastors of Nelson Searcy
    125. 125. THINK GRAY. THINK FREE.Listen first, talk later, and when you listen, do so artfully.Experts can be helpful but there is nosubstitute for your own critical thinking and discernment. The Contrarian, from Renegade Pastors of Nelson Searcy
    126. 126. THINK GRAY. THINK FREE.Beware of pseudoscience masquerading as incontrovertible fact or unassailable wisdom; it typically will do nothing to serve your interests or those of the organization. Never make decision until you have to. The Contrarian, from Renegade Pastors of Nelson Searcy
    127. 127. THE 5 BASIC OUTCOMESOne party prevails[2] [5] Transcendence [4] Compromise [3] Withdrawal + [5]One party prevails
    128. 128. [1,2] ONE PARTY PREVAILS1. The Rule of Man: Fight it out, might is right (to be avoided)2. The Rule of Law: Adjudicate, some principle (like, need, taste)3. The Rule of Chance: Some random method 4. Compensation: Broadening (triangle), deepening (double conflict)
    129. 129. [3] WITHDRAWAL 1. Walk away from the situation2. Destroy or give away the orange 3. Just watch the orange 4. Put it in the freeze
    130. 130. [4] COMPROMISE 1. Cut the orange 2. Squeeze the orange3. Peel the orange; divide the slices 4. Any other division
    131. 131. [5] TRANSCENDENCE 1. Get one more orange2. Get more people to share the orange 3. Bake an orange cake, have a lottery, divide the proceeds 4. Sow the seeds, make plantation, take over the marketCreating a new reality.
    132. 132. SPECTRUM OF RESPONSE TO CONFLICT:1. FORCE. Parties have virtually no opportunity to present their case. 2. ADJUDICATION. Parties have opportunity to present their case but third party, appointed by state, imposes solution.3. ARBITRATION. Parties can choose arbiter and whether the outcome will be binding. However, solution is imposed by outsider and may be imposed by law. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    133. 133. SPECTRUM OF RESPONSE TO CONFLICT: 4. NEGOTIATION. Parties formulate issues and find resolution. However, the final solution might depend on the relative power of the parties.5. MEDIATION. Mediator tries to eliminate obstacles to negotiation that they may include power imbalances. The parties determine the outcome. 6. RECONCILIATION. The process searches for solution but also fundamentally alters relationship. All parties must equally invest and participate. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    134. 134. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS1. COOPERATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING is an unassisted procedure which includes formal and informal discussions between individuals or groups. With this process, parties work jointly to determine the nature of their differences and look for creative alternative which will allow them to meet their needs, desires or concerns. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    135. 135. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS2. NEGOTIATIONPositional Negotiation parties make offers andoffers and counter offers which they feel will resolvethe conflict. These exchange of offers typically start toconverge on a solution which both parties findacceptable.Interest Based Negotiation is designed for partieswho have a need to create or maintain healthyrelationships. In this type of process, parties discussthe issues which face them and express theinterests, values, needs that they bring to thetable. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    136. 136. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS3. MEDIATION refers to a processthrough which a third party providesprocedural assistance to help individualsor groups in conflict to resolve theirdifferences.Mediation is a voluntary process and itssuccess is linked to the vesting of thedecision-making authority in the partiesinvolve in the dispute. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    137. 137. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 3. MEDIATION is a voluntary processand its success is linked to the vesting ofdecision-making authority in the partiesinvolved in the dispute.The mediator structures the process in away which creates a safe environment forparties to discuss the conflict and findsolutions which will meet their interests.
    138. 138. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 3. MEDIATION refers to a processthrough which a party provides proceduralassistance to help individuals or groups inconflict to resolve their differences.It may be more important that themediator is known and trusted by theparties to the conflict rather than beingseen as impartial.
    139. 139. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS4. MEDIATOR usually anindependent, impartial person who has nodecision-making authority. It may be moreimportant that the mediator is known andtrusted by the parties rather than being seen asimpartial.The mediator structures the process in a waywhich creates a safe environment for parties todiscuss the conflict and find solutions which willmeet their interests. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    140. 140. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS5. FACILITATION is an assisted process which is similar to mediation in its mediation in its objectives; however, facilitated processes typically do not adhere to a tightly defined procedure. In this type of proceeding, the facilitator works with parties to increase the effectiveness of their communication and problem-solving abilities. The facilitator may be either a third party or a person within one of the groups who is able to provide procedural assistance and to refrain from entering into the substance of discussion. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    141. 141. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS6. ARBITRATION is a form of dispute resolution where a third party makes the decision on the outcome of the dispute. Typically, the parties appoint the arbitrator to render this decision. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    142. 142. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS7. CONFLICT RESOLUTION is a broad term which refers to the many ways disputes are resolved. Conflict resolution is a progression from an order based on coercion to one based on voluntarism. It creates a relationship not characterized by hierarchy but one marked by equality, participation, respect, mutual enrichment and growth. The term also refers to addressing the causes of conflict and seeking to build new and lasting relationships between hostile groups. U.S. Agency for International Development; Training of Trainers Manual: Conflict Transformation and Peace building in Rwanda
    143. 143. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS8. BARGAININGwhere interested parties go over theiragreements and negotiateschanges, sometimes one term at a time.This is the stage where hostility and angercan become evident, as the parties workon fine details of an agreement. Core Negotiation Skills: One Day Primer Velsoft Training
    144. 144. SYSTEM SUB- SYSTEMRELATIONSHIP ISSUE
    145. 145. SystemImmediate Short – Range Decade GenerationalAction Planning Thinking Vision(3-6 months) (1-2 years) (5-10 years) (20+ years)
    146. 146. We all need to get on the same end of this rope and pull in the same direction. If we do, nobody can defeat us along the run. -Tommy Lasorda
    147. 147. Our past gives us pride and joy because ofthe many virtues this past has shown us as ours. Above all, not only do we have a revolutionary tradition, we are also a heroic people. -F. Sionil Jose Why we are poor
    148. 148. We must think of duty, what we must do, of the work ahead so that we may develop into a very strong people. -F. Sionil Jose Why we are poor

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