Carboxylic acid<br />Introduction <br />CARBOXYLIC ACIDS : <br />are organic acids characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group. The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R-COOH, where R is some monovalent functional group. A carboxyl group (or carboxy) is a functional group consisting of a carbonyl (RR'C=O) and a hydroxyl (R-O-H), which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written as -COOH or -CO2H.<br />SOLUBILITY :<br />Carboxylic acids are polar .the Smaller carboxylic acids (1 to 5 carbons) are soluble with water, whereas higher carboxylic acids are less soluble due to the increasing hydrophobic nature of the alkyl chain<br />BOILING POINTS : <br />Carboxylic acids tend to have higher boiling points <br />ACIDITY :<br />Carboxylic acids are typically weak acids, meaning that they only partially dissociate into H+ cations and RCOO– anions in neutral aqueous solution. For example, at room temperature, only 0.4% of all acetic acid molecules are dissociated. Electronegative substituents give stronger acids.<br />ODOR :<br />Carboxylic acids often have strong odors, especially the volatile derivatives. Most common are acetic acid (vinegar) and butyric acid (rancid butter). <br />GENERAL UESES:<br />Carboxylic acids are used in the production of polymers, pharmaceuticals, solvents, and food additives. Industrially important carboxylic acids include acetic acid (component of vinegar, precursor to solvents and coatings), citric acid (beverages), fatty acids (coatings), maleic acid (polymers), propionic acid (food preservative), <br />SYNTHESIS :<br /> Industrial routes.<br />
Oxidation of aldehydes with air using cobalt and manganese catalysts. The required aldehydes are readily obtained from alkenes by hydroformylation.
Base-catalyzed dehydrogenation of alcohols
Laboratory methods.<br />Preparative methods for small scale reactions <br />
oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes with strong oxidants such as potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate.
Oxidative cleavage of olefins by ozonolysis, potassium permanganate, or potassium dichromate.
Carboxylic acids can also be obtained by the hydrolysis of nitriles, esters, or amides, generally with acid- or base-catalysis.
Carbonation of a Grignard reagent.
REACTIONS :<br />
The most widely practiced reactions convert carboxylic acids into esters, amides, carboxylate salts, acid chlorides, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids react with bases to form carboxylate salts, in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl (-OH) group is replaced with a metal cation. Thus, acetic acid found in vinegar reacts with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to form sodium acetate, carbon dioxide, and water:
CH3COOH + NaHCO3 -> CH3COO−Na+ + CO2 + H2O <br />
Carboxylic acids also react with alcohols to give esters. This process is heavily used in the production of polyesters.
The hydroxyl group on carboxylic acids may be replaced with a chlorine atom using thionyl chloride to give acyl chlorides. In nature, carboxylic acids are converted to thioesters
NOMENCLATURE : <br />The carboxylate anion R-COO– is usually named with the suffix -ate, so acetic acid, for example, becomes acetate ion. In IUPAC nomenclature, carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix (e.g., benzoic acid). In common nomenclature, the suffix is usually -ic acid (e.g., stearic acid). <br />Examples and uses <br />
Heel forte oint.
COMPOSITION :<br />Each 100 gm contains:<br />Salicylic acid12 gm Urea 8 gm<br />Ppp<br />p<br />PROPERTIES :<br />Salicylic acid has keratolytic properties, it produces desquamation of hyperkeratotic epithelium via dissolution of the intercellular cement which causes the cornified tissues to swell, soften, macerate and desquamate. Urea moisturizes and softens severely dry, rough skin, it dissolves the coagulum and promotes epithelization.<br />INDICATIONS : <br />Removal of callus and corns<br />Smoothing of intensely rough heels<br />Helps in treatment of warts<br />CONTRTA-INDICATIONS : <br />Hypersensitivity to any of the components of the ointment <br />SIDE EFFECTS : <br />May cause dermatitis or irritation <br />DOSAE :<br />A thin film of Heel forte ointment should be applied twice daily to cover the affected area completely <br />DRUG INTERACTION: <br />No major drug interaction . <br />PRECAUTINOS: <br />Protect surrounding skin and avoid application to broken or inflamed skin.<br />Avoid contact with the eye.<br />Not to be used for diabetic patients and those with poor blood circulation. <br />STORAGE : <br />Store between 15- 30°C<br />Keep out of reach of children<br />PACKAGE :<br />Tube of 20 gm ointment. <br />
Fawar Fruit PRESENTATION FORM : sachetCOMPOSITION : Citric Acid 16.3gm Flavour & Colourto100gm Sodium Bicarbonate56gm Tartaric Acid26.7gm THERAPEUTIC CLASS :
they are drugs containing Aspirin also known as acetylsalicylic acid .<br />THERAPEUTIC USE :<br />HEADACHE :<br />Aspirin is a first-line drug in the treatment of migraine, bringing relief in 50–60% of the cases<br />PAIN :<br />In general, aspirin works well for dull, throbbing pain; it is ineffective for pain caused by most muscle cramps, bloating, gastric distension and acute skin irritation<br />PREVENTION OF HEART ATTACKS AND STROKES :<br />There are two distinct uses of aspirin for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events: primary prevention and secondary prevention. Primary prevention is about decreasing strokes and heart attacks in the general population of those who have no diagnosed heart or vascular problems. Secondary prevention concerns patients with known cardiovascular disease. <br />Low doses of aspirin are recommended for the secondary prevention of strokes and heart attacks<br />CORONARY AND CAROTED ARTERIES , BYPASSES SYENTS :<br />The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart. Aspirin is recommended for one to six months after placement of stents in the coronary arteries and for years after a coronary artery bypass graft.<br />The carotid arteries supply blood to the brain. Patients with mild carotid artery stenosis benefit from aspirin; it is recommended after a carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stent.<br />After vascular surgery of the lower legs using artificial grafts which are sutured to the arteries to improve blood supply, aspirin is used to keep the grafts open.<br />OTHER UESES :<br />
Although aspirin has been used to combat fever and pains associated with common cold for more than 100 yearsFever and joint pain of acute rheumatic fever respond extremely well, often within three days, to high doses of aspirin
Aspirin has been theorized to redResistance
For some people, aspirin does not have as strong an effect on platelets as for others, an effect known as aspirin resistance or insensitivity
uce cataract formation in diabetic patients
DOSE : <br />Adult aspirin tablets are produced in standardised sizes which vary slightly from country to country, for example 300 mg in Britain and 325 mg in the USA. Smaller doses are based on these standards; thus 75 and 81 mg tablets are used—there is no medical significance in the slight difference<br />CONTRAINDICATIONS :<br />Aspirin should not be taken by people who are allergic to ibuprofen or naproxen, or who have salicylate intolerance or a more generalized drug intolerance to NSAIDs, and caution should be exercised in those with asthma orNSAID-precipitated bronchospasm. Owing to its effect on the stomach lining, manufacturers recommend people with peptic ulcers, mild diabetes, or gastritis seek medical advice before using aspirin. Even if none of these conditions is present, there is still an increased risk of stomach bleeding when aspirin is taken with alcohol or warfarin. Patients with hemophilia or other bleeding tendencies should not take aspirin or other salicylates. Aspirin is known to cause hemolytic anemia in people who have the genetic disease glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), particularly in large doses and depending on the severity of the disease.Use of aspirin during dengue fever is not recommended owing to increased bleeding tendency. People with kidney disease, hyperuricemia, or gout should not take aspirin because it inhibits the kidneys' ability to excrete uric acid, and thus may exacerbate these conditions. Aspirin should not be given to children or adolescents to control cold or influenza symptoms, as this has been linked with Reye's syndrome.<br />CHEMICAL PROPERTIES :<br />Aspirin, an acetyl derivative of salicylic acid, is a white, crystalline, weakly acidic substance, with a melting point of135 °C (275 °F). Acetylsalicylic acid decomposes rapidly in solutions of ammonium acetate or of the acetates,carbonates, citrates or hydroxides of the alkali metals. Acetylsalicylic acid is stable in dry air, but graduallyhydrolyses in contact with moisture to acetic and salicylic acids. In solution with alkalis, the hydrolysis proceeds rapidly and the clear solutions formed may consist entirely of acetate and salicylate. <br />SYNTHESIS :<br />The synthesis of aspirin is classified as an esterification reaction. Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's hydroxyl group into an acetyl group, (R-OH -> R-OCOCH3). This process yields aspirin and acetic acid, which is considered a byproduct of this reaction. Small amounts of sulfuric acid (and occasionally phosphoric acid) are almost always used as a catalyst. This method is commonly employed in undergraduate teaching labs.<br />Formulations containing high concentrations of aspirin often smell like vinegar,. because aspirin can decompose through hydrolysis in moist conditions, yielding salicylic acid and acetic acid.<br />The acid dissociation constant (pKa) for acetylsalicylic acid is 3.5 at25 °C (77 °F).<br />
drug containing ascorbic acid <br /> THERAPEUTIC UESES :<br />
Vitamin C functions as an antioxidant and is necessary for the treatment and prevention of scurvy, though in nearly all cases dietary intake is adequate to prevent deficiency and supplementation is not necessary
Vitamin C may also be useful in lowering serum uric acid levels resulting in a correspondingly lower incidence of gout,
and an oxidized version that can cross the blood-brain barrier may reduce neurological deficits and mortality following a stroke
Vitamin C's effect on the common cold has been extensively researched and has not been shown effective in prevention or treatment of the common (viral) cold
Routine vitamin C supplementation does not reduce the incidence of the common cold in the general population
COMMON SIDE EFFECTES :<br />
Relatively large doses of ascorbic acid may cause indigestion, particularly when taken on an empty stomach. However, taking vitamin C in the form of sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate may minimize this effect. When taken in large doses, ascorbic acid causes diarrhea in healthy subjects
POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS :<br />As vitamin C enhances iron absorption, iron poisoning can become an issue to people with rare iron overload disorders, such as haemochromatosis. A genetic condition that results in inadequate levels of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can cause sufferers to develop hemolytic anemia after ingesting specific oxidizing substances, such as very large dosages of vitamin C. <br />VITAMIN C SUPPLEMENT :<br />
Vitamin C is widely available in the form of tablets and powders. The Redoxon brand, launched in 1934 by Hoffmann-La Roche, was the first mass-produced synthetic vitamin C.
Vitamin C is the most widely taken dietary supplement. It is available in caplets, tablets, capsules, drink mix packets, in multi-vitamin formulations, in multiple antioxidant formulations, and crystalline powder