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A modular approach to website quality evaluation: adapting (instantiating) the 7Loci meta-model to the evaluation of different kinds of tourist destinations

A modular approach to website quality evaluation: adapting (instantiating) the 7Loci meta-model to the evaluation of different kinds of tourist destinations

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Website quality evaluation enter 2005 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. A modular approach to quality evaluation of tourist destination web sites: the quality model factory L. Mich, M. Franch, U. Martini {luisa.mich,mariangela.franch,umberto.martini}@unitn.it eTourism Research Group - University of Trento, Italy Ref.: Mich L., Franch M., Martini U., A modular approach to quality evaluation of tourist destination Web sites: The quality model factory . In: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2005, Springer , pp 555-565, doi: 10.1007/3-211-27283-6_50
  • 2. ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich 2 Schema • General-purpose, domain-independent quality evaluation models vs. semantic models • The “quality model factory”: a modular approach that supports the definition of detailed semantic models for the evaluation of Web sites of tourist destinations (TD)
  • 3. 3 Web sites quality evaluation model • Which aspects of the site to consider: – Syntactic query schemes: general-purpose and domain-independent models that can be applied to a variety of types of sites that operate in different environments and have diverse objectives – Detailed schemes: “personalized” evaluation models that take into account the semantics of the site/s ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 4. 4 The problem • To adapt the evaluation model so that it considers the unique semantics of the site takes time and resources • It is necessary to facilitate the definition of a model able to consider with each separate evaluation the realities of diverse TD without having to make laborious adaptations during the set-up phase every time the model is applied to a new site ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 5. 5 A modular approach • The Quality model factory: it starts from the 7Loci meta-model to support the definition of detailed semantic models for the evaluation of Web sites of tourist destinations (scalability) • Modularity derives from the application of reuse as a viable practice for definition of evaluation models ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 6. 6 The general assumptions • When defining a “specialised” web site quality model it is necessary to take into account: – the type of the site/s – the purpose of the evaluation itself – the perspective of all stakeholders and their needs or requirements ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 7. 7 The TD assumptions • Step 1: the unique elements of the different types of TD are identified based on a classification scheme • Step 2: these elements are used to classify into two modules the aspects of the Web site that will undergo evaluation; the 1st module groups features common to all TDs; the 2nd groups features for each type of TD ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 8. ENTER 2005 Reseach Track 8 Quality model factory Requirement elicitation Web site evaluation project Quality requirements Quality evaluation Validation Quality evaluation Modules Web sites classification Quality models repository Requirements repository 7Loci instantiation Quality model factory Requirement elicitation Web site evaluation project Quality requirements Quality evaluation Validation Quality evaluation Modules Web sites classification Quality models repository Requirements repository 7Loci instantiation ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 9. 9 Classification of TD • Based on principal attractions: – Urban – Beach/Sea – Alpine – Rural – Wellness – Religious – Third World – Exotic and Exclusive ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 10. 10 Quality models repository • A detailed evaluation table composed of about 100 questions, generated through a process of specialization (technically referred to as instantiation) of the 7Loci meta-model for regions meeting the criteria of Alpine tourist destination ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 11. 11 Requirements repository • Fact finding techniques output: – questionnaires – brainstorming sessions – literature analysis – interviews – focus groups – etc. ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 12. 12 Instantiation of the quality model {FIRST PART: DEVELOPMENT OF COMMON AND SPECIALIZED MODULES} IF no model for the class of sites currently exists THEN FOR each of the 7Loci dimensions pertinent to the project Identify the requirements common to all sites in the class and convert them into a question; then add the question to the Common module in the evaluation model; Identify the specific requirements for the type of site under evaluation and convert them into a question; then add the question to the Specialized module in the evaluation model; ELSE FOR each dimension of the 7Loci: FOR each question of the existing model IF the question is applied to the type of sites in its current form THEN Add the question to the Common module in the evaluation model ELSE IF the question requires only a formal modification THEN Modify the question and add it to the Specialized module in the evaluation model IF the question is inapplicable to the type of site under evaluation THEN check whether there is an alternative question and add it to the Specialized module of the evaluation model {SECOND PART: COMPLETION OF COMMON AND SPECIALIZED MODULES} FOR each requirement for the type of site under evaluation Identify the 7Loci dimension it refers to IF no question exists for it in the Common or Specialized module THEN IF the question regards all the sites in the class THEN Add a question to the Common module ELSE Add a question to the Specialized module. ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 13. 13 7Loci - the quality meta-model QVIS? (Who?) Identity QVID? (What?) Content CVR? (Why?) Services VBI? (Where?) Identification QVANDO? (When?) Maintenance QVOMODO? (How?) Usability QVIBUS AVXILIIS? (By what means?) Feasibility ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 14. 14 The quality evaluation modules • Input: Alpine TD table • Questions analysis and generalisation: a) Queries that can be applied to any type of TD -> Common module b) Queries which formulation must be adapted according to the type of TD -> Specialised module c) Queries related to specific features of the TD -> Specialised module ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 15. 15 The TD quality evaluation models • A group was composed consisting of nine modules to evaluate the quality of Web sites for TD: one general module (Common module), applicable to all types of D. and a Specialized module for each type of D. • The Specialized modules reflect the subdivision in dimensions and are composed of questions obtained adapting the questions from the table used for Alpine D., this according to the type of D. to evaluate and the specific characteristics ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 16. 16 Other questions • New questions are added to the Specialized modules to take into account the particular aspects that characterize a given class of Ds and checking the requirements for the type of the site • The integrations have usually to do with aspects related to Content and Services. • Questions were validated by two experts in the tourist sector (destination management), who suggested some modifications that were mostly formalities ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 17. 17 Final models • Each module (the Common module and the eight Specialized modules) is composed of a number of boolean questions ranging from 0 to 16 • The Common module contains 69 questions; Specialized modules have between 24 and 38 questions ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 18. 18 Questions vs. dimensions • The Common module contains from 7 (Maintenance) to 16 (Content and Usability) questions for each dimension • The Specialized modules have relatively few questions for the more syntactic dimensions (Maintenance, Usability, and Location, which has none at all). Identity, has 8-10 questions, and Content has from 10 to 16, making it the dimension most dependent on the type of destination ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 19. 19 Ex.: rural destinations Web sites • In the evaluation phase, once the destination of the site in question has been classified, the table to apply is generated by integrating the Common module with the Specialized module for that class of destination ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 20. 20 Identity questions for rural Ds. • Common module: – Is there a logo/trademark on the home page that identifies the D. (or on the first important page if the home page is secondary, for ex., only for language selection)? – Is this logo/trademark visible also on other pages of the site? – Is the style of graphic design homogeneous throughout the site? – Does the site contain links to the site of entities or tourist organizations at a higher or lower level, if they exist? – … ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 21. 21 Identity questions for rural Ds. • Specialised module: – Does the logo/trademark itself somehow inform the user that the site belongs to an entity/organization representing a rural TD? – On the whole, is the graphic design appropriate for the type of site and does it evoke the image of an entity/organization representing a rural TD? – … – Is there information or sections/pages dedicated to different market segments (families, elderly, singles, etc.)? – … ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 22. 22 Questions per dimension for rural D. 7Loci Dimension – Total/specialized questions Identity 15 - 87.5% Content 26 - 85.7 % Services 13 - 30% Location 12 - 0% Maintenance 8 - 14.3% Usability 18 - 12.5% ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 23. 23 Common vs. specialized modules • Questions of type (c) for the Specialized modules are all related to the Content and Services dimensions • The data confirm that to evaluate the sites for a class of TD without taking into account specific aspects of each type/class, it is possible to use “syntactic” models that are independent of the domain and the specific objectives of the site • In the case of the 7Loci meta-model such aspects are found principally in the dimensions Location, Maintenance and Usability ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich
  • 24. 24 Conclusions • We propose a systemic approach that takes into account the needs of all stakeholders, reducing the time and financial investments necessary to define detailed models • The application of the method in evaluating the sites of TD led to the definition of 8 models, corresponding to 8 types of TD • Experience gained when developing the first detailed model for Alpine TDs confirms that the method requires substantially fewer resources • By separating the questions for a particular type of site into specialized modules, it is also easier to update the evaluation modules ENTER 2005 Research Track – Luisa Mich