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User modelling in didactic applications icce1999 A pragmatic approach
 

User modelling in didactic applications icce1999 A pragmatic approach

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This presentation sets out a quantitative theory of the interaction among "subjects" which allows a description of the pragmatic aspects of communication. Within a system of interacting subjects each ...

This presentation sets out a quantitative theory of the interaction among "subjects" which allows a description of the pragmatic aspects of communication. Within a system of interacting subjects each individual is described by a set of interaction parameters. In this way an interaction pattern relative to each subject can be defined. The model provides a "change law" which describes the evolution of individual patterns as a consequence of different communication events. This allows interaction deficiencies to be identified and suggests strategies for dealing with them. The theory was first developed in the area of clinical psychiatry and underwent two kinds of external verification: one psychometric-diagnostic, the other clinical. It was then applied to an economic environment in the behavioral study of decision-making processes. We suggest that it may be applied also in computerized environments for cooperation support.

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    User modelling in didactic applications icce1999 A pragmatic approach User modelling in didactic applications icce1999 A pragmatic approach Presentation Transcript

    • User Modelling in Didactic Applications: a Pragmatic Approach Luigi Colazzo, Luisa Mich, Luca Silvestri University of Trento e-mail: luisa.mich@unitn.it ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan e-mail: luisa.mich@unitn.it
    • Schema Goal Assumptions The EPM: Elementary pragmatic model ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan The EPM: Elementary pragmatic model Applying the EPM to the web communication
    • Goal Define pragmatic user models of the visitors of WWW sites ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan
    • Assumptions The interactions of a visitor with a site are modelled as a sequence of elementary communicative acts ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan Each individual has a “relational pattern” based on his/her experiences in life A web site consists of a collection of communicative acts and has a relational pattern
    • The Elementary-Pragmatic Model Subject: <world, mechanism> ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan <world, mechanism> Elementary interaction: <proposal, replay, result>
    • Example <Shall we go to the cinema?, I don’t want to; Let’s go to the cinema> Independence of the mechanism from the world ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan <1,0,1> -> World
    • Coordinates -> Mechanism: Antifunction u1=P(<0,01>) Acceptance u2=P(<0,1,1>) Maintenance u3=P(<1,0,1>) Cooperation u4=P(<1,1,1>) ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan Cooperation u4=P(<1,1,1>) Relational pattern -> f(xA,xB) = xA’ Probabilities of the 16 Boolean functions of 2 variables
    • Principle of maximum information P(f0) = (1- u1)(1- u2)(1- u3)(1- u4) No, no, no, no, no … P(f1) = (1- u1)(1- u2)(1- u3) u4 Our relation is based only on what we share P(f2) = (1- u1)(1- u2) u3 (1- u4) I only accept what is exclusively mine P(f3) = (1- u1)(1- u2) u3 u4 I maintain my worldview P(f4) = (1- u1) u2 (1- u3)(1- u4) Only what is exclusively yours interest m P(f5) = (1- u1) u2 (1- u3) u4 I enter your world with what we have in common P(f6) = (1- u1) u2 u3 (1- u4) Everything in my world and in yours is part of our relationship as long as it is not shared P(f7) = (1- u1) u2 u3 u4 Our relationship is based on the union of our worlds P(f ) = u (1- u )(1- u )(1- u ) I only have relationships with what is alien to me and to you ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan P(f8) = u1 (1- u2)(1- u3)(1- u4) I only have relationships with what is alien to me and to you P(f9) = u1 (1- u2)(1- u3) u4 What we have in common and what we have that is alien P(f10) = u1 (1- u2) u3 (1- u4) I am an argumentative person P(f11) = u1 (1-u2) u3 u4 I’m interested in everything, also outside our relation, as long as it is not specifically yours P(f12) = u1 u2 (1- u3) ( 1-u4) What is important for me is your world exclusively, and external elements P(f13) = u1 u2 (1- u3) u4 I enter your world using external elements P(f14) = u1 u2 u3 (1- u4) Everything, also what is alien interest me, except for what we share P(f15) = u1 u2 u3 u4 Yes, yes, yes, yes …
    • Change of the mechanism: A changes its mechanism according to the formula: f’A=fA(fA,fB) -> Paradox table ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan which allows to describe the potential evolution of the relational patterns of interacting subjects.
    • Applying the EPM to the web communication A web site contains a plurality of elements, which can be interpreted as messages: anchors, texts, images, audio- video files, animated gifs for banners, etc. ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan video files, animated gifs for banners, etc. To evaluate the relational pattern of a site, all these components can be interpreted as <proposal> to the navigator and codified with <1>
    • It is possible to identify elementary interactions between a user and a web site observing the moves of the user facing the proposals contained in a page ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan facing the proposals contained in a page of the site itself
    • Definition of the user’s pattern from elementary user-site interactions: The bits exchanged between the user and the site are aggregate in triples <proposal, reply, result> The cookie transmits to the server a ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan The cookie transmits to the server a sequence that corresponds to an access to the site. Subsequent entries are considered not- independent to calculate the coordinates and the relational pattern of the user.
    • Example Given the following sequences of moves: 11111010111011100111010110110010101000010011010101000000111111100100110110000000001… We obtain the relational pattern: ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan
    • The highest values are given for functions f11 and f3 (usually the highest for “normal” subjects - persistence of a pragmatic position) Applying the EPM to the relationships between this user and a web site, one could deduce that: the user is visiting the site with an interest ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan the user is visiting the site with an interest that does not depend on the topics of the site, but she/he could be interested in aspects that are marginal to its content. For ex., it could be a matter in which the user is interested in the graphics of the site.
    • Conclusions The EPM should integrate traditional user models based on semantics A further goal is the development of a site able to adapt its relational patterns to the student, ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan to adapt its relational patterns to the student, depending on the user model The use of pragmatic models for the evaluation of the interactions of the students and the didactic materials contained in a web site could help the design of effective didactic site
    • References* Altre applicazioni del modello della pragmatica: L Mich, C Anesi, D Berry (2005) Applying a pragmatics-based creativity fostering technique to requirements elicitation, Requirements Engineering Journ. , 10(4 ) 262-275 doi 10.1007/s00766-005-0008-3 L Colazzo, L Mich, D Malinverni (1992) An application of the ICCE'99 - 7th Int. Conference on Computer in Education - Nov. 4-7 Chiba - Japan L Colazzo, L Mich, D Malinverni (1992) An application of the Elementary Pragmatic Model to electronic communication, Annali dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità. 28(2) 245-251 L Colazzo, D Malinverni, L Mich, T Schäl (1991) Interpretation of human relations in computer supported communication: A test with a Pragmatic Model, Proc. IFIP-TC8 Conf. on Work, Collaborative Work, Social Communications and Information Systems, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, pp. 77-92 * added 13/05/2014