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Recent Visit to Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egyptian Timeline
Egyptian Timeline• Old Kingdom (2700-2150)  – hieroglyphics and religion    develop in Egypt  – pyramids built• Middle Kin...
Outline  1. Geography         1. Government  2. Religion          –   The Pharaoh    –   Gods           2. Daily Life    –...
I. Geography  • River dominates Egyptian world/thought  • Surrounded by desert with occasional oases     – Permits some tr...
“Egypt is the gift of the  Nile” - Herodotus1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6
I. The Nile  • Yearly flooding - no concern for soil    depletion     – Predictable     – Irrigation systems  • Encourages...
I. The Nile1 2 3 4 5 6
I. The Nile1 2 3 4 5 6
I. The Nile
I. The Nile  • Impact on religion     – divided life - living and dying.        • East (sunrise) is land of the living - c...
I. The Nile1 2 3 4 5 6
II. Religion  • Omnipresence of religion  • Polytheistic     – interaction with the natural environment shows       interr...
II. Osiris• God of the Dead - “rebirth” -  and the weighing of the  heart• Evolution of Egyptian  mythology   – known as a...
II. Horus• Horus, god of balance and harmony.• Maintained the natural order: the flow of the Nile and the fertility of    ...
II. Early Pyramids         Zoser’s stepped pyramid - similar to                 Babylonian ziggurats1 2 3 4 5 6
Why build Pyramids?• Belief in the afterlife demanded:  1. Bodies be interred whole  2. Material goods for use in afterlif...
Mastaba
II. Great Pyramid  Tomb for Khufu  • an almost perfect square (deviation .05%)  • orientation is exactly North, South, Eas...
II. Great Pyramid1 2 3 4 5 6
II. Great Pyramid1 2 3 4 5 6
Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu              Queen Pyramids in front1 2 3 4 5 6
II. Great Pyramid1 2 3 4 5 6
Valley of the Kings1 2 3 4 5 6              II. Hidden Tombs
II. Hidden Tombs                 Valley of the Kings1 2 3 4 5 6
II. Mummies• Not known when mummification started in Egypt• Perfected by time of New Kingdom• How to make a mummy: 70 step...
Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of heart,      stomach, intestines and liver which were also treated1 2 3 4 5 6
II. Mummies               Mummy                  Inner coffin1 2 3 4 5 6
II. Mummies              Second inner                 coffin                   Second inner                     coffin lid...
II. Mummies              The mummy of Hatshepsut:                   1479 – 1458 BC1 2 3 4 5 6
II. Mummies            3000 year-old mummy Pharaoh Rameses I1 2 3 4 5 6      Ruled Egypt from 1292-1290 BC
II. Mummies          Mummy of Rameses II in Cairo Museum,        one of the greatest pharaohs of ancient Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
Gift bearers                Funerary                              Gifts                            Shabti box             ...
III. The Pharaoh  • God-King - unlike Mesopotamia     – Temporal power       • owns all the land and people and what peopl...
III. The Pharaoh  • God-King - unlike Mesopotamia     – Religious        • direct descendant of the Sun god        • contr...
III. The Pharaoh                 Valley of the Kings1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Daily Life in Egypt• Cosmetics, cleanliness (bathe 3 times a day), shaved  bodies, wigs• Main food is beer and bread  ...
IV. Cosmetics in Egypt                Egyptians used cosmetics                regardless of sex and                social ...
IV. Cosmetics in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Farmers in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Farmers in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Farmers in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Farmers in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Irrigation in Egypt                  shadoof1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Nile Life Today
IV. Nile Life Today
IV. Nile Life TodayA felucca, a traditional Nile sailing boat.
IV. Nile Life Today
IV. Nile Life Today
IV. Nile Life Today
IV. Nile Life Today
IV. Nile Life Today
IV. Hieroglyphics• Language is written without  vowels• Different pronunciations  – MNFR as Memphis  – SR as Osiris  – TTM...
IV. Hieroglyphics• Use in temples• Rosetta Stone -  hieroglyphics -  demotics       -  greek• Napoleon and  Egyptology.1 2...
IV. Papyrus in EgyptThe Egyptians invented paper (papyrus) and writing on paper scrolls1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Egyptian Artwork         Role played by size in Egyptian Artwork1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Egyptian Artwork    Stela (stone relief carving) ofAkhenaten, Nefertiti and their children                            ...
IV. Egyptian Artwork              Tutunkhaman’s tomb, Valley of the Kings1 2 3 4 5 6
IV. Egyptian Artwork1 2 3 4 5 6    Edfu Temple Carving
IV. Egyptian Artwork1 2 3 4 5 6 Extensive engraved carving Edfu Temple
IV. Egyptian Artwork1 2 3 4 5 6 Hatshepsut’s Temple - Modern architecture
IV. Egyptian Artwork              Luxor Temple – Coptic Christian1 2 3 4 5 6     over-painting & desecration
V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE • End of civil wars, return of farming and trade • Move of capital south to Upper Egypt (T...
V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE1 2 3 4 5 6
VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE  • Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and    reunited Egypt  • Known as the Empire period...
Ahmose I leading Egyptians against the Hyksos1 2 3 4 5 6
VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE  • Characterized by a more militaristic and    imperialistic nature     – incorporated chari...
VI. Threats to Tradition• Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347 B.C.)  introduced the worship of Aton, god  of the sun disk, as the c...
VI. Threats to Tradition               1355-1335 BCE  • Nefertiti    – Wife of Akhenaton the only      pharaoh to even par...
VI. Tutankhamen                1335-1325 BCE •   (King Tut) •   Child ruler •   Ruled nine years, died at 18 •   Young dea...
VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)• Greatest New Kingdom ruler• Military leader of Egypt• Expanded into southern Turkey• Built man...
VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)1 2 3 4 5 6
VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)1 2 3 4 5 6
VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)              Lake Nasser, Abu Simbel1 2 3 4 5 6
VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)1 2 3 4 5 6
VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)              Lake Nasser, Abu Simbel1 2 3 4 5 6
End
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Transcript of "Ancient egyptcsc"

  1. 1. Recent Visit to Egypt
  2. 2. Ancient Egypt
  3. 3. Egyptian Timeline
  4. 4. Egyptian Timeline• Old Kingdom (2700-2150) – hieroglyphics and religion develop in Egypt – pyramids built• Middle Kingdom (2040-1786) – extension of Egyptian control into Nubia• New Kingdom (1570-1075) – militaristic - Hebrews enslaved – mummification perfected
  5. 5. Outline 1. Geography 1. Government 2. Religion – The Pharaoh – Gods 2. Daily Life – Pyramids 3. Middle Kingdom – Mummies 4. New Kingdom1 2 3 4 5 6
  6. 6. I. Geography • River dominates Egyptian world/thought • Surrounded by desert with occasional oases – Permits some trade – Defense from invasion • Contributes to feeling of safety – Preserves artifacts1 2 3 4 5 6
  7. 7. “Egypt is the gift of the Nile” - Herodotus1 2 3 4 5 6
  8. 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6
  9. 9. I. The Nile • Yearly flooding - no concern for soil depletion – Predictable – Irrigation systems • Encourages – Trade – Communication – Political unity1 2 3 4 5 6
  10. 10. I. The Nile1 2 3 4 5 6
  11. 11. I. The Nile1 2 3 4 5 6
  12. 12. I. The Nile
  13. 13. I. The Nile • Impact on religion – divided life - living and dying. • East (sunrise) is land of the living - cities, temples • West (sunset) is land of the dead - tombs1 2 3 4 5 6
  14. 14. I. The Nile1 2 3 4 5 6
  15. 15. II. Religion • Omnipresence of religion • Polytheistic – interaction with the natural environment shows interrelated gods and goddesses yearly rebirth of Nile and daily rebirth of sun – over 2000 gods • Pharaoh as living god • Afterlife – evolution of who has an afterlife • Old vs. New Kingdom1 2 3 4 5 6
  16. 16. II. Osiris• God of the Dead - “rebirth” - and the weighing of the heart• Evolution of Egyptian mythology – known as a ruler in the Nile delta - – a local god – regional god.1 2 3 4 5 6
  17. 17. II. Horus• Horus, god of balance and harmony.• Maintained the natural order: the flow of the Nile and the fertility of the soil. 1 2 3 4 5 6
  18. 18. II. Early Pyramids Zoser’s stepped pyramid - similar to Babylonian ziggurats1 2 3 4 5 6
  19. 19. Why build Pyramids?• Belief in the afterlife demanded: 1. Bodies be interred whole 2. Material goods for use in afterlife be present• The need to protect the bodies demanded good burial tombs 1. First were mastabas 2. Then pyramids 3. Then later… hidden tombs
  20. 20. Mastaba
  21. 21. II. Great Pyramid Tomb for Khufu • an almost perfect square (deviation .05%) • orientation is exactly North, South, East West • 2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high • 20 years to build • average block weighs 2.5 tons – Some weigh 9 tons!1 2 3 4 5 6
  22. 22. II. Great Pyramid1 2 3 4 5 6
  23. 23. II. Great Pyramid1 2 3 4 5 6
  24. 24. Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu Queen Pyramids in front1 2 3 4 5 6
  25. 25. II. Great Pyramid1 2 3 4 5 6
  26. 26. Valley of the Kings1 2 3 4 5 6 II. Hidden Tombs
  27. 27. II. Hidden Tombs Valley of the Kings1 2 3 4 5 6
  28. 28. II. Mummies• Not known when mummification started in Egypt• Perfected by time of New Kingdom• How to make a mummy: 70 steps – 1) Removal of the brain through the nostrils 2) Removal of the intestines through an incision in the side 3) Sterilization of the body and intestines 4) Treating, cleaning, dehydrating the intestines 5) Packing the body with natron (a natural dehydrating agent) and leaving for 40 days 6) Removal of the natron agent 7) Packing the limbs with clay or sand 8) Packing the body with linen (soaked in resin), myrrh and cinnamon 9) Treating the body with ointments and finally wrapping with a fine linen gauze, not less than 1000 square yards .1 2 3 4 5 6
  29. 29. Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of heart, stomach, intestines and liver which were also treated1 2 3 4 5 6
  30. 30. II. Mummies Mummy Inner coffin1 2 3 4 5 6
  31. 31. II. Mummies Second inner coffin Second inner coffin lid1 2 3 4 5 6
  32. 32. II. Mummies The mummy of Hatshepsut: 1479 – 1458 BC1 2 3 4 5 6
  33. 33. II. Mummies 3000 year-old mummy Pharaoh Rameses I1 2 3 4 5 6 Ruled Egypt from 1292-1290 BC
  34. 34. II. Mummies Mummy of Rameses II in Cairo Museum, one of the greatest pharaohs of ancient Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
  35. 35. Gift bearers Funerary Gifts Shabti box Model boat1 2 3 4 5 6
  36. 36. III. The Pharaoh • God-King - unlike Mesopotamia – Temporal power • owns all the land and people and what people possess • law vs. Pharaohs will • irrigation • no city walls1 2 3 4 5 6
  37. 37. III. The Pharaoh • God-King - unlike Mesopotamia – Religious • direct descendant of the Sun god • controls access to the afterlife • July-Sept, during floods life is controlled by the Pharaoh – 365 day calendar.1 2 3 4 5 6
  38. 38. III. The Pharaoh Valley of the Kings1 2 3 4 5 6
  39. 39. IV. Daily Life in Egypt• Cosmetics, cleanliness (bathe 3 times a day), shaved bodies, wigs• Main food is beer and bread – grow many crops: emmer, barley, flax, lentils, onion, beans, and millet• Common building made of sun-dried mud bricks - up to three stories in height• Four social classes - slaves on the bottom• Most common job … farming1 2 3 4 5 6
  40. 40. IV. Cosmetics in Egypt Egyptians used cosmetics regardless of sex and social status for both aesthetic and therapeutic reasons. Oils and unguents were rubbed into the skin to protect it from the hot dry air.1 2 3 4 5 6
  41. 41. IV. Cosmetics in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
  42. 42. IV. Farmers in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
  43. 43. IV. Farmers in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
  44. 44. IV. Farmers in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
  45. 45. IV. Farmers in Egypt1 2 3 4 5 6
  46. 46. IV. Irrigation in Egypt shadoof1 2 3 4 5 6
  47. 47. IV. Nile Life Today
  48. 48. IV. Nile Life Today
  49. 49. IV. Nile Life TodayA felucca, a traditional Nile sailing boat.
  50. 50. IV. Nile Life Today
  51. 51. IV. Nile Life Today
  52. 52. IV. Nile Life Today
  53. 53. IV. Nile Life Today
  54. 54. IV. Nile Life Today
  55. 55. IV. Hieroglyphics• Language is written without vowels• Different pronunciations – MNFR as Memphis – SR as Osiris – TTMS as either Thutmose, Thutmosis, Tatmusa or Atithmese• Who learns this writing style?1 2 3 4 5 6
  56. 56. IV. Hieroglyphics• Use in temples• Rosetta Stone - hieroglyphics - demotics - greek• Napoleon and Egyptology.1 2 3 4 5 6
  57. 57. IV. Papyrus in EgyptThe Egyptians invented paper (papyrus) and writing on paper scrolls1 2 3 4 5 6
  58. 58. IV. Egyptian Artwork Role played by size in Egyptian Artwork1 2 3 4 5 6
  59. 59. IV. Egyptian Artwork Stela (stone relief carving) ofAkhenaten, Nefertiti and their children Painting - Egyptian farmers & animals Notice, all people drawn from the side – even when looking right at you!1 2 3 4 5 6
  60. 60. IV. Egyptian Artwork Tutunkhaman’s tomb, Valley of the Kings1 2 3 4 5 6
  61. 61. IV. Egyptian Artwork1 2 3 4 5 6 Edfu Temple Carving
  62. 62. IV. Egyptian Artwork1 2 3 4 5 6 Extensive engraved carving Edfu Temple
  63. 63. IV. Egyptian Artwork1 2 3 4 5 6 Hatshepsut’s Temple - Modern architecture
  64. 64. IV. Egyptian Artwork Luxor Temple – Coptic Christian1 2 3 4 5 6 over-painting & desecration
  65. 65. V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE • End of civil wars, return of farming and trade • Move of capital south to Upper Egypt (Thebes) • Public improvements – drain swamps, canal to Red Sea • Belief in afterlife expands to include common people • Tombs instead of pyramids – better protection for mummies.1 2 3 4 5 6
  66. 66. V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE1 2 3 4 5 6
  67. 67. VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE • Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and reunited Egypt • Known as the Empire period • Development of “public” and “private” zones at temples.1 2 3 4 5 6
  68. 68. Ahmose I leading Egyptians against the Hyksos1 2 3 4 5 6
  69. 69. VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE • Characterized by a more militaristic and imperialistic nature – incorporated chariot, bronze working, horses – development of a professional army • Became a slave-based economy fueled by war and expansion1 2 3 4 5 6
  70. 70. VI. Threats to Tradition• Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347 B.C.) introduced the worship of Aton, god of the sun disk, as the chief god and pursued his worship with enthusiasm.• Changed name to Akhenaten (“It is well with Aton”)• He closed the temples of other gods and especially endeavoured to lessen the power of Amon-Re and his priesthood at Thebes. 1 2 3 4 5 6
  71. 71. VI. Threats to Tradition 1355-1335 BCE • Nefertiti – Wife of Akhenaton the only pharaoh to even partially reject polytheism – Political move against priests of Amon-Re – Moved capital to Amarna – Worshipped Aton, the sun disk • Royal inbreeding.1 2 3 4 5 6
  72. 72. VI. Tutankhamen 1335-1325 BCE • (King Tut) • Child ruler • Ruled nine years, died at 18 • Young death meant burial in the tomb of a lesser person (noble) resulting in preservation1 2 3 4 5 6
  73. 73. VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)• Greatest New Kingdom ruler• Military leader of Egypt• Expanded into southern Turkey• Built many monuments to himself• Last gasp of Egyptian power.1 2 3 4 5 6
  74. 74. VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)1 2 3 4 5 6
  75. 75. VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)1 2 3 4 5 6
  76. 76. VI. Rameses II (1279-1213) Lake Nasser, Abu Simbel1 2 3 4 5 6
  77. 77. VI. Rameses II (1279-1213)1 2 3 4 5 6
  78. 78. VI. Rameses II (1279-1213) Lake Nasser, Abu Simbel1 2 3 4 5 6
  79. 79. End
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