The united nations security council


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The united nations security council

  1. 1. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is for international peace and security. It include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action. There are 15 members of the Security Council. This includes five veto-wielding permanent members—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—based on the great powers that were the victors of World War II. There are also 10 non- permanent members, with five elected each year to serve two-year terms. The current non- permanent members are Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Guatemala, Luxembourg, Morocco, Pakistan, Rwanda, South Korea, and Togo. The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946 at Church House, Westminster, and London. Its current permanent home at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. Representatives of the members of the Security Council must always be present at UN headquarters in New York so that the Security Council can meet at any time. Under Article 27 of the UN Charter, Security Council decisions on all substantive matters require the affirmative votes of nine members. The Security Council's inception, China (ROC/PRC) has used its veto 6 times; France 18 times; Russia/USSR 123 times; the United Kingdom 32 times; and the United States 89 times. The majority of Russian/Soviet vetoes were in the first ten years of the Council's existence. Since 1984, China and France have vetoed three resolutions each; Russia/USSR four; the United Kingdom ten; and the United States 43. Role: The Council has broader power to decide what measures are to be taken in situations involving "threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression". In such situations, the Council is not limited to recommendations but may take action, including the use of armed force "to maintain or restore international peace and security". This was the legal basis for UN armed action in Korea in 1950 during the Korean War and the use of coalition forces in Iraq and Kuwait in 1991 and Libya in 2011. The UN's role in international collective security is defined by the UN Charter, which gives the Security Council the power to:  Investigate any situation threatening international peace;  Recommend procedures for peaceful resolution of a dispute;  Call upon other member nations to completely or partially interrupt economic relations as well as sea, air, postal, and radio communications, or to sever diplomatic relations;  Enforce its decisions militarily, or by any means necessary;  Avoid conflict and maintain focus on cooperation.  They also recommend the new Secretary-General to the General Assembly. Topic B: Security Concerns in the Middle East and the Southeast Asia History of the Security Threats in the Middle East: Timeline 16 July 1945 – First Successful Nuclear Test of the United States August 1945 – Atom bombs dropped in Hiroshima (6 August) & Nagasaki (9 August) 29 November 1947 - United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine came into force. On 14 May 1948 - Israeli declaration of Independence published.
  2. 2. 15 May 1948 – 10 March 1949- 1948 Arab-Israeli war occurred between Israel against Egypt Syria Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq. War end with 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Arab states. 29 August 1949 – First Nuclear Test of the Soviet Union 3 October 1952 – First Nuclear Test of the United Kingdom 25 March 1957 – The treaty for the establishment of EURATOM is signed 1957-Establishment of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran 19 July 1957 – The IAEA is officially signed and ratified 1 December 1959 – “Antarctic Treaty” is signed, stating that Antarctica should only be used for peaceful purposes 1961 – First safeguard system establishments by the IAEA January 1964 - Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) created upon the aim with the purpose of creating an independent State of Palestine June 5–10, 1967 – Six Days War occurred between Israel against Egypt Syria Jordan, and Iraq. Israel take the control of Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, East Jerusalem and Golan Heights.1 January 1968 – EURATOM enters into force 5 March 1970 – The “Non-Proliferation Treaty” enters into force October 6–25, 1973 – Yom Kippur war occured between Israel against Egypt Syria Jordan, and Iraq. UN published 338, 339 and 340 regarding the cease-fire as well as Sinai Interim Aggrement. 1974- Atomic Energy Act of Iran was promulgated. 1982-1983 - Israel invaded Lebanon with Operation Peace for Galilee following Abu Nidal led assassination attempt to Israel’s ambassador to the UK , Shlomo Argov.Reasoned PLO withdrawal from Lebanon, also raised the Syrian Influence on Lebanon as well as the establishment of Hezbollah. 1987 – The “UN Conference for the Promotion of International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy” is held 8 December 1987 – 13 September 1993 - Mass Uprising as known as intifada against the Israeli occupation began in Gaza. Protest quickly spreaded through whole Palestine. Intifada ended with heavy civilian casualties. During Intifada PLO and US started dialogue for peace however Israel still recognize PLO as a terror organisation.1991-Madrid Conference started in Spain for the aim of establishing peace in the region. 1993- Oslo Accords procedure started as the first attempt for creating dialogue and environment to start negotiations between Israel and PLO. May 1998 – Nuclear tests by India (28-30 May) & Pakistan (11-13 May) 2004- Death of Yasser Arafat blocked the negotiations process which also damaged by HAMAS led assassinations and bombings.
  3. 3. Special Focus Iran Security threats in Iran are closely linked to the government’s nuclear program. The foreign ministry of Iran has never agreed on any kind of nuclear possession or effort on nuclear technology. Nonetheless, prospects and estimates clearly show that this capacity does exist and can pose a threat to the rest of the world. In 2011, the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) has reported that uranium stocks are being enriched in the country and uncontrolled action is taking place when it comes to nuclear power. Iran’s head of state Ahmadinejad’s: “Western countries themselves have stockpiled thousands of atomic bombs, but accuse our nation.” He moreover puts forward that Iran is not in a need of nuclear capacity to defend itself. The United Nations and several acting states have imposed sanctions against Iran and its government. USA have banned the use of various trade routes and trading companies, have frozen related funds and budgets of the government and satisfied workers in such a way so that they did not continue in serving as labour force for the affected branches. The United States administration has pointed out several accusations that the Iranian government gives its folks the tendency to execute proxy wars, According to the definition Oxford Scholars Proxy Wars means “a war instigated by a major power which does not itself become involved”. Following the 2006 Lebanon War, the proxy wars started between US, Israel and Iran during this period Iranian claimed proxies were Hezbollah, HAMAS and lastly the Syrian National Forces during 2012 Syrian Civil War, where also US and Iran Claimed to use several Kurdish Organizations towards Iran as proxies. Libya Only a few years after its civil war and wind of revolution, Libya faces steady challenges in creating the pre-existing order. Together with the new thoughts and ideologies which originated from the revolutions, people got used to them and desire a country functioning as they wish. Due to Libya’s history and political standpoint, some old and traditional manners are still being adopted. As a result; people get use of small arms, which are mostly illegally obtained, and collectively attack significant key points and institutions of the government. The mostly uncoordinated moves of the so- called “rebels” cause unrest and disruption in the country. Though, with the local and international media presence, people feel strengthened and ready to stand against their existing order. Libya is still in a struggle to overcome the long-lasting tracks of the Gaddafi regime. Gaddafi was always quick in resolving rebel groups or tribal attacks. The new regime has limited sources and therefore delays in response, it most of the time outnumbered or weak in ammunition. This is why Libya is still under pressure of tribal conflicts and cannot obtain a cantered security after all. Russian Federation His defence industry of Russia has overthrown the United States in regards to worldwide sales in 2002, when it backed behind again in 2003. The fact that the majority of illicit trade in small arms goes over the tables of Russian companies poses a significant security threat for the Russian political actions. The Russian government mainly engages in the sales of arms to the West, however, due to some regulations against the Russians and the higher demand in the East, most of the arms still wander to the more eastern regions of the world. A good example of this can be stated as when back in 2007, Russia had broken the UN arms embargo against Sudan and have literally supplied Sudan with attack helicopters and weapons for use against civilians. Peaceful engagements and
  4. 4. developments foster more and more treaties and ties with the West, which generally secures the legitimacy of arms’ sales by the Russian Federation and the improvement of the situation. United States of America The foreign ministry of the United States has clearly stated that one of the major threats posed to their state is nuclear power. On their list, they estimate nuclear capabilities on a very high rank. The US has spent the past six decades on monitoring, developing and structuring nuclear weapons, and has indeed been successful. Though, developing research is continuing all over the world. The major threat originates from the fact that most of the information is kept confidential and developments are made underground. This fact is strongly related to the actions by North Korea, creating a “possible threat” to the rest of the world by leaving them in the unconsciousness about North Korea’s actual possess. The foreign ministry also points out that there is a need for further research and conducting studies regarding nuclear weapons. Conclusively, the fact that the US aims to use all their information in peaceful ways. Nuclear Weapons & Proliferation; SALW Proliferation SALW (Small Arms & Light Weapons) is generally classified as firearms that are easily portable by an individual or by a weapons crew. Small arms are those designed for personal use and light weapons are those designed for use by several persons serving as a crew. It is basically divided into two major distinct; one describing “Small Arms”, the other defining “Light Weapons”. Under Small Arms, considerable sub-definitions are revolvers and self-loading pistols, rifles and carbines, sub-machine- guns, assault rifles and light-machine guns. Light weapons includes heavy machine guns, hand held and mounted grenade launchers, portable anti-aircraft guns, anti-tank guns and mortars of calibers of less than 100 mm. UN has estimated that those countries which have SALW production also are capable of producing their own ammunition so as to feed their weaponry with it. Both the production of weapons and of ammunition is defined as illegal. It is clear that developments are also made in the production of SALW. As a result, its proliferation increases and the threat of illicit trade rises as well. The higher these illegal weapons develop and cover a specific aspect, the riskier it gets to stop people from using them, and trading them. Nuclear Weapons A nuclear weapon can be defined as an explosive item in which matter is being converted into energy and its sources. At Atomic weaponry is being detonated by the split of mainly uranium; the atom may vary from producer to others. This process releases an astronomic amount of energy, and danger. The difference between conventional weapons is that nuclear weapons process fissional sources of energy. The energy of the majority of these weapons therefore derives out of radioactive atoms like Uranium and Plutonium. Especially the moment of exhaust of radioactivity makes up the special threat to humanity and environment. Atomic and hydrogen bombs make up the two types of this category. State that manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear device prior to 1st January 1967 has been dealt with as a nuclear-weapon state. Any other state which does not fit into this particular definition falls under the term of a non-nuclear-weapon state
  5. 5. Hydrogen weapon creates energy by using the atomic explosion which originates from the merge of 2 hydrogen atoms, giving out helium. Therefore, a hydrogen bomb is more explosive and dangerous than an atomic bomb. Destruction and widespread death is the conclusion of both types of weaponry, also creating and spreading devastation and illness. Proliferation Proliferation is a terminology to explain the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons applicable nuclear technology and information, to nations which are not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also known as the Nuclear Non- proliferation Treaty, or NPT. AGENDA ITEM: Small Arms & Light Weapons (SALW) The terminology of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) covers different and numerous types of weapons which can be either used for private or corporate efforts. Usually, they are easy to obtain and available at a low price. As a result, the spread of SALW is a huge issue states nowadays face. The collective security of states, governments, individuals and other major actors on the international arena is being threatened by SALW. In a focus on the recent event, conflicts and disputes it can be clearly seen that the major weaponry is formed by SALW. Approximate numbers clearly reflect that half a million people have been killed by SALW, more than half of them being in armed conflicts. While this SALW weaponry is being used, its spread is an external issue which is observed separately by international organizations. Together with the abovementioned developments, a clear distinction between armed conflict and criminal activity becomes increasingly invisible out of a sudden. Conclusively, collective and widespread human rights’ abuses are caused and executed on a large scale, which grabs the attention of international actors such as the United Nations, European Union and/or other IOs and NGOs. Ways to combat the dangers and threats of Small Arms and Light Weapons are issued numerously. Through the cut of international flows of illicit trade, the strengthening of the rule of law, persuasion of individuals that SALW for self-defence are not mandatory and other measures it is possible to come across the idea of solving the existing issues and problems. There are several noted sources of the illicit trade of SALW; which include the manufacturing without satisfactory legal permission and/or regulations within the conduct of production, not listed purchase and sales numbers and ammunition by civilians. In order to facilitate the overcome of the trade problem, imports and exports are supposed to be controlled by further measures such as stronger border control and overseas shipment regulations. In addition, embargoes ought to be protected from violations by states themselves and action should be taken in order to improve the security on illegal sales within the country. Small Arms and Light Weapons are clearly the weapons of choice nowadays. In any form of hijacking, attacks on peacekeeping missions or human rights violations; the implication of this ammunition is the case. This uncontrolled and free use of SALW brings up an ever-evolving problem for the world community, which does resist to the changes of societies. It should be pointed out that the use of SALW weaponry increases with the decrease of the type of war. Inter-state wars are strongly affected by SALW use, together with civil wars and rebel activities,
  6. 6. which form the highest percentage of use for these weapons. The less collective the conflict becomes, the more SALW is being used, since it is cheap and fast to obtain. Small Arms and Light Weapons basically threaten peace and its implications. These weapons have been killing an astronomic number of UN staff and workers from IGOs and NGOs; including peacekeeping operators, development workers and even voluntary teachers and medicals. SALW feed the existence of armed violence; they foster the use of weapons even in internal disputes where both parties are originated from the same race and/or ethnic group. Food insecurity, poverty, the limitation of water supply are significant problems in today’s existing balance of health. Armed conflict does cause the majority of these problems, in addition to the already existing ones. It can cause a ban to access the resources, speed up poverty and spam the actions taken for human development. Major economic institutions even display the spread of arms as one of the most important factors in hindering economic future steps. Moreover, some countries still struggle with the responsibilities they have according to the Millennium Development Goals until 2015. As transparency is a big agenda item recently, it is also applicable to the information regarding small arms. Unfortunately, unsatisfactory details are being provided by the responsible. Less is known about the numbers and production details of small arms, than for example of the nuclear industry. Nowadays, the community is informed of nearly all steps of nuclear production, especially after the incidents happened in Japan. When it comes to small arms, a lot of production dossiers are still unclear, trade and legislation measures are invisible. Here, governments and transnational organizations should be called to make steps. On the contrary, some states in which civil wars put themselves in daily order, do not let any information regarding small arms leak outside so as to keep the government stable and refrain from requesting action from the international arena. In less developed countries, these weapons are transported by shipment, always in a small-scale so as to avoid border controls and not grab too much attention. Also, anti- governmental groups may be the distributor for such weaponry, by selling their stock to unnamed buyers in the country of conflict. AGENDA ITEM: Nuclear Weapons & Nuclear Proliferation In the 21st century, many states follow the trend of strengthening their capacity of nuclear arsenal. This may be applicable to nuclear weaponry and its linked proliferation of nuclear capacity as a reliable source of energy. In 2008, the Secretary-General has stated in a related report that this issue cannot be solved and examined by only talking about arms control measures, but also within the context of government policies regarding human rights, crime and the health and security implications related to it. With the need to improve themselves in nuclear power, states have to engage in improvements and developments in their related technology. Years ago, major actors distributed to the rest of the world that they are capable of developing their technology in such a way that they obtain full control over the source. This is a point many medium actors plan to achieve, nonetheless, this is not a possible goal for any state in the realistic order. It can be clearly seen that the trend of nuclear technology slowly is shifting to the East, considering Asia and Southeast Asia as major developing countries in regards to nuclear capacity. In the past,
  7. 7. when talking about Asia, there were not any highlighted states possessing satisfactory nuclear power. Now Pakistan and India are the first two states which lead the list of nuclear strength in Asia, followed by North Korea and its harsh foreign political decision regarding it; also known as “rouge states” in world politics. States like South Korea and Taiwan are also set on the list, however have not confirmed their capacity. The concept of nuclear proliferation includes any kind of effort to spread nuclear capability to other states over the globe. Also, know-how regarding nuclear technology, how to set it up or any information which is needed to possess related weapons is considered to be material for proliferation. Proliferation is the case when this abovementioned items and information are spread over to states which are not recognized by the Non-Proliferation Treaty, so-called “States of Nuclear Weapon”. Non-Proliferation efforts have been executed by major actors and institutions all over the world, including the United Nations and its sub-organs. The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the International Atomic Energy Agency are well-known developments regarding this issue. The World Nuclear Association has put forward safeguards to prevent nuclear proliferation, so as to meet the operational demand of solving the issue by means of several pathways and formations. Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) The Non-Proliferation Treaty is an international agreement with the aim to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons, technology and information related to it to non-nuclear states. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Literature talking about nuclear energy and its implications will at some mention the International Atomic Energy Agency. The IAEA is an international institution which aims the peaceful use of nuclear energy on the globe. It is strongly against nuclear weapons and its use for bad purposes and was established in1957 as an independent actor. The distribution of nuclear capacity as arms is a very controversial study which was conducted by numerous institutions and issued on many documents. Fact is that 7 nations have officially declared their possession of nuclear weapons and its technology yet; which are France, China, the Great Britain, and the Unites States of America, Pakistan and India. Atomic Energy Agency was founded in 1957, which created a tie and strong relationship between the United Nations and other states and actors. As a result, the UN started to receive annual and gradual reports in which the current situation is clearly demonstrated and future prospects can be made according to daily figures and examples. It is clear that improvements in international transparency and communication between states are some of the key elements in solving this issue. UN’s Role in Combating the Proliferation The United Nations, the biggest intergovernmental entity in the world, has made many efforts to hinder further spread of nuclear weapons. The UN has established the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), so as to carry out the related missions and prospect to achieve all mentioned goals and purposes. The UN General Assembly has issued the first resolution regarding this issue in 1946, which aimed to establish a Commission to deal with the detailed prospects of nuclear proliferation.
  8. 8. The UN has issued a “Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects” which was adopted in 2001. It includes suggestions and solutions by the UN at national, regional and global levels. With the belief that democracies will leave big decisions to their peoples, the current efforts of the UN will hopefully result in fruitful and realistic peace building resolutions. NATO and Nuclear Weapons & Disarmament: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has always been strongly committed to effective policies on collective safety and security. Together with its agenda on smart defence, NATO fulfils duties on the establishment of weapon-free zone and natural habitats. In terms of disarmament, NATO itself does not stand as a part of any treaty or agreement, but it encourages its allies and partners to do so. It allocates funds and sets up programmes to help the states in need to get to a point where they can actively engage in the discipline of disarmament. Its duties are built up on consultation services and execution in practical manner, on field if necessary. Their conventional arms control programmes are being conducted so as to promote disarmament, especially for SALW and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs), which obviously include nuclear weapons. One of NATO’s senior bodies, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG), is in charge of any matter regarding nuclear activities, their outcome and/or implications on state actors. New developments and possible solutions to problems are regularly discussed by a meeting of the Defense Ministers of each and every member state of the Alliance, except the French representative. In the recent years, most of the focuses of the NPG stood on the security of nuclear weapons and their production. After all, although NATO had stated that nuclear weapons will remain in Europe for an indefinite time, its policy drastically changed towards a less reliant power strategy. Its nuclear capability has shifted from against any state to a secure back-up position, which only allows the use of them in very rare and extreme situations. They do remain as a source of power for NATO, however, they build up more of a fundament rather than posing a threat to any other party. Keeping in politically, NATO defines its nuclear capacity as a trigger to promote peace and security on the globe, especially by disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.