IntroductionA product is introduced among consumers, and ifconsumers perceive it as meeting their needs and want, itexperiences a period of growth. Subsequently, it reachesthe stage of maturity and when it loses its appeal, itsdecline starts and eventually is may be taken off themarket (demise). The classical product life cycle curvesare depicted as “S” shaped and generally divided in fourstages: Introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.
Common Product Life Curves Sale Sales Sales s Time Time Time (a) Growth-Decline (b) Cycle-Recycle Pattern (c) Innovative Maturity orl plateau Scalloped Pattern
Common Product Life CurvesSales ProfitsLoss Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Time (d) Classical Life Cycle Pattern
Introduction StageThe introductory stage is viewed as fairly risky and quite expensivebecause large amounts of money is spent on advertising and othertools of marketing communications to create consumer awarenessin sufficiently large numbers, and encourage trial.3D Televisions: 3D may have been around for a few decades, butonly after considerable investment from broadcasters andtechnology companies are 3D TVs available for the home,providing a good example of a product that is in the IntroductionStage.
Introduction Stage of the PLC Sales Low sales Costs High cost per customer Profits Negative Create product awarenessMarketing Objectives and trial Product Offer a basic product Price Use cost-plus Distribution Build selective distribution Build product awareness Advertising among early adopters and dealers
Growth StageThe growth stage of life cycle is characterised by a sharp risein sales. Only a small percentage of new products introducedsurvive to reach the growth stage.Tablet PCs: There are a growing number of tablet PCs forconsumers to choose from, as this product passes through theGrowth stage of the cycle and more competitors start to comeinto a market that really developed after the launch of Apple’siPad. Another example is NANO car.
Growth Stage of the PLC Sales Rapidly rising sales Costs Average cost per customer Profits Rising profitsMarketing Objectives Maximize market share Product Offer product extensions, service, warranty Price Price to penetrate market Distribution Build intensive distribution Advertising Build awareness and interest in the mass market
Maturity StageMost products after surviving competitive battles, winningcustomer confidence and successful through growth phase entertheir maturity stage. The sales plateau, and this flattening ofsales usually lasts for some time because most products in thecategory have reached their maturity stage, and there is stabilityin terms of demand, technology, and competition.Laptops: Laptop computers have been around for a number ofyears, but more advanced components, as well as diversefeatures that appeal to different segments of the market, will helpto sustain this product as it passes through the Maturity stage.
Maturity Stage of the PLC Peak sales Sales Costs Low cost per customer Profits Maximize profit while High profits defending Marketing Objectives market share Product Diversify brand and models Price to match or best Price competitors Build more intensive Distribution distribution Advertising Stress brand differences and benefits
Decline StageDecline stage sets in when customer preferences change due to theavailability of technologically superior products and consumers’ shift invalues, beliefs, and tastes to products offering more value.
Decline Stage of the PLC Declining sales Sales Low cost per customer Costs Declining profits Profits Reduce expenditure and milk Marketing Objectives the brand Phase out weak items Product Cut price Price Go selective: phase out Distribution unprofitable outlets Reduce to level needed to Advertising retain hard-core loyal customers
Implications and Limitations of Product LifeCycle ConceptProduct life cycle concept shows a framework to spot the occurrenceof opportunities and threats in a product market and the industry. Thiscan help firms to reassess their objectives, strategies, and differentelements of marketing programme.
Introduction- HULHindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is Indiaslargest FMCG company, touching the lives oftwo out of three Indians with over 20 distinctcategories in home & personal care productsand food & beverages.
INTRODUCTION-LUX 1960 LUX went colored 1929 LUX launched in 1925 India LUX launched in USA as 1916 Toilet soapLUX launched in USA asLaundry soap
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
Introduction (1929- 1950s)Company Objectives Actions Sales Low Cost of manufacturing High Profits Negative Marketing Objective Create product awareness in major cities Product strategy Offer a basic product Price strategy Higher than Lifebuoy Distribution Created network in major cities Advertising strategy Awareness among early adopters.
Growth- (1950s- 1990s)Company Objectives Actions Sales Rising SalesCost of manufacturing Average cost reduction Profits Positively increasing Marketing Objective Maximise market share Product strategy Offer variants Price strategy To penetrate the market Distribution Intensive network in the entire country Advertising strategy Awareness an interest in mass market
Maturity-(1990s to till date )Company Objectives Actions Sales Peak sales Cost of manufacturing Low Profits High Marketing Objective Maximize profit while defending market share Product strategy Diversify brand Price strategy To match the nearest competitor Distribution More intensive focusing on rural area Advertising strategy Multiple brand ambassadors for different variants.