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  • 1. INFORMATION TO USERS This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm master. UMI films the text directly from the original or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and dissertation copies are in typewriterface, while others may be from any type of computer printer. The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adversely affect reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send UMI a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Oversize materials (e.g., maps, drawings, charts) are reproduced by sectioning the original, beginning at the upper left-hand comer and continuing from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps. ProQuest Information and Learning 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 USA 800-521-0600 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 2. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 3. CLASSROOM TEACHERS' BELIEFS ABOUT CURRICULUM PARADIGMS IN ART EDUCATION A dissertation Presented to The faculty of the Graduate School University of Missouri-Columbia In Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy by TOLULOPE O. FILANI Dr. Larry Kantner, Dissertation Supervisor DECEMBER 2003 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 4. UMI Number 3115544 Copyright 2004 by Filani, Tolulope O. All rights reserved. ___ ® UMI UMI Microform 3115544 Copyright 2004 by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. ProQuest Information and Learning Company 300 North Zeeb Road P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 5. The undersigned, appointed by the Dean ofthe Graduate School have examined the dissertation entitled CLASSROOM TEACHERS’BELIEFS ABOUT CURRICULUM PARADIGMS IN ART EDUCATION Presented by Tolulope O. Filani A candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy And hereby certify that in their opinion it is worthy of acceptance 4. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks to: God Almighty, for His everlasting Love for me; it is by His Mercy and Grace that I am able to accomplish this study. Dr. Larry Kantner, my advisor and dissertation supervisor, for his fatherly love, mentorship, encouragement and support through the many dark tunnels I passed while I traveled this road. I am specially blessed for this giant to afford me a space atop of his shoulders that I may see further into the horizon. All my dissertation committee members, Dr. Karen Cockrell; Dr. Martin Bergee; Dr. Linda Bennett; and Professor Jim Calvin, for their invaluable support, guidance and help through out the period I worked on this study. I thank them for their encouragement and insightful contributions during the entire period. My fellow doctoral students who provided warm support during my study at the University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. My friends, Tayo Onadehin; Dr. Sam Ogunbo; Dr. Sam Jator; Yvonne Matthews; Professor Sharon Johnson; Bisi Kolawole; Dr. Mick Luehman; Dr. Kathy Unrath; and Ronke Atoyebi, for the various contributions I received from them when I traveled thisjourney. Professor Olusegun Areola, my father in the Lord, for his candid comments, time and energy spent in editing this work. Mrs Yetunde Ijarotimi and Dr. Olaolu Ijarotimi for setting my feet on the path of education. My wonderful family members, Mosunmola (wife); Tolu Jr. (son); Toyosi (son); and Funto (daughter) for standing firmly by me through the very many trying periods I took them through in the course of my study. Lastly, I thank my parents, Jacob Ogunmoroti Filani and Victoria Olabamgbe Filani, for bringing me into this world. Both ofyou may be dead in body; your collective spirits live on in me. I dedicate this work to your memories. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 7. CLASSROOM TEACHERS' BELIEFS ABOUT CURRICULUM PARADIGMS IN ART EDUCATION Tolulope 0. Filani Dr. Larry Kantner, Dissertation Supervisor ABSTRACT This is a descriptive study designed primarily to provide a comprehensive account of elementary classroom teachers' beliefs about three art education paradigms in Lagos State, Nigeria. These paradigms are, child-centered, discipline based art education- centered (DBAE) and the Nigerian styled cultural arts education curriculum. The study is driven by a practical need, which is to improve art education in Nigeria. Currently, art education in Nigeria is faced with a number of acute problems. One of such is the exclusion of classroom teachers from the process of curriculum development, which they are mandated to implement. This problem is further exacerbated by lack of sound professional training by many of the teachers, as teacher education in many Nigerian teacher-training colleges does not include studies in the visual arts. Consequently, many ofthe teachers lack the necessary professional expertise to adapt. Nwangboje (1993) described the current state of art education in Nigeria as very poor. This problem represents the area of formal investigation in this study. The main research question addressed in this study is: What are the implications ofLagos state classroom teachers’ beliefs about three paradigms in art education - (child- centered, discipline-based art education-centered, and cultural arts education-centered) for the development and implementation of a comprehensive art education curriculum? The main research question is served by three sub-questions: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 8. (a) Do elementary classroom teachers in Lagos state believe that curriculum considerations in art education should be based solely on one of the following: art as a tool to foster creative and artistic development in children; an avenue to advance art as an academic discipline; and art as a means to promote cultural awareness in the larger society? (b) How knowledgeable are Lagos state classroom teachers about the current Nigerian cultural arts education curriculum? (c) What other art education concepts and ideas different from the three paradigms in this study do Lagos state classroom teachers believe should be emphasized in a Nigerian art education curriculum? A survey was designed and mailed to 1,080, randomly selected classroom teachers who at the time ofthe study were largely responsible for teaching elementary visual arts in Lagos state, Nigeria. The questionnaire used a five-point Likert scale and a two-point scale as measurement tools. The survey was used to obtain: (a) classroom teachers’ beliefs about three popular curriculum and instructional paradigms in art education for a comprehensive art education curriculum; (b) classroom teachers’ levels of understanding for the nationally prescribed cultural arts education curriculum and the scope of its application in the classrooms; (c) curriculum and instructional concepts held by classroom teachers different from those stipulated in the national cultural arts curriculum. Categories on the questionnaire consisted of: (a) thirty-nine educational belief inventories about the three paradigms; (b) ten belief statements about Nigerian cultural arts education curriculum standards; (c) one open-ended question concerning other art Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 9. education ideas and concepts held by the teachers; and (d) seven demographic inventory statements. Based on the major findings ofthis study the following conclusions may be drawn: (a) The pattern ofbeliefs, demonstrated by the majority ofthe elementary classroom teachers in Lagos state does not show significant commitment to any particular one of the three art education paradigms (child-centered, DBAE-centered and the Nigerian styled culture-centered). (b) The majority of the teachers tend toward the “fusion” theory or the confluence principle- a conception in curriculum development whereby ideas and concepts across paradigms are integrated to form a broad-based and holistic archetype. In other words, the majority ofthe Lagos state classroom teachers believe that curriculum and instructional concepts should be drawn largely from within and across the three paradigms where and when possible. Thus, it may be concluded that the majority ofthe classroom teachers in Lagos state, Nigeria, believe that the comprehensive/holistic curriculum approach is a more rational curriculum orientation for Nigeria at this time. (c) The implication ofthe fusion theory for curriculum development in art education is that the fusion principle is the fundamental governing rule in the comprehensive/holistic curriculum orientation. Incidentally, the comprehensive art education curriculum paradigm is an offshoot ofthe DBAE-centered paradigm Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 10. vii (Smith, 2002); which explains the similarities between the two orientations. In much of the literature reviewed for this study, some scholars like Smith (2002); Dobbs (1998); Delacruz (1997); and Wilson (1997) remarked that the DBAE- centered paradigm is synonymous with the comprehensive art education curriculum paradigm. Sometimes, these scholars use the two paradigms interchangeably. (d) The patterns ofthe teachers' beliefs as expressed about the three paradigms are not consistent enough to show sound academic knowledge ofthe art education discipline on the part of the teachers. Therefore, many of the expressed beliefs by the teachers may be regarded as mere academic guesses and personal opinions based on anecdotal experiences. (e) Due to incongruency ofviews concerning the teachers' knowledge ofthe prescribed Nigerian cultural arts education curriculum in part two of the survey, it can be concluded that the majority of the teachers are not familiar with the curriculum. Also, it can be concluded that the majority of the teachers do not actually base instructions in their respective arts classes strictly on the Nigerian cultural arts education curriculum. (f) Based on the comments and suggestions expressed by the teachers, it may be concluded that art education in Lagos state is not completely free ofproblems. The areas of concern to the teachers are listed as follows: poor funding for the Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 11. visual arts; lack of currency in the teacher education; lack of art materials and modem equipments in the schools; scarcity of qualified visual art specialists; lack of supervisory body(s) to monitor practices in art education; lack of coherent in- service training programs for teachers in the visual arts; exclusion ofteachers from the process ofcurriculum development; and lack of incentives for both teachers and students in the visual art disciplines. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 12. LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Distribution of the 39 Statements in Relation to the three Paradigms and Across the 13 Curriculum and Instructional Concepts 112 2. Purpose of Schooling 113 3. Program Goal 115 4. Curriculum Content 117 5. Curriculum Content 118 6. Motivation 120 7. Teacher’s View of The Learner 122 8. Role ofthe Teacher 124 9. Teacher's Conception ofKnowledge 126 10. Teacher's Conception ofLearning 128 11. Teacher's Perception of Creativity 130 12. The Use of Adult's Works ofArt 132 13. Preferred Method of Assessment by The Teacher 134 14. Program Implementation 136 15. Teachers'Knowledge ofthe Nigerian Cultural Arts Curriculum 139 16. Gender Category 150 17. Years of Teaching at the Elementary Level 150 18. Teachers'Academic Qualifications 151 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 13. 19. Grade Levels Taught by Respondents at the Time of Study 153 20. Classification of School's Location 154 21. Respondents' State of Origin in Alphabetical Order 155 22. Last Attendance of In-service Training, Conference,Seminar and Workshop on Art Education 156 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 14. xi LIST OF FIGURES Figures Page 1. Purpose of Schooling 114 2. Program Goal 116 3. Curriculum Content 118 4. Curriculum Structure 119 5. Motivation 121 6. Teacher's View of the Learner 123 7. Teacher's Role 125 8. Teacher's Conception of Knowledge 127 9. Teacher's Conception of Learning 129 10. Teacher's Perception of Creativity 131 11. The Use of Adults' Works of Art 133 12. Preferred Method of Assessment 135 12. Program Implementation 137 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 15. TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii ABSTRACT iv LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES xi TABLE OF CONTENTS xii Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Statement ofthe Problem 9 Significance ofthe Study 9 Assumptions 11 Limitation of the Study 11 Summary 12 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 14 Introduction 14 Definition of Related Terms 15 Part One- Review of Related Literature 18 Defining Characteristics of the Term Belief 18 The Impact of Teacher's Educational Beliefs on Student’s Academic Achievement 22 Teaching in Art as Defined in Educational Literature 24 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 16. The Role of Teachers in Educational Process 33 Who Can Teach Art More Effectively, Art Specialist or Classroom Teacher 36 Summary: Part One 40 Part Two of Reviewed Literature 41 The Role of Theory in the Development of Curriculum and Instruction 45 Historical Perspectives on the Paradigms 48 Child-centered Paradigm 48 DBAE (Discipline Based Art Education centered) 54 Art Production 57 Aesthetics 58 Art Criticism 58 Art History 59 Nigerian Cultural Arts Curriculum-centered Paradigm 61 Educational Movements, Which Support the Paradigms 63 Expressionist Movement 65 Essentialist Movement 66 Social Reconstructionist Movement 70 Comparative Analysis ofthe Three Curriculum Paradigms 74 Purpose of Schooling 74 Program Goal 75 Content 76 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 17. xiv Curriculum Structure 77 Motivation 78 Teacher's View of the Learner 80 The Role of the Teacher 81 Knowledge 82 Learning 83 Creativity 83 Program Implementation 84 Works ofArt 85 Assessment of Student Learning 86 Implications of the Paradigms for the Development ofa Comprehensive and Holistic Art Education Curriculum in Contemporary Nigeria 88 Summary: Part Two 95 3. Methods and Procedures 96 Introduction 96 Research Questions 97 Main Research Question 97 Sub-question 97 The relationship of Literature Review to Instrument Development 98 Selection ofthe Sample 99 Target Population and Randomization ofthe Sample 99 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 18. XV Randomization of Schools 100 Development ofthe Instrument 101 Survey Instrument: A Mailed Questionnaire 101 Creation and Selection of Questionnaire Items 102 Description of Survey 102 Part One ofthe Questionnaire 103 Part Two of Questionnaire 103 Part Three of Questionnaire 104 Part Four of Questionnaire 104 Content Appropriateness of Questionnaire 104 Pilot Study 105 Method of Measurement 105 Human Subject Review 106 Administration of Survey 107 Survey Distribution and Collection 107 Optimizing Return Rate 108 Data Analysis 108 Summary 109 4. Results and Discussion 110 Analysis of Data "Teachers' Beliefs About the Three Art Education Paradigms" (Part One of Survey) 110 Analysis ofData on "Teachers' Knowledge ofthe Nigerian Styled Cultural Arts Education Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 19. Curriculum" (Part Two Survey) 137 Analysis of Data on Open-ended Question (Part Three of Survey) 142 Analysis ofData on Demographic Profile (Part Four of Survey) 149 Summary 156 5. Summary of Results, Conclusions and Recommendations 158 Introduction 158 Summary of the Results 160 Results 161 Part One of the Survey: Degree of Beliefby Respondents in the Paradigms 161 Part Two ofthe Survey: Teachers' knowledge ofthe Nigerian Styled Cultural Arts Education Curriculum 176 Part Three of The Survey: Open-ended Question 183 Conclusions 185 Recommendations 187 Summary of Chapter Five 192 References 194 APPENDIX 209 Appendix A 209 Consent Letter to Schools' Principals 209 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 20. Appendix B 211 Initial Cover Letter of Questionnaire 211 Appendix C 213 Questionnaire 213 Appendix D 218 Second Follow-up Letter 218 Appendix E 220 Third Follow-up: Postcard 220 Vita 221 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 21. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION It is common knowledge that in every dynamic society, the need to educate citizens often leads to three foundational goals of general education, and by implication, of art education (Chapman, 1978). These goals are, personal fulfillment through education, promoting knowledge, and fostering social consciousness of society, (Hurwitz and Day, 2001; Eisner, 1997; Chapman, 1978). In many industrialized societies ofthe west, particularly the United Kingdom and United States of America (the two occidental countries, which have always influenced modem education in Nigeria), the school is the most important public social institution by which the desired end-goals of art education are achieved. In practice, artistic needs ofthe child, projection ofart as an academic discipline and preservation/promotion of artistic heritage ofthe larger society, are often aligned with school art programs (Eisner, 1997; Chapman, 1978). Eisner (1997) observed that these three dominant concerns often serve as the core responsibilities of art education; any one or more of them generally govern rationale for schools' art programs. He further described the interconnectedness ofthe three factors as a triadic relationship in which one apex represents a child-centered view; the second, a subject-centered view; and the third, a society-centered view. In other words, the three factors serve as the cornerstones for curriculum paradigms in art education. However, many art educators like Eisner (2002,1997), Efland (1976), Taba (1968) and Tyler (1957) discouraged complete dependence on one ofthese factors for quality art education. They suggested a concept ofart education in which the three concerns: personal fulfillment of Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 22. the child through art; promotion of knowledge and appreciation ofart as a subject which includes appreciation ofthe artistic heritage; and the awareness ofthe role of art in the society, are fused together to help “children appreciate the artistry in varied life styles and to wisely shape their own” (Chapman, 1978, p. 18). This approach often guides western curriculum developers, instructional strategists and teacher education planners in their general conception of art education. School art curriculums are developed to reflect these concerns, instructional strategies are designed to resonate them and teachers are adequately trained in consonance with the values. Specifically in America, curriculum content and instructional strategies are usually planned congruent to the three art education concerns (fulfillment ofthe child through learning in the arts, projection ofthe art as academic disciplines and preservation of cultural values in the larger society). While structured curriculum and well-articulated instructional strategies are recognized as pivotal to any adequate conception of art education in many ofthe industrialized societies, efforts are persistently made to ensure quality teaching through constant training of teachers. Quality teaching is recognized and emphasized as a very influential process by which art educational aims and curriculum objectives are successfully implemented in schools (Hurwitz and Day, 2001; Delacruz, 1997; Eisner, 1997). Quality teaching depends largely on competent teachers; therefore, the role of teachers is equally considered very important, particularly among the groups and bodies (administrators, principals, headmasters, and supervisors) that are involved in educational provisions. Teachers are believed to be directly responsible for achieving desirable student outcomes in accordance with set curriculum goals and objectives (Gaudelius & Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 23. Speirs, 2002). To this effect, teacher education is constantly improved to satisfy prevailing social and scientific needs ofthe child, the art discipline and the society. Art education in these societies is not completely immune from all problems, particularly of scarcity of trained art specialists. “Cooperative art teaching” (an arrangement in which available art specialists team-teach with classroom teachers) is usually recommended as a solution to the problem (Hurwitz & Day, 2001, p. 350). The general account of art education presented so far represents a modest situation which many industrialized societies ofthe west, and more specifically the United States of America seek to attain if not already achieved. In addition, it represents a framework, which many scholars, particularly many from developing countries, examine the state of art education in their different societies from time to time. It is against the latter that the remaining part ofthis introduction reflects on the current state of art education in Nigeria. The Federal government ofNigeria is the central body responsible for administering public education. It considers education in the arts as an essential tool for achieving personal fulfillment ofthe child, appreciation of visual art education as a discipline with intellectual potentials through which the society can achieve scientific and industrial growth (Wangboje, 1993). To this effect, in 1977, the government ofNigeria issued a national policy on education in which the goals and objectives of general education are listed thus: (a) The inculcation ofthe right type ofvalues and attitude. (b) Development ofnational consciousness and national unity. (c) Training the mind in understanding the world around. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW
  • 24. 4 (d) The acquisition of appropriate skill, abilities and competencies, both mental and physical, as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of his society (Revised National Policy on Education, 1981, p. 8). The implication ofthis policy for art education led to the promulgation ofa cultural policy in 1988, which stipulates that education through art shall: (a) Promote an educational system that motivates and stimulates creativity and draws largely on our tradition and values, namely: respect for humanity and human dignity, for legitimate authority and the dignity of labor, and respect for positive Nigerian moral and religious values (Cultural Policy for Nigeria, 1988, section 3.3, p. 6). (b) Promote creativity in the fields of arts, science and technology, ensure the continuity oftraditional skills and sports and their progressive updating to serve modem development needs as our contribution to world growth of culture and ideas (Cultural Policy for Nigeria, 1988, section 3.4, p. 6). It is from these policy statements that the current cultural arts education curriculum standards for elementary art schools were derived. The obvious in these policy statements are efforts by the government to use education through art as a tool to achieve for its citizens personal fulfillment, appreciation of art as a subject, and development of awareness for the role of art in society. Many Nigerians applaud this development as a groundbreaking achievement for art education, because, it establishes the discipline as an authentic component ofthe general education subjects. Current studies however, reveal that the implementation of the policies in terms ofpractical applications is far from reaching the original goals (Wangboje, 1993). Art education in Nigeria is presently faced with many problems; in fact, it is near moribund (Wangboje, 1993; Bebeteidoh, 1986; Ntukidem, 1982; Henshaw 1978). Some ofthe problems are outlined as follows: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. PR EVIEW