C.A.L.L by Lacramioara Bordeianu Computer Assisted Language Learning
Computer Assisted Language Learning CALL “ the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning.”
What is CALL? <ul><li>Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is a new form of computer-based learning . </li></ul><ul><li>CALL is not a method. It is a student centered material which promotes self paced learning . </li></ul><ul><li>It is an approach to Language Teaching and Learning in which Computer Technology is used as an aid to the Presentation, Reinforcement and Assessment of material to be learned usually including a substantial interactive element. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of CALL is on learning, and not on teaching </li></ul>
<ul><li>CALL materials are tools that help teachers to facilitate the language learning process </li></ul><ul><li>CALL can be made independent of the Internet or it can stand alone for example in a CDROM format. </li></ul><ul><li>CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency. </li></ul>How is CALL helpful?
CALL is meant to supplement face to face language instruction , not to replace it.
History of CALL <ul><li>Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is not a new development in language teaching, as it has been used since the 1960s and 70s. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of CALL is devided into three distinct phases (Warschauer, 1996): </li></ul><ul><li>behaviourist </li></ul><ul><li>communicative </li></ul><ul><li>integrative. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Behaviourist CALL was implemented in the 1960’s and 70’s, when the Audio-lingual method was mostly used, and provided students with drills and practice. This model used the computer as a tutor , presenting drills and non-judgemental feedback. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Communicative CALL </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses more on using the language rather than on the analysis of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>The communicative CALL programs provide skill practice in a non-drill format, through language games, reading and text reconstruction. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach still uses the computer as a tutor , although it gives students choices, control and interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, communicative CALL also uses the computer as a tool , in programs that do not provide language material, but enable the learner to understand and use the language. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Integrative CALL integrates the teaching of language skills into tasks or projects to provide direction and coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on multimedia computers and the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>These technological developments have brought text, graphics, sound, animation and video. </li></ul><ul><li>These resources are all linked and called ‘hypermedia’, enabling learners to navigate through CD-ROMS and the Internet at their own pace and path, using a variety of media. </li></ul>
Why CALL software? <ul><li>T he reason to buy software is providing an integrated teaching that will: </li></ul><ul><li>pr ovide realistic, native-speaker models of the language in a variety of media; </li></ul><ul><li>offer a language learning curriculum; </li></ul><ul><li>do a needs assessment; </li></ul><ul><li>record what the student has done, along with an evaluation; </li></ul>
Advantages of CALL <ul><li>On a more general note, CALL programs ,besides teaching a foreign language, will provide the learner with some sort of computer literacy, which is becoming essential in our modern society and which could be of great help in future training and career prospects. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between the computer and other pieces of equipment, such as tape recorders and film projectors is its interactive capability as highlighted in the quotation below (cited in Kenning &Kenning: 1983:2): </li></ul><ul><li>"The unique property of the computer as a medium for education is its ability to interact with the student. Books and tape recording can tell a student what the rules are and what the right solutions are, but they cannot analyze the specific mistake the student has made and react in a manner which leads him not only to correct his mistake, but also to understand the principles behind the correct solution . " </li></ul>
<ul><li>The computer gives individual attention to the learner and replies to him. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally it acts as a tutor, assessing the learner's reply, recording it, pointing out mistakes, giving explanations; </li></ul><ul><li>It guides the learner towards the correct answer; </li></ul><ul><li>It offers interactive learning; it can assess the learner's response; </li></ul><ul><li>It can repeat an activity without any of the errors arising from repetition by humans; </li></ul><ul><li>It can handle a very large volume of interaction and can deliver to the student feedback; </li></ul>
Disadvantages of CALL <ul><li>Although computers in language classes have an important role in language learning process, there are some disadvantages of CALL. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers are not very good at teaching themselves, and the software does not run the lesson for the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers are not suitable to all the activities that go on in the classroom; </li></ul><ul><li>Computers cannot conduct open ended dialogues and cannot give feedback to open ended questions; </li></ul><ul><li>It requires competence in the target subject area, pedagogical skills and computing experience; </li></ul><ul><li>It is more tiring to read from a screen than from a printed text; or to scroll the screen than turn over the page . </li></ul>
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>The role of computers in language teaching has changed significantly in the last three decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Previously, computers used in language teaching were limited to text. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple simulations and exercises, primarily gap-filling and multiple-choice drills, abounded. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological and pedagogical developments now allow us to integrate computer technology into the language learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia programs incorporating speech-recognition software can immerse students into rich environments for language practice. </li></ul><ul><li>And the Internet allows for a great number of opportunities to communicate in the target language, access textual and multimedia information, and publish for a global audience. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Since the computer is capable of playing so many different roles in and out of class, it is believed to be the most exciting and potentially useful aid so far available to language teachers and learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Without careful choice and preparation of materials, careful lesson planning and classroom management, and training of both learners and teachers, the computer is useless. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the teacher plays a significant role in implementing the computer into the lesson plan. </li></ul>
<ul><li>According to Higgins (1995), “ the value of CALL is that it allows a richer form of language exploration and play than has ever possible before. The use of computers is compatible with a variety of approaches, methods and techniques of learning and teaching ” . </li></ul><ul><li>Jones & Fortescue (1987) warn that the computer is a resource and not a programmed-learning machine . </li></ul>
Resources <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed, K., Corbett, G., Rogers, M., & Sussex, R. (1985). Computers, language learning and language teaching . Cambridge: CUP Brierley, W. & Kemble, I. (1991). Computers as a tool in language teaching . West Sussex: Ellis Harwood Limited. Blackie, D. (1999) Computers in English language teaching . Exeter: A. Wheaton & Co. Ltd. Chapelle, C. (1990). The discourse of computer-assisted language learning: toward a context for descriptive research. TESOL Quarterly , 24(2):199–225. Crystal, D. (1987). The cambridge encyclopedia of language . New York: CUP. Duber, J. (2000). Computer assisted language learning . </li></ul><ul><li>www-writing.Berkeley.edu /chorus/call/September 2001. Dhaif, H. </li></ul>
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.