Hormones, The Perfect Storm?For Storming the Soccer Field! “Soccer is like a stor m, you just got to get through it and weather it the best you can” –Coach Green· The Endocrine and Nervous system both function to achieve and maintain stability of theinternal environment. In relation to soccer, the coaches are always there to keep the internal structure ofthe team functioning and to keep morale up.· The method in which the endocrine system undergoes its function is by means of chemicalmessengers sent to specific cells. In relation to soccer, the coaches send messages to the players bymeans of hand signs.Hormones:-Structure: To classify ho rmones use their chemical structure. They can be classified simply asSteroid or Nonsteroid.-Function: Hormones can be identified as tropic hormones, sex hormones, anabolic hormones,and many other functional names.Function, Location, and Structures:The Soccer PlayersPituitary Gland-· Function-Crucial are the functions of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that, yearsago, it was referred to as the “master gland”· Location- located within the skull on the ventral surf ace of the brain, it lies in the “pituitaryfossa” of the sella turcica and is covered by a portion of the dura matter called the pituitarydiaphragm.· Structure-a small structure. It measures only 1.2 to 1.5 cm (about ½ ) inch, across. By weightit is even less impressive - only about 0.5 g (1/60 ounce)Pineal Gland-· Structure- a tiny (1 cm or about 3/8 in) pine cone - shaped structure.· Location- located on the dorsal aspect of the brain’s diencephalon region.
· Function- acts as a part of the nervous system ( it receives visual nerve stimuli) and as apart of the endocrine system (it secretes a hormone)Thyroid Gland-· Structure- the weight of the gland in the adult is variable, but it’s around 30 g (1 oz)· Location- in the neck , on the anterior and lateral surfaces of the trachea, just below thelarynx· Hormone- has two different hormones. The most abundant TH is “tetraiodothyronine”(T4) or“thyroxine” (T3) The other is call ed “triiodothyronine”. The T4 contains four iodine atoms, andone molecule of T3 contains three iodine atomsParathyroid Glands-· Structure- there are usually four or five “parathyroid glands” embedded in the posteriorsurface of the thyroid’s lat eral lobes.· Hormone- PTH is and antagonist to calcitonin and so helps maintain calcium homeostasis.· Location- within thyroid tissue formed by compact, irregular rows of cells· Function- Maintain of calcium homeostasis, achieved through the interaction of the PTH andcalcitonin, is very important for healthy survival.Adrenal gland-· Functions: adrenal cortex parasympathetic controls diet, adrenal medulla sympathetic,“fight or flight”.· Located atop the kidneys.· Hormones: aldosterone, cortisol, adrenal androgens, adrenal estrogens, epinephrine,norepinephrine.Pancreatic Islets-· Function: hormone producing areas in the pancreas.· Structure: About 2% or 3% of total mass of the pancrea s, surrounded by cells called acini.· Hormones: glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptideGonads- primary sex organs· testes-o structure: pair of organs within a sac of skin that hangs from the groin area of the trunko Function: responsible for the growth and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and forsperm production
· ovaries-o structure: set of paired glands in the pelvis, produce several types of sex hormoneso Function: produce hormones that de velop and maintain female sexual characteristics andmaintains the lining of the uterus necessary for successful pregnancy.o Hormones: testosterone, estrogens, progesteronePlacenta-o Structure: is the tissue that forms on the lining of the uterus as an interface between thecirculatory systems of the mother and developing childo Function: stimulates development and hormone secretion by maternal ovarian tissues. Hormone: Human Chorionic Gonadotropin1. Thymus· Location: Mediastinum, just beneath the sternum· Hormones produced: thymosin, thymopoietin (largely responsible for endocrine activity)· Function: Two families of peptides that, together, are have a vital role in development of theimmune system. Thought to simulate the production of specialized lymphocytes, T cells, involvedin immune responses2. Gastric and intestinal mucosa : Holding your nerves on the F ield· Location: mucous in the lining of the gastro intestinal (GI) tract· Hormones produced: gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK)· Function: regulatory roles in coordinating the secretory and motor activities involved inthe digestion process3. Heart of a Futbol Champ• Location: the mediastinum• Hormones produced: atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH), secreted in the upper chamber of theheart. Can also be known as atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide, or simplyatrial peptide.• Function: Atrial cells increase their secretion of ANH in response to an increase in the stretchof the atrial wall caused by abnormally high blood volume or blood pressure. The primary effectof ANH is to oppose increases in blood volume or blood pressure ANH is an antago nist to ADH andaldosterone.
Pancreatic IsletsGlucagon Pancreatic islets (alpha [a] cells or A cells)Insulin Pancreatic islets (beta [b] cells or B cells)Somatostain Pancreatis islets (delta [d] cells or D cells)Pancreatic polypeptide Pancreatic islets (pancreatic polypeptide [PP] oTarget Principal ActionAdenohypophysis (somatotrophs) Stimulates secretion (release) of growth hormoneAdenohypophysis (somatotrophs) Inhibits secretion of growth hormoneAdenohypophysis (corticotrophs) Stimulates release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)Adenohypophysis (thyrotrophs) Stimulates release of thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH)Adenohypophysis (gonadotrophs) Stimulates release of gonadotrophins (FSH and LH)Adenohypophysis (corticotrophs) Stimulates secretion of prolactinAdenohypophysis (corticotrophs) Inhibits secretion of prolactinGeneral Promotes growth by stimulating protein anabolism and fat motabMammary glands (alveolar secretory cells) Promotes milk secretionThyroid gland Stimulates development and secretion in the thyroid glandAdrenal cortex Promotes development and secretion in the adrenal cortexGonads (primary sex organs) Female: promotes development of ovarian follicle; simulates estro Male: promotes development of testies; stimulates sperm productGonads Female: triggers ovulation; promotes development of corpus luteu Male: stimulates production of testosteroneKidney Promotes water retention by kidney tubulesUterus and mammary glands Stimulates uterine contractions; stimulates ejection of milk into maGeneral Increases rate of metabalolismGeneral Increases rate of metabalolism (usually converted to T₃ first)Bone tissue Increases calcium storage in the bone, lowering blood Caᶧᶧ levelsBone tissue and kidney Increases calcium removal from storage in bone and produces thKidney Stimulates kidney tubules to conserve sodium, which triggers the rGeneral Influences metabolism of food molecules; in large amountsSex organs, other effectors Exact role uncertain, but may support sexual functionSex organs Thought to be physiologically insignificantSympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division ofSympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division ofGeneral Promotes movement of glucose from storage and into the blood