Survival - First Aid Awareness - 715Squadron

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Basic First Aid in Survival Situations

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Survival - First Aid Awareness - 715Squadron

  1. 1. Survival First Aid Awareness Survival Advanced CUO Tonya Gentry-Brown Mar 2011
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the symptoms and basic treatment for: </li></ul><ul><li>Common injuries, cuts, bruises and sprains </li></ul><ul><li>Stings and bites </li></ul><ul><li>Broken bones </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Snake bite </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthermia and frostbite </li></ul><ul><li>Heat stress and sunstroke </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration, and </li></ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Extra care to avoid injury and illness </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to improvise when applying First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Methods can be varied based on different circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Need to use initiative to make the treatment suit </li></ul>
  4. 4. Minor Injuries <ul><li>Cuts, bruising and sprains </li></ul><ul><li>Must not be taken lightly </li></ul><ul><li>Broken skin (cuts and lacerations) can easily become infected causing secondary problems </li></ul><ul><li>Open wounds must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoroughly cleaned (boiled and salted water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disinfected ( applied around wound) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>covered </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Stiches (Suturing a wound) <ul><li>Deep cuts may require stitches </li></ul><ul><li>W/ sterilised needle and thread </li></ul><ul><li>Make each stitch individually </li></ul><ul><li>Begin across middle of wound </li></ul><ul><li>Draw edges together then tie off </li></ul><ul><li>Continue outwards </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bruises <ul><li>Caused by blow or fall against hard object </li></ul><ul><li>Causing bleeding into deep tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Can be known as closed tissue wound </li></ul><ul><li>Bad bruising treatment is cold compress </li></ul><ul><li>Ice (if available) for 15-20mins </li></ul><ul><li>Rest and if on limb, elevate </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sprains <ul><li>Usually wrist, fingers or ankle </li></ul><ul><li>When joint is forced into an unusual position </li></ul><ul><li>Treat as you would bruising </li></ul><ul><li>Apply firm bandage at joint </li></ul><ul><li>Ice over bandage for 20 mins </li></ul><ul><li>Injury recovery usually 24-28 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Raise injured part to reduce swelling </li></ul>
  8. 8. Blisters <ul><li>Leave alone </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention is best (e.g. Break boots in prior to camp) </li></ul><ul><li>If inside shoe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent further rubbing w/ sticking plaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change socks daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beware of hot spots </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Bleeding <ul><li>Effects of serious blood loss almost simultaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Cause shock very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>In Young Adults the loss of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.5L (dizziness) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1L (faintness) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5L (collapse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.2L (possible fatality) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Main Types of Bleeding <ul><li>Arterial </li></ul><ul><li>Venous </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul>
  11. 11. Arterial Bleeding <ul><li>Pumps out in powerful spurts </li></ul><ul><li>In time w/ victim’s pulse rate </li></ul><ul><li>Most serious type </li></ul><ul><li>Must be treated promptly </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Bleeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply pressure to points of artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or use a constrictive bandage </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Using Constrictive Bandage <ul><li>Strip of firm cloth (7.5cm wide, 75cm long) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvise with clothing or triangular bandage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bind firmly above bleeding point until pulse can’t be felt beyond bandage. Tie Firmly. </li></ul><ul><li>Note time of application </li></ul><ul><li>After 30mins release bandage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No bleeding – remove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleeding reapply check every 30 mins </li></ul></ul>Ensure bandage is visible and inform medical aid of location and time of application
  13. 13. Venous Bleeding <ul><li>Blood darker, flow slower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit more time to treat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apply pressure directly over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use padded bandage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or shell dressing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When bleeding under control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind firmly in place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later, when bleeding stopped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean, sterilise and dress </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Capillary Bleeding <ul><li>Only appears in drops from small blood vessels near surface </li></ul><ul><li>Usually clot fairly quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Should be dressed and treated as for a minor cut </li></ul>
  15. 15. Internal Bleeding <ul><li>Occurs as a result of a deep wound, violent blow to body and from fractures to bones </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bruising of skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood in urine/faeces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vomiting or coughing up blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant nursing attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lay down, legs slightly raised, loosen tight clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not give anything by mouth </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Treatment for External Bleeding <ul><li>Pick off any foreign bodies and wipe off with dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Wash wound and area around it </li></ul><ul><li>Press sides of wound together </li></ul><ul><li>Place sterile pad or adhesive dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Apply pressure by hand or bandage </li></ul><ul><li>Clean folded handkerchief sterilised w/ boiling water or alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t give patient any stimulant until bleeding has stopped, keep them quiet and reassured </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pressure Points – Constrictive Bandage
  18. 18. Snake Bite <ul><li>All bites should be taken seriously </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention is best defence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If in known snake country - dress accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect legs and feet (especially if moving through shrubs or long grass) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Snakes are masters of camouflage – often very hard to detect </li></ul>
  19. 19. Venomous Australian Snakes <ul><li>Death Adder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brownish, reddish or grey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 45-60cm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandy Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly Venomous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aust Black Snake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 1.5-2m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluish-black, slender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bright red belly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely fatal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flattens neck when aroused </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Aust Brown Snake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slender, yellowish-grey to brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>w/ pale belly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Averages 1.5-2m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drier parts of Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive and very poisonous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tiger Snake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 1.3-1.6m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick bodied, large head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tawny-ochre banded w/ greenish-yellow, grey or orange-brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive and very poisonous </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Taipan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformly light to dark brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowish-brown on sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May grow to 3.5m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferocious when provoked, deadly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sea Snake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian and Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partly terrestrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in colour and size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 1.3-1.5m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flattened paddle like tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not aggressive but some of most poisonous in world </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Snake Bites - Treatment <ul><li>Limb usually hand, arm or leg </li></ul><ul><li>Place in resting position w/ injury below heart level (Check airway, breathing, circulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Apply pressure immobilisation bandage above bitten area, down to end of limb, then back up to groin/armpit </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Bandage should be tight enough to depress the skin but not stop blood flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose – restrict spread of toxins through lymphatic system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immobilise by splinting (outside of bandage) </li></ul><ul><li>Continually monitor breathing and pulse rate (apply CPR if required) </li></ul><ul><li>Better to move medics to patient than move them </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure they don’t move </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>... wash venom off the skin as retained venom will assist w/ identification </li></ul><ul><li>... cut bitten area </li></ul><ul><li>... try to suck venom out of wound </li></ul><ul><li>... use constrictive bandage </li></ul><ul><li>... try to catch the snake </li></ul>Snake Bites – Do Not:
  25. 25. Sting and Bites <ul><li>Most insect bites painful but not life threatening (w/ exception or Funnel Web and Red Back) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms and treatment for 5 most common </li></ul>
  26. 26. Bee <ul><li>Stings barbed end, usually left behind in flesh w/ venom sac attached </li></ul><ul><li>Sting – immediate pain, causes area to become red and puffy </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid injecting more venom – scrape sting sideways w/ knife blade (DON’T PINCH OUT) </li></ul><ul><li>After sting is removed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipe area clean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply cold compress and/or pain relief agent (‘Stingoes’) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Bee – In case of allergic reaction <ul><li>If has history or shows following reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rash, lumps on skin, swelling of throat or wheezing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treat as follows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check responses, airway, breathing, circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply pressure bandage and immobilise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodically observe and record pulse and breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication administered immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out CR if breathing/circulation stops </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. European Wasp <ul><li>Only become serious threat in last few years </li></ul><ul><li>Wasp does not leave sting behind (may strike several times – causing severe pain) </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted to meat cooking, rotting meat and sweet drinks (sometimes trapped in soft drink cans) </li></ul><ul><li>Stinging in mouth/throat cause swelling and blockage of airway </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is as for a bee </li></ul>
  29. 29. Tick <ul><li>Prevalent in most parts of Australia (species that causes paralysis - mainly eastern coastal) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually attach in folds of skin or body crevices </li></ul><ul><li>Most human cases bite causes discomfort or local irritation of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause paralysis (especially in small children) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of serious tick bite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness of upper face and eyelids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness in upper limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness of muscles which aid breathing </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Ticks – Bite Management <ul><li>If in ear cavity kill tick and seek medical aid </li></ul><ul><li>Drop of turpentine/kerosene/methylated spirits directly on body </li></ul><ul><li>Removing tick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not squeeze body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide pair of scissors/tweezers either side of head and draw out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not leave mouth parts in victim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search for more ticks (pay attn to hair, ears, under arms and other crevices) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not apply pressure immobilisation </li></ul>
  31. 31. Scorpion <ul><li>Australian species usually not life threatening but do cause severe pain </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate sense of burning pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throbbing and later numbness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply cold pack or compress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek medical Aid </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Funnel Web Spider <ul><li>Mainly Sydney and coastal areas of NSW </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabits rock crevices, burrows, under houses, bushes/trees </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense pain around area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea, abdominal pain, breathing difficulty, numbness, muscular weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive saliva, noisy breathing, weeping from eyes, cold skin, shivering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment as for snake bite </li></ul>
  33. 33. Red Back Spider <ul><li>Usually found in dark undisturbed places (e.g. old logs, under eaves of buildings, discarded tyres/iron etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Slow working venom </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms – pain, nausea, dizziness, faintness, muscle weakness, profuse sweating, swelling, rapid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment - Reassure casualty, apply cold pack, seek medical aid </li></ul>
  34. 34. Fractures <ul><li>Types, causes, symptoms and treatment concerning fractures are many and varied </li></ul><ul><li>Three common types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Fracture (broken through but not penetrated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Fracture (broken bone protruded through) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated Fracture (w/ associated injury to major nerve, blood vessels or vital organ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No attempt should be made to force fracture back in place </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Fractures - Symptoms <ul><li>Pain Swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Deformity in area </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Function </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding (if open) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible shock </li></ul>
  36. 36. Fracture - Treatment <ul><li>Should be evacuated </li></ul><ul><li>In survival situation – nursing care probably best </li></ul><ul><li>Make casualty comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Check pulse and circulation of injured limb </li></ul><ul><li>Stop bleeding (if wound or open) </li></ul><ul><li>Splint and immobilise </li></ul><ul><li>Treat for shock </li></ul>
  37. 38. Burns <ul><li>3 stages of burns will have varying effects </li></ul><ul><li>Deep burns - contact w/ flame - causes charring and destruction of tissue/bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little initial pain – often due to nerve endings being seared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superficial Burns – flesh not destroyed but will redden and possibly blister </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually very painful, may cause shock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scalds – caused by hot liquid, similar symptoms as superficial </li></ul>
  38. 39. Burns - Treatment <ul><li>Remove from further danger </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly extinguish burning matter on victim (remove any hot, smouldering clothing) </li></ul><ul><li>If not stuck to the skin cut it away </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure airway is clear (if to face or neck) </li></ul><ul><li>Cool the burn area by holding under cold water (usually 10-20mins or when pain no longer felt) </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>When burn is cooled should be left open </li></ul><ul><li>If risk of infection – apply dry, non stick, sterile dressing </li></ul><ul><li>If injury to feet/hands place dry padding between to prevent from sticking together </li></ul><ul><li>Give patient frequent small amounts of water to drink – fluids will need to be replaced </li></ul>
  40. 41. Heat Stress <ul><li>When the body’s cooling system fails to function properly </li></ul><ul><li>Through effects of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to a hot/humid environment and/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive physical exertion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three conditions of heat stress may occur (from least to most serious) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Cramp, Exhaustion, Stroke </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Heat Cramp <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea (possible vomiting), dizziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cramps in stomach, arms, legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle twitching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling of weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be taken as warning that a more serious condition may develop if not treated </li></ul>
  42. 43. Heat Cramp - Treatment <ul><li>Rest in cool shady area (at least cover from direct sunlight) </li></ul><ul><li>Replace fluids (small, frequent drinks of water) </li></ul><ul><li>Place cold compress over affected muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Keep at rest </li></ul><ul><li>In survival situation – may be caused by over exertion, employ on light duties until recovered </li></ul>
  43. 44. Heat Exhaustion <ul><li>Body gaining more heat than it’s losing (temperature regulating system is starting to break down) </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling of weakness and exhaustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling hot and tired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive sweating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cramps, rapid pulse/breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffer a lack of coordination and mental confusion </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Heat Exhaustion - Treatment <ul><li>Lay in cool shaded place (preferably good air circulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Remove excess clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually cool by sponging w/ water </li></ul><ul><li>Relace fluid loss </li></ul><ul><li>Rest patient (as for heat cramp) </li></ul><ul><li>If patient doesn’t respond seek medical aid – treat for heat stroke </li></ul>
  45. 46. Heat Stroke <ul><li>Medical Emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature regulating system has failed and body cannot cope w/ any more heat gain </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pounding and rapid pulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin flushed but dry (cease to sweat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp rise in temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache, disorientation, seizures and unconsciousness </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Heat Stroke - Treatment <ul><li>Remove to shaded location </li></ul><ul><li>Douse w/ cold water </li></ul><ul><li>If unconscious, place in recovery position </li></ul><ul><li>Loosen and/or remove any tight or excess clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Fan to increase air flow </li></ul><ul><li>Apply cold packs to groin/armpits/neck </li></ul><ul><li>When fully conscious give fluid and continue cooling (until body feels cool to touch) </li></ul>
  47. 48. Dehydration <ul><li>Caused by loss of water from body due to persistent vomiting, diarrhoea, excessive sweating, severe burns or increased urination </li></ul><ul><li>Or less than required water intake </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry skin, tongue and lining of mouth becomes dry, eyes sunken, urine dark, confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit in shade, loosen clothing, give small sips of water </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Hypothermia and Frost Bite <ul><li>Failure of body’s temperature regulating system – through extreme/prolonged exposure to cold </li></ul><ul><li>Body loses all surface heat (therefore deeper tissues and internal organs can cool more rapidly) </li></ul><ul><li>Can happen through immersion in very cold water, trapped in snow or severe wind chill </li></ul>
  49. 50. Hypothermia - Symptoms <ul><li>Severe drop in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Slow pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing slowness in mental/physical responses </li></ul><ul><li>Cramps </li></ul><ul><li>Faintness and unconsciousness </li></ul>
  50. 51. Hypothermia - Treatment <ul><li>If unconscious, place in recovery position and check breathing and pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Body must be dried (if wet) </li></ul><ul><li>Place in warm dry place, wrap in blankets (possibly w/ another person beside) </li></ul><ul><li>If conscious, give warm sweet drinks (not alcohol) and monitor progress </li></ul>
  51. 52. Frost Bite <ul><li>Result of severe freezing of tissue (usually effecting extremities of body) </li></ul><ul><li>Serious injury – may effect blood circulation to limbs resulting in amputation </li></ul><ul><li>May be detected by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden whiteness, numbness/tingling of skin, area firm to touch, waxy appearance, bistered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep frost bite white, hard to touch, painless until warmed (and then pain may be intense) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Frost Bite - Treatment <ul><li>Remove constrictive clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Warm area gradually using body heat only </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER apply direct heat, massage or rub with either water or snow </li></ul><ul><li>Give warm sweet drinks (not alcohol) </li></ul><ul><li>Seek medical aid </li></ul>
  53. 54. Shock <ul><li>Serious, life threatening condition </li></ul><ul><li>Usually result of serious injury/illness from either burns, severe blood/fluid loss or pain </li></ul><ul><li>Usually does not occur immediately upon injury – gradually develops </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid breathing, weak and rapid pulse, pale and clammy skin, nausea and vomiting, faintness and dizziness </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Shock - Treatment <ul><li>Lay patient down </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate feet (do not elevate if legs fractured) </li></ul><ul><li>Treat fractures and external injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Stop bleeding and cover burns </li></ul><ul><li>Cover w/ blanket and continually monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Try ease pain </li></ul><ul><li>Reassure (if conscious) </li></ul><ul><li>If sure of no internal injuries give warm sweet drinks to assist replacement of fluid </li></ul>
  55. 56. Conclusion <ul><li>Cadets should now be able to describe the symptoms and identify the treatment required for the scenarios. </li></ul>
  56. 57. AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE CADETS 715 (City of Belmont) Squadron Join as a Cadet Aged 13 – 16 year old Join as an Adult Instructor Aged 19 years and above Friday Nights (in the school term) 1815h – 2200h Palmer Barracks, Barker Road, South Guildford

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