Sustainable development is an organizing principle for human life on a
finite planet. It posits a desirable future state for human societies in
which living conditions and resource-use meet human needs without
undermining the sustainability of natural systems and the
environment, so that future generations may also meet their needs.
Water resources management is one of the most important challenges
faces. It is difficult to think of a resource more essential to the
health of human communities or their economies than water. Humans
cannot live for more than several days without water, shorter than
for any source of sustenance other than fresh
A sustainable urban demand for water, covers
air. In meeting theirwater supply networksocietiesallextract vast
related to provision of lakes, water. and underground aquifers to
quantities from rivers, potablewetlands Sustainable development is of
increasing requirements of cities, farms, and urban areas.
supply the importance for the water supply to industries.
Watershed management is the study
of the relevant characteristics of a
watershed aimed at the sustainable
distribution of its resources and the
process of creating and
implementing plans, programs, and
projects to sustain and
enhance watershed functions that
the plant, animal, and human comm
unities within a watershed boundary
Rain water harvesting is a
technique used for
collecting, storing, and
using rainwater for
landscape irrigation and
other uses. The rainwater
is collected from various
hard surfaces such as roof
tops and/or other types of
manmade above ground
n refers to
reducing the usage
of water and
waste water for
Recycled water can be used for a range of non-drinking purposes and is one of the ways we’re
improving the resilience of our water supply system. We are a wholesale producer of recycled
water, which we supply to the retail water companies.
What is recycled water?
Recycled water is wastewater that has been purified
so it can be used again for new purposes.
We treat wastewater from our sewage treatment
plants to produce high quality recycled water that is
suitable for a range of non-drinking purposes.
Producing recycled water
We produce high quality recycled water
at our Eastern and Western treatment
plants, using highly
specialised treatment processes
unique to each plant.
The plants process most of the treated
wastewater to a Class A standard. In
Victoria, Class A is the highest class of
recycled water and is safe to use for a
range of non-drinking purposes.
Using recycled water
Melbourne Water is a wholesale supplier of
recycled water to the retail water
companies, who then distribute it to
customers. Our recycled water meets the
requirements of EPA Victoria and
Department of Health, and is safe to use for
specific non-drinking purposes.
How to Recycle Water
With so much emphasis on the environment, and an ever-increasing demand for
renewable water resources, learning how to recycle water not only saves you
money, but is also good for the planet. Implementing reclaimable-water ideas and
other comprehensive ecological solutions help protect aquifers and replenish
lakes, especially during drougth
For tips on how to recycle water, consider these ideas:
Initiate the appropriate recycling
Conserve water in your everyday
Sanitize grey water. .
Compare the water bill before and
Water recycling provides enormous
environmental benefits. It also provides
an additional source of water for
various purposes. This a list of some
benefits that water recycling can
present.Water recycling decreases the
extraction of water form sources that
may be dwindling and may stop being
viable as habitats for valuable and
wastewater can decrease the discharge
of effluents that may damage and
pollute the ecosystems of the sensitive
bodies of water.Recycled water can be
used to create new wetlands or to
enhance and improve the quality of
existing ones.Water recycling can
reduce and prevent pollution by leaving
Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can
pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is
monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and
other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is
often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in
water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters.
Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly
used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.
Sources of hardnesS ARE:-
Permanent hardness in water is hardness due to the presence of the chlorides, nitrates and
sulphate of calcium and magnesium, which will not be precipitated by boiling. The lime
scale can build up on the inside of the pipe restricting the flow of water or causing a
blockage. This can happen in industry where hot water is used.
due to the presence of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. It can be easily
removed by boiling.
CaCO3 + H2 O + CO2
Water hardness is important to fish culture and is a commonly reported
aspect of water quality. It is a measure of the quantity of divalent ions (for
this discussion, salts with two positive charges) such as calcium, magnesium
and/or iron in water. There are many different divalent salts;
however, calcium and magnesium are the most common sources of water
hardness. Hardness is traditionally measured by chemical titration. The
hardness of a water sample is reported in milligrams per liter as calcium
carbonate (mg/l CaCO3). Calcium carbonate hardness is a general term that
indicates the total quantity of divalent salts present and does not specifically
identify whether calcium, magnesium and/or some other divalent salt is
causing water hardness. Hardness can be a mixture of divalent salts.
Calcium has an important role in the biological processes of fish. It is
necessary for bone formation, blood clotting and other metabolic reactions.
Fish can absorb calcium for these needs directly from the water or food.
Problems caused by hard water
Hard water causes scaling, which is the precipitation of minerals
to form a rock-hard deposit called limescale. Scale can clog pipes
and can decrease the life of toilet flushing units by 70% and water
taps by 40%. It can coat the inside of tea and
coffee pots, and clog and ruin water heaters.
In the home environment, hard water requires
more soap and synthetic detergents for
laundry and washing. It takes half as much
soap for cleaning with soft water[citation
needed]. Hard water and soap combine to form
"soap scum" that can't be rinsed off, forming a
“bathtub ring” on all surfaces, and it dries
leaving unsightly spots on dishes[citation
FORMS OF ENERGY
Energy has a number of different forms, all of which measure
the ability of an object or system to do work on another object
In other words, there are different ways that an object or a
system can possess energy.
TYPES OF ENERGY :
Hydro-power or water
power is power derived from the energy of
falling water and running water, which may
be harnessed for useful purposes. Kinetic
energy of flowing water (when it moves
from higher potential to lower potential)
rotates the blades/propellers of
turbine, which rotates the axle. The axle
has a coil which is placed between the
magnets. When the coils rotate in magnetic
field it induce them in the coil due to
change in flux. Hence, kinetic energy of
flowing water is converted to electrical
Since ancient times, hydro-power has been
used for irrigation and the operation of
various mechanical devices, such
as watermills, sawmills, textile
mills, dock cranes, domestic lifts, power
Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form
of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into
useful forms of power - mainly electricity.Although not
yet widely used, tidal power has potential for
future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable
than wind energy and solar power. Among sources
of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally
suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability
of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow
velocities, thus constricting its total availability.
However, many recent technological developments and
improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal
power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g.
new axial turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the
total availability of tidal power may be much higher than
previously assumed, and that economic and
environmental costs may be brought down to competitive
levels. Tidal energy is a renewable energy source.
Tides are the waves caused due to the gravitational pull of
the moon and also sun(though its pull is very low). The rise
is called high tide and fall is called low tide. This building
up and receding of waves happens twice a day and causes
enormous movement of water. It is so powerful that it has
caused many mishaps and resulted in sinking of ships. Thus
tidal energy forms a large source of energy and can be
harnessed in some of the coastal areas of the world. Tidal
dams are built near shores for this purpose. During high
tide, the water flows into the dam and during low
CLASS X-D ROLL NO-6
STRUGGLE ON WATER
Wars of national liberation or national liberation
revolutions are conflicts fought by nationalities to gain
independence. The term is used in conjunction with wars
against foreign powers to establish separate sovereign states
for the rebelling nationalit
Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting
of adivasis, farmers,environmentalists, and human
rights activists against a number of large dams being built across
theNarmada river. The river flows through the states
of Gujarat, , and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in
Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the
first focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the
unofficial website of the NBA.
Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering
support from film and art personalities (notably Bollywood
actor Aamir Khan). Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading
spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right
Livelihood Award in 1991.
HE third-largest city in Bolivia is spread across the
flat floor of a fertile Andean valley which
produces much of the country's grain, poultry, fruit
and vegetables. But a swiftly expanding population
and a drier climate have turned Cochabamba's once
lush valley into an increasingly parched and dusty
place. The water table is falling swiftly. Some
areas of the city now receive water for only a few
hours every two or three days, and farmers have
had to shift to crops requiring less irrigation.
How to end the water shortage has become a
controversial political issue.