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NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
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NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
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NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
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NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE
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NCC PROTO-RENAISSANCE

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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Nerezi, Lamentation
  • Nerezi, Lamentation
  • Virgin credited with victory over Florence.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Tristan and Iseult at the Fountain; Capture of the Unicorn Tristan and Iseult meet secretly for an illicit romantic tryst, while her husband, King Mark, observes from a tree. They see his reflection in a fountain and alter their behavior and the king believes them innocent. According to medieval bestiary only a virgin could capture the mythical unicorn.
  • mages of the Virgin with the dead Christ reflect late medieval developments in mysticism that encouraged a direct, emotional involvement in the biblical stories. Created as an object of private devotion, this group is a strikingly pure expression of the Schöne Stil , or Beautiful Style, an idiom that emerged at the imperial court in Prague at the end of the fourteenth century and subsequently resonated in artistic centers throughout Europe. The sculptor exploits the formal and psychological tensions inherent in the composition, combining an almost mimetic rendering of detail and a selectively abstract treatment of surface. Christ's broken, emaciated body, naked except for the loincloth, offers a stark contrast to the Virgin's youthful figure, clad in abundant folds. The quality of the execution is evident in such details as the minutely striated loincloth and head veil, the vital delineation of Christ's arms, in which sinews and veins are visible, and the interwoven three hands, entirely undercut, on the Virgin's lap. The blending of sensuality and restraint gives this sculpture immediate emotional appeal.
  • The anonymous sculptor captures these antinomies in visual and tactile form. Mary is straight and rectangular: her knees and hips bend at ninety degrees so that her lower legs and torso form a visual rectangle that establishes the basic order of the artwork. In contrast to her rigid, vertical, rectilinear form, the body of Jesus spreads in a zig-zagging diagonal from upper left to lower right. He bends at the ankles, the knees, and the hips, while his arms extend limply, one dangling straight down and the other resting on his mother's forearm. His enormous, heavy head falls back, bending his neck at an impossible angle and casting the thorns of his crown in sharp profile against the negative space. In macabre harmony, Mary's oversized head tilts slightly off center, toward his, as she stares blankly at the space before them and contemplates the horror of the moment.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 13TH AND 14TH C. ITALY M.F.VAHEY
    • 2. 1300-1400 Proto-Renaissance This is a transitional period. In the art of Florence and Siena there is a move away from medieval abstract depictions of space and the human body as artists began to focus on the illusion of mass and space and the expression of human emotion. With hindsight, it is possible to trace elements of Renaissance art back to this period.
    • 3. This century saw the creation of the beautiful poetry of Dante and Petrarch, but it is also the century that saw the worst outbreak of the Bubonic plague (known then as the Black Death) which wiped out close to half the population of Europe—a terrifying statistic, difficult to imagine today. This chapter focuses on two Italian city- states—Florence and Siena—both proud republics in the 14th century, and the great painters of those city-states, Giotto and Cimabue in Florence, and Duccio, Martini and the Lorenzetti brothers in
    • 4. We have bodies that exist in space, and this has been a fundamental challenge for artists. Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer) or The Canon, c.450bce,
    • 5. In ancient Greece and Rome, artists embraced the realities of the human body and the way that our bodies move in space (naturalism). Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer) or The Canon, c.450bce,
    • 6. Berlinghieri. St Francis 1235 Tempera on wood Church of San Francesco, Pescia • For the next thousand years though, after Europe transitioned from a pagan culture to a Christian one in the middle ages, the physical was largely ignored in favor of the heavenly, spiritual realm. Medieval human figures were still rendered, but they were elongated, flattened and static, or in other words, they were
    • 7. Berlinghieri. St Francis 1235 Tempera on wood Church of San Francesco, Pescia • S. Francis and the two flanking angels harken back to the Byzantine style (maniera greca) • However the vignettes show the beginnings of naturalism
    • 8. Byzantine icon painting Virgin and Child, c.550 Note the emphasis on symmetry, extreme frontality, heavy haloes, expressionless faces.
    • 9. Space Instead of earthly settings, we often see flat, gold backgrounds. There were some exceptions along the way, but it’s not until the end of the 13th century in Italy that artists began to (re)explore the physical realities of the human figure in space. Here, they begin the long process of figuring out how space can become a rational, measurable environment in which their newly naturalistic figures can sit, stand and move.  
    • 10. Giotto di Bondone, Lamentation (composition from Byzantine art) new power through intense reading of
    • 11. • Same theme—Giotto removed stylized conventions of drapery and replaced them with the physicality of the body. • The two seated figures with backs to us are witnesses to the event and present mass in pyramidal shapes. • Giotto has reconciled spiritual and Nerezi, Lamentation
    • 12. Florence & Siena In Italy, there were two city- states where we can see this renewed interest in the human figure and space: Florence and Siena. The primary artists in Siena were Duccio, the Lorenzetti Brothers, and Simone Martini. And in Florence, we look to the art of Cimabue and Giotto.
    • 13. Whereas medieval artists often preferred a flat, gold background, these artists began to construct earthly environments for their figures to inhabit. We see landscapes and architecture in their paintings, though these are often represented schematically. These Florentine and Sienese artists employed diagonal lines that appear to recede and in this way convey a simple illusion of space, though that space is far from rational to our eyes. When we look closely, we can see that the space would be impossible to move through, and that the scale of the architecture often doesn’t match the size of the figures.
    • 14. A Word of Caution Be careful here! While it is tempting to think of this movement toward naturalism as “progress” it is important to remember that this art is not less good, nor even less “advanced” than what comes later in the Renaissance (you might think of Leonardo or Michelangelo). Art is always a response to the needs of the moment and for the late 13th and early 14th century, symbols of the spiritual remained potent systems for understanding.
    • 15. From Gothic to Renaissance
    • 16. Cimabue. Madonna and Child Enthroned with Eight Angels and Four Prophets (Maestà). 1280. Tempera on panel. Santa Trinita, Florence One of the first artists to break away from the Italo-Byzantine style.
    • 17. He modeled his large image on Byzantine examples Used gold embellishments common to Byzantine art Inspired by naturalism Constructed deeper space for the Madonna and surrounding figures Despite such advances… the altarpiece in a final summary of
    • 18. detail
    • 19. Giotto and his teacher Cimabue
    • 20. ca. 1310 Florence The Italo-Byzantine style was abandoned altogether by Giotto di Bondone, who adopted a more naturalistic approach based on the observation of nature. In his Madonna Enthroned, forms are foreshortened and modeled in light and shade to create figures that have sculptural solidity
    • 21. Arena Chapel (Cappella Scrovegni) Padua, Italy,
    • 22. Giotto, Betrayal of Jesus (Kiss of Judas) Arena Chapel, c.1305
    • 23. detail
    • 24. Lamentation (intimate, dramatic view) vertical figures—break monotony of long horizontal fig. of Christ diagonal rock—creates gentle upward movement to a tree
    • 25. Giotto, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Lamentation, wall painting St. Pantaleimon,
    • 26. • Same theme—Giotto removed stylized conventions of drapery and replaced them with the physicality of the body. • The two seated figures with backs to us are witnesses to the event and present mass in pyramidal shapes. • Giotto has reconciled spiritual and Nerezi, Lamentation
    • 27. Giotto. The Epiphany. c.1320. Tempera on panel. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    • 28. REPUBLIC OF SIENA International Style Love graceful and delicate details International Style—fusion of North European and Italian traditions. Appealed to aristocratic tastes Characteristics: bright colors, chivalrous elegance, and naturalistic rendering of detail. Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreaux from the abbey church of Saint- Denis Saint-Denis, France, 1339
    • 29. Duccio altarpiece Maestà (Majesty) is a
    • 30. Duccio, Maesta altarpiece, Siena Cathedral, 1306-11 Duccio shows relaxed, naturalistic figures modeled in light and dark and painted with considerable sensitivity to color and texture.
    • 31. • Composition’s formality and symmetry— recall Byzantine tradition • Figures—show relaxed frontality and rigidity • Drapery on end figures—falls and curves loosely – This is a feature of Northern Gothic works and highlights the artistic
    • 32. The Maesta was a public commission. The Virgin became the offical patroness of Sienna It celebrated a commercial success over their rival Florence The theme is thanksgiving
    • 33. Verso of Duccio’s Maesta altarpiece
    • 34. Duccio is moving toward more natural presentation of the physicality of the body. The figures are occupying space more clearly. No longer do they float in space.
    • 35. Duccio, Betrayal of Jesus (continuous narrative) Judas’s kiss, disciples fleeing, Peter cutting off ear Golden background and rock formation—traditional NOW…Figures have mass, draperies are convincing, posture, gesture and facial expressions display emotions. Duccio moved toward humanizing religious subject matter.
    • 36. Let’s compare: Duccio’s modeling of faces and shading of drapery describe the figures’ three-dimensionality. But…note the crisp outlines of shapes created by the clothing Duccio avoids the face-to-face confrontation
    • 37. Many panels reveal his skill as a narrative painter, showing figures who react to the central event with appropriate physical gestures and expressions of emotion.
    • 38. Duccio, Maesta detail, Ministry of Christ, Temptation on the Mountain, Frick Museum NYC
    • 39. Madonna and Child, ca. 1300 Duccio di Buoninsegna
    • 40. Simone Martini Annunciation 1333 Siena Younger master of Duccio’s school instrumental in creating the “International
    • 41. Hallmarks of the Internationalstyle: elegant shapes radiant color fluttering line weightless figures spaceless setting
    • 42. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy 1288-1309 City fathers wanted the success to be memorialized. They commissioned Ambrogio Lorenzetti to create a tribute to the city in the town hall.
    • 43. Good Government in the City, 1338-39
    • 44. Peaceful Country details what an effective administration can do and how the citizens can also perform their roles. Focuses on—slowly changing perception of Italian society. They begin to see themselves as individuals working within a community.
    • 45. Blanche of Castille, Louis IX and two monks dedication page (folio 8 recto) of a moralized Bible from Paris, France 1226-1234 ink, tempera and gold leaf on vellum 15 x 10 1/2 in. The royal court in Paris was the arbiter of taste in western Europe since the days of Louis IX. However. The Hundred Years’ War weakened the power of the nobility. French sculptors and painters found new outlets such as personal devotional objects and books for wealthy patrons.
    • 46. Illuminated Manuscripts…Book of Hours (private prayer books) became popular in France by the late 13th c.
    • 47. Jean Pucelle, The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, c.1324 MMA Joys and Sorrows of the Virgin Joy…Annunciation Sorrow…betrayal and arrest
    • 48. Betrayal and arrest of Christ Note: Gothic s-curve of Jesus (mirrored in the Virgin on the opposite page) Lantern held high to indicate night Christ heals Malchus (asst. to high priest) Below print scenes of secular amusements sometimes off-color jokes
    • 49. Annunciation Gothic s-curve Candle held by cleric who guards the ‘doo’ to Jeanne’s devotional retreat Rabbit and other sexually charged symbols of fertility
    • 50. The Castle of Love and knights jousting jewelry casket, from Paris, France, ca. 1330- 1350, ivory and iron, 4 1/2 x 9 3/4 in. This casket is carved with scenes from romances and allegorical literature representing the courtly ideals of love and heroism.
    • 51. In the center of the lid, knights joust as ladies watch from the balcony; to the left, knights lay siege to the Castle of Love, the subject of an allegorical battle. The remaining scenes on the casket are drawn from well-known stories about Aristotle and Phyllis, Tristan and Iseult, and tales of
    • 52. Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreaux from the abbey church of Saint-Denis Saint-Denis, France 1339 silver gilt and enamel 27 1/2 in. high
    • 53. Tristan and Iseult at the Fountain; Capture of the Unicorn
    • 54. The Holy Roman Empire By the 14th c. the Italian territories has become divided into multiple states with powerful regional associations and princes. The Holy Roman emperors, elected by Germans, concentrated on securing the fortunes of their families. The ordeals of the 14th c.— famines, wars, plagues—helped inspire a nystical religiosity in Germany that emphasized both ecstatic joy and extreme
    • 55. Pietà (Vesperbild), ca. 1400 Bohemian Limestone 15 x 15 3/8 x 5 1/2 in. (38.1 x 39.1 x 14 cm) The Cloisters Collection, 2001 (2001.78)
    • 56. In German, this subject is called a Vesperbild, an image for use during ritual devotions at sundown. More broadly, it's an example of an Andachtsbild, an image intended to stimulate meditation. For this reason, the holy figures are isolated from their narrative context and presented in a pose and a moment that amplify the statue's emotional import. The Roettgen Pietà (Vesperbild), polychromed wood, 34’, ca. 1360, Landesmuseum, Bonn

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