Early Renaissance in 15th c. Italy
• Intellectuals in 15th c. Italy thought of
themselves as living in a NEW AGE.
• Believ...
Causes:
• Study of texts from Greece and Rome for
moral content and style (medieval
university—prized theology) but
Renais...
Political power/artistic
patronage
• Florence Medici
• Urbino Montefeltro
• Mantua Gonzaga
• Milan Sforza and Visconti
• F...
15th c. Republic of Florence (ala Roman Republic)
• Signoria—governing council—officials
elected from members of the guild...
Across the piazza from
the Florence Cathedral
facade was the
baptistery. Every child
born in Florence
(heathens excepted)
...
Guild-sponsored competition in 1401 for the east doors of the
city’s baptistery.
Ghiberti. Sacrifice of Isaac
1401Bronze relief
competition panel for east
doors, baptistery of Florence
Cathedral 1401-02
Brunelleschi. Sacrifice of Isaac.
Competition panel for east
doors, baptistery of Florence.
BRUNELLESCHI
• After losing the competition…Rome with
Donatello
• Studied ancient structures
• Discovered linear perspecti...
The Cathedral of Florence was begun in 1298. Santa Maria del Fiore
(our Lady of the Flower, the lily was a symbol of Flore...
Brunelleschi, dome of Florence
Cathedral, 1420-36
• Brunelleschi placed
dome over 140’
crossing by
designing a thin
double shell that
was ogival (pointed
arch) in section.
...
Brunesslechi, Hospital of the Innocents, 1421…1st Ren. bldg.
Patron: Silk Merchants Guild and Goldsmiths
The commission en...
Details:
Loggia—covered walkway
Arcade—series of columns spanned by arches
Pedimented windows—triangular treatment
balance...
Andrea della Robbia - Glazed terra-cotta reliefs of
swaddled babes (added about 1487)
Interior of the church
begun 1436
-
Santo Spirito, Florence
• Simplicity
• Proportion
• symmetry
Mathematical ratios and
graceful rhythm embody the
new Renaissance style of
architect...
Pazzi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, begun after 144 (Brunelleschi).
Pazzi Chapel Int.
• Attributed to
• Michelozzo di Bartolomeo,
• Palazzo Medici-
Riccardi, Florence, begun
1446
• Courtyard with sgraffito (decoration produced by
scratching through plaster or glaze).
Or San Michele
• Each guild was responsible to fill a niche
on the exterior of this guild building.
Or San Michele, Florence (early 14th c.)
1406—dictum to fill niches
1414—K. Ladislaus, Naples threatened Florence
1423—nic...
Nanni di Banco. Four Saints.
Or San Michele, Florence,
c.1410-16
Four martyred sculptors who
refused and order from the
Ro...
Donatello, St Mark, 1411, Marble, 7’9”
As Giotto had succeeded
his master Cimabue, so
Ghiberti produced a student
whose fa...
Donatello.
S. George. Or San Michele.
Florence, c.1417
Guild of Armorers’ and Swordmakers’
Continues Gothic tradition (dep...
Two years later Donatello was commissioned to install this relief…marks
a turning point in Renaissance sculpture…painterly...
Siena Cathedral and Duccio’s
Madonna Enthroned.
Donatello fame brings him to
Siena and Padua
Donatello. Feast of Herod, baptismal font of the Siena baptistery. c.1425
Donatello. Feast of Herod, baptismal font of the Siena Cathedral. c.1425
Reflects Brunelleschi’s linear perspective and re...
Donatello
Equestrian
monument of
Gattamelata a
recently
deceased
Venetian
condottiere
(military leader of
mercenary
troops...
Erasmo da Narni (nicknamed Gattamelata)
Venice honored him for his military successes.
Donatello recalled the Equestrian s...
• Donatello spent most of his career in
Florence and worked for important families
like the Medici.
GHIBERTI
1378-1455
GHIBERTI,
GATES OF
PARADISE, BAPTISTR
Y OF SAN
GIOVANNI, 1425-52
Deep space is convincing
through one-point linear
perspec...
Creation and Cain kills Abel
Noah (flood/drunkenness) and
Abraham sacrificing Isaac
Isaac (story of Jacob and Esau) and Joseph
sold into slavery by his brothers
Moses on Mt. Sinai (Ten Commandments) and
Joshua and the fall of Jericho
David and Goliath and
Soloman and the Q of Sheba
Ghiberti placed his own portriat as a signature in the frame at the lower right
corner of the Jacob and Esau panel.
He wro...
Ghiberti. PANEL ON THE DOOR, GATES
OF PARADISE. 1425-52
Story of Jacob and Esau
Donatello, David, c.1446 bronze, 5’2 ¼”
Medici Palace (1469)
The victor is whoever defends the fatherland.
All-powerful Go...
Medici as
Patrons
Verrocchio. David. C.1465-1470.
bronze
One of the most important sculptors in
the 2nd half of the century…reaffirms
the Me...
Another Medici appropriation of civic imagery can be seen in a small table
bronze of Hercules and Anteus made for the Medi...
Antonio del Pollaiuolo.
Hercules and Antaeus.
C.1475 bronze, 18”
Mythological themes…
Medici Neo-Platonic
school…reflects ...
ANDREA EL VERROCCHIO.
EQUESTRIAN MONUMENT
OF BARTOLOMMEO
COLLEONI(Venetian
condottiere)
The condottiere and his horse
have...
Ncc e. ren arch and sculpture
Ncc e. ren arch and sculpture
Ncc e. ren arch and sculpture
Ncc e. ren arch and sculpture
Ncc e. ren arch and sculpture
Ncc e. ren arch and sculpture
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Ncc e. ren arch and sculpture

  1. 1. Early Renaissance in 15th c. Italy • Intellectuals in 15th c. Italy thought of themselves as living in a NEW AGE. • Believed they could improve their culture by reviving the best features of antiquity…Greek and Roman culture. • Rebirth of classical learning, literature and art.
  2. 2. Causes: • Study of texts from Greece and Rome for moral content and style (medieval university—prized theology) but Renaissance humanism aimed for practical use—for lawyers, bureaucrats, politicians, diplomats and merchants • Humanists’ analytical approach and empirical observations inspired new thinking in many fields
  3. 3. Political power/artistic patronage • Florence Medici • Urbino Montefeltro • Mantua Gonzaga • Milan Sforza and Visconti • Ferrara Este
  4. 4. 15th c. Republic of Florence (ala Roman Republic) • Signoria—governing council—officials elected from members of the guilds and mercantile families. • Milan threatened to invade in 1401…Florence was able to defy Milan…a comparison was made between Athens defeat of the Persians…praised for piety and devotion…Renaissance humanists wished to reconcile the lessons of antiquity with their Christian faith.
  5. 5. Across the piazza from the Florence Cathedral facade was the baptistery. Every child born in Florence (heathens excepted) was baptized into the Church there. It was decided that the baptistery needed new doors. The city fathers of Florence held a competition to solicit plans for the dome's completion and for door designs in bronze. Florence Baptistery Competition
  6. 6. Guild-sponsored competition in 1401 for the east doors of the city’s baptistery.
  7. 7. Ghiberti. Sacrifice of Isaac 1401Bronze relief competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence Cathedral 1401-02
  8. 8. Brunelleschi. Sacrifice of Isaac. Competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence.
  9. 9. BRUNELLESCHI • After losing the competition…Rome with Donatello • Studied ancient structures • Discovered linear perspective • Won competition for dome of Florence cathedral—wool merchants guild
  10. 10. The Cathedral of Florence was begun in 1298. Santa Maria del Fiore (our Lady of the Flower, the lily was a symbol of Florence) was the third cathedral built on the site. Brunelleschi submitted the winning plan for the dome in 1420. He combined his knowledge of Roman engineering principles with innovative building techniques to construct a 100’ dome w/o any visible means of support.
  11. 11. Brunelleschi, dome of Florence Cathedral, 1420-36
  12. 12. • Brunelleschi placed dome over 140’ crossing by designing a thin double shell that was ogival (pointed arch) in section. • The dome’s weight is borne by 8 marble ribs that span the dome form base to lantern. These ribs are supplemented by 16 concealed ribs radiating from the center.
  13. 13. Brunesslechi, Hospital of the Innocents, 1421…1st Ren. bldg. Patron: Silk Merchants Guild and Goldsmiths The commission enabled him to apply the principles of: balance, harmony and proportion he discovered during his study of ancient Roman buildings.
  14. 14. Details: Loggia—covered walkway Arcade—series of columns spanned by arches Pedimented windows—triangular treatment balance, harmony and proportion
  15. 15. Andrea della Robbia - Glazed terra-cotta reliefs of swaddled babes (added about 1487)
  16. 16. Interior of the church begun 1436 - Santo Spirito, Florence
  17. 17. • Simplicity • Proportion • symmetry Mathematical ratios and graceful rhythm embody the new Renaissance style of architecture. Brunelleschi applied these principles to the interior of Santo Spirito.
  18. 18. Pazzi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, begun after 144 (Brunelleschi).
  19. 19. Pazzi Chapel Int.
  20. 20. • Attributed to • Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, • Palazzo Medici- Riccardi, Florence, begun 1446
  21. 21. • Courtyard with sgraffito (decoration produced by scratching through plaster or glaze).
  22. 22. Or San Michele • Each guild was responsible to fill a niche on the exterior of this guild building.
  23. 23. Or San Michele, Florence (early 14th c.) 1406—dictum to fill niches 1414—K. Ladislaus, Naples threatened Florence 1423—niches filled
  24. 24. Nanni di Banco. Four Saints. Or San Michele, Florence, c.1410-16 Four martyred sculptors who refused and order from the Roman emperor Diocletian to carve a pagan deity. Early example of Renaissance artists’ attempt to liberate statuary form its architectural setting. Patron: Wood and Stone Carvers Guild
  25. 25. Donatello, St Mark, 1411, Marble, 7’9” As Giotto had succeeded his master Cimabue, so Ghiberti produced a student whose fame exceeded his own: Donatello. Donatello was the great master of the Early Renaissance. His skills as a sculptor were unsurpassed until Michelangelo appeared almost a century later. He completed many commissions for the city of Florence. His St. Mark was commissioned by the Linen Weaver’s Guild.
  26. 26. Donatello. S. George. Or San Michele. Florence, c.1417 Guild of Armorers’ and Swordmakers’ Continues Gothic tradition (depicting warrior saints on church facades) but here it plays a civic role…ready to defend Florence.
  27. 27. Two years later Donatello was commissioned to install this relief…marks a turning point in Renaissance sculpture…painterly approach…atmospheric effect…a window onto an infinite vista.
  28. 28. Siena Cathedral and Duccio’s Madonna Enthroned. Donatello fame brings him to Siena and Padua
  29. 29. Donatello. Feast of Herod, baptismal font of the Siena baptistery. c.1425
  30. 30. Donatello. Feast of Herod, baptismal font of the Siena Cathedral. c.1425 Reflects Brunelleschi’s linear perspective and recalls his architecture— rounded arches and fluted columns and pilasters.
  31. 31. Donatello Equestrian monument of Gattamelata a recently deceased Venetian condottiere (military leader of mercenary troops) 1444-53 Bronze on marble plinth 340 cm Piazza del Santo, Padua
  32. 32. Erasmo da Narni (nicknamed Gattamelata) Venice honored him for his military successes. Donatello recalled the Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius The horse is so large that the rider must dominate by force of person rather than size.
  33. 33. • Donatello spent most of his career in Florence and worked for important families like the Medici.
  34. 34. GHIBERTI 1378-1455
  35. 35. GHIBERTI, GATES OF PARADISE, BAPTISTR Y OF SAN GIOVANNI, 1425-52 Deep space is convincing through one-point linear perspective, aerial or atmospheric perspective and the receding sizes of figures. Ghiberti is almost painting in sculpture. Recalls Donatello’s relief below his statue of St. George and his Siena Baptistry relief of 1427.
  36. 36. Creation and Cain kills Abel
  37. 37. Noah (flood/drunkenness) and Abraham sacrificing Isaac
  38. 38. Isaac (story of Jacob and Esau) and Joseph sold into slavery by his brothers
  39. 39. Moses on Mt. Sinai (Ten Commandments) and Joshua and the fall of Jericho
  40. 40. David and Goliath and Soloman and the Q of Sheba
  41. 41. Ghiberti placed his own portriat as a signature in the frame at the lower right corner of the Jacob and Esau panel. He wrote (c.1450) “I strove to imitate nature ans clearly as I could, and with all the perspective I could produce, to have excellent compositions with many figures.. The door panels commissioned by the wool guild depicts scenes from the Hebrew Bible (Old Testement)
  42. 42. Ghiberti. PANEL ON THE DOOR, GATES OF PARADISE. 1425-52
  43. 43. Story of Jacob and Esau
  44. 44. Donatello, David, c.1446 bronze, 5’2 ¼” Medici Palace (1469) The victor is whoever defends the fatherland. All-powerful Gold crushes the angry enemy. Behold, a boy overcomes the grat tyrant. Conquer, O citizens!
  45. 45. Medici as Patrons
  46. 46. Verrocchio. David. C.1465-1470. bronze One of the most important sculptors in the 2nd half of the century…reaffirms the Medici family’s identification with Florence. His David contrasts strongly in its narrative realism with the quiet classicism of Donatellos’s…he knew the psychology of brash young men.
  47. 47. Another Medici appropriation of civic imagery can be seen in a small table bronze of Hercules and Anteus made for the Medici by Antonio del Pollaiuolo (1433-98). Hercules had been represented on the state seal of Florence since the end of the thirteenth century—"to signify that Hercules, who was a giant, overcame all tyrants and evil lords as the Florentines have done.”
  48. 48. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Hercules and Antaeus. C.1475 bronze, 18” Mythological themes… Medici Neo-Platonic school…reflects humanist preference…stress and strain of human figure in violent action. The Medici desired to associate their family with Florence’s symbolic heroes. They identified with the Greek hero and even placed his image on their state seal. Antaeus…giant and son of Earth goddess
  49. 49. ANDREA EL VERROCCHIO. EQUESTRIAN MONUMENT OF BARTOLOMMEO COLLEONI(Venetian condottiere) The condottiere and his horse have become the embodiment of will power, and a purposeful and ruthless machine.

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