The month of giving gifts (a custom which seems to have died out now). Jean de Berry himself can be seen on the right, wearing the brilliant blue robe.John is singled out by the red cloth of honor with his heraldic arms--swans and the lilies of France--and by a large fire screen that circles his head liked a secular halo.
Temptation of St Anthony-Copper engraving
Echo of poses…mother and son…similar posesMary has fainted but will wakeChrist has died but will be ResurrectedSkull…Christ was crucified on the spot Adam was buriedCentral PanelThe central panel is perhaps the most difficult to understand: is it meant to be a 'garden of earthly delights', or is it a representation of the sins that came about due to Adam and Eve's sins - sins that will result in the fate represented on the third panel? Whichever way we interpret it, we can't deny that it is bursting with colour and imagery, not all of which is easy to comprehend.The setting for the centre panel is a conventional love garden. A conventional love garden is a garden with flowers, singing birds and a fountain in the centre where lovers gather to stroll or sing. The fountain is usually made out of gold and gems. The most famous description is in The Romance of the Rose a very long - and in its time, famous - allegorical poem about love, which states: When I had gone a little further, I saw a large and extensive garden, Entirely surrounded by a high, crenulated wall, Which was decorated on the outside with paintings and carved with many rich inscriptions.Garden of Earthly Delights (Ecclesia's paradise)Central panelAlthough Bosch's representation contains the essence of such a love garden it differs in many respects. Firstly, the people in Bosch's painting are far more open and frivolous about their relationships, whereas at that time it was considered bad taste to be so obvious. Secondly, the fountains were usually made of gold and gems, while Bosch's are clearly made of ivory and horns. This may be because Virgil expressed the idea that true dreams are made of ivory and horns in many of his works. Virgil's poems also frequently play host to the idea of yielding to love: Love conquers all things; let us too surrender to Love. - Eclogue X - GallusMany doubt that Bosch intentionally created these fountains in accordance with Virgil's writing, but perhaps these works contributed subconsciously.Since the Earth in this panel is fully populated, it suggests that it is a time following the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden. This idea is supported by a couple in the cave in the left-hand corner of the painting that may be Adam and Eve from the first panel. However it is unknown whether it is in a time before or after the Great Flood; some believe the man behind Adam is Noah, suggesting either a time before the great flood, or after, when mankind has reverted to their original ways. The second idea seems more likely because of the hellish scene in the last panel. Either way, this is clearly a time when God has been forgotten: men and women are frolicking about, the young men and women are mainly interested in kissing, embracing and stroking one another. It is notable that there are no children in this image; this demonstrates that they are going directly against God's wishes of 'Be fruitful and multiply' (Genesis 1:28). Man has abandoned heavenly paradise for a garden of earthly delights.It is believed that the enormous quantities of fruit in this image are ironic; Bosch may have meant it as a pun on God's words. Certainly 'to pluck fruit' in Bosch's time was a euphemism for the sexual act. Another irony is that it was the fruit from the tree of knowledge that brought the fall of man. The skin of fruit also bears its own connotations: in Dutch the rind of a piece of fruit was called the 'schil', which also meant controversy. Furthermore, to be in a 'schel' was to be in a struggle with an opponent or to engage in the conflict of love. Since many of the couples are inside the peel of giant fruit, that may be the implication.The main theme in this central panel is that of lust as the root of all evil. This theme is echoed through the images in the centre of the panel. There are three lakes: the front and back lakes contain both men and women, and the central lake contains only women, while men ride around it. This was a traditional way of showing the power of women, though usually it was portrayed with one woman in the centre of a circle of admirers. The men riding on animals are symbolic because animals symbolise the baser urges of mankind. Furthermore, a man riding was a metaphor for the sexual act. This scene also harks back to Eve, since one of the women is already climbing out of the pool and tempting the men - demonstrating that it was woman who took the lead in sin.However, with Bosch nothing is simple: every theory has its contradiction. Wilhelm Fraenger views the work more positively than other critics. He states that the left-hand panel is not depicting the fall of man due to Eve's tempting but rather God uniting man and woman. His interpretation of the second panel is somewhat different: he claims the people in the second panel were Adamites, a cult that wished to return to the innocence of Adam and Eve before the fall: ...are peacefully frolicking about the tranquil garden in vegetative innocence, at one with animals and plants and the sexuality that inspires them seems to be pure joy, pure bliss.This theory is very unusual, but may be based on Fraenger's theory that Bosch belonged to the Adamites, and maybe The Garden of Earthly Delights is where he supports this theory.
Echo of poses…mother and son…similar posesMary has fainted but will wakeChrist has died but will be ResurrectedSkull…Christ was crucified on the spot Adam was buried
Giovanni Arnolfini, a prosperous Italian banker who had settled in Bruges, and his wife Giovanna Cenami, stand side by side in the bridal chamber, facing towards the viewer. The husband is holding out his wife's hand. “Johannes de eyckfuit hic 1434 (Jan van Eych was present, 1434)
Giotto..simplified…just the essentialsDuccio…more details, more figures. Figures more elongated, less real.Perspective…Giotto’s foreground figures pull us in.Duccio’s view from above…figures float.
NCC ART202 QUIZ ONE
• Name at least three characteristics of the
What is the medium (i.e. fresco, painting, etc.)?
Who was the patron?
How did the artist distinguish the patron?
In what way was the art of ……. Revolutionary?
In what ways was it traditional?
How was the iconography relevant to the specific desires of
• What is the
• Why was it
• Where did it
Who was the patron?
Why is this work considered one of the
hallmarks of the International Gothic?
In many ways this artist falls outside any tradition.
What are some of the characteristics that recall Northern
What is the “disguised” symbolism in this
Who is the patron?
How did this artist treat space?
How does this work differ from an early work for the same period?
Discuss the iconography of this work as related to
Christian tradition and personal context of the patron.