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NCC ART104
DIALOGUE WITH EUROPE
Avant-garde…artists or works that are novel or
experimental
Relates to military term for s...
Manet. Luncheon on the Grass (Le Dejeuner Sur L'Herbe). 1863.
The term "modernism" develops out of the
avant-garde
Modernism…philosophy that affirms the power
of human beings to make, ...
The Modern World Emerges
• At the turn of the century (1900), a number of traditional points of
view were replaced with ra...
Characteristics of Modern Art:
• Discarded “traditional” forms of art as old-
fashioned and irrelevant
• Embraced disrupti...
The 1913 Armory Show introduces radical European
abstraction to America for the first time
Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a
Staircase. 1912
Marcel Duchamp. L.H.O.O.Q. 1919.
Marcel Duchamp. Fountain. 1917.
The Mexican Muralists - "Los Tres Grandes"
Orozco, Siquieros & Rivera
American artists identified with the Mexican
Muralis...
Jose Clemente Orozco. Prometheus. 1930
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (meaning "forethought”) is a Titan, culture
hero, and trickster figure who is credited with...
David Siqueiros would paint América Tropical above what is
now La Placita Olvera in Downtown Los Angeles on October 9,
193...
Diego Rivera. Man, Controller of the Universe. 1934
Man at the Crossroads was a fresco in the Rockefeller Center, New York...
SOCIAL REALISM &
REGIONALISM
Grant Wood. American Gothic. 1930.
Dorothea Lange. Migrant Mother,
Nipomo, California. 1936.
Thomas Hart Benton. The Arts of the West. 1932.
"I wallowed in every cockeyed ism that came along, and it took me ten year...
ARSHILE GORKY 1904 - 1948
Vostanik Manoog Adoyan , Arshile (refers to the hero Achilles), Gorky
(Russian for bitter)…The b...
Arshile Gorky. The Betrothel II.
1947.
Vassily Kandinsky. Improvisation No. 30
(Cannons). 1913.
Arshile Gorky dancing at a party
Arshile Gorky, The Artist and His Mother, 1926—42
…from a 1912 photograph
I don’t like that word, “finish.” When
something...
Arshile Gorky. Garden in Sochi. c. 1943.
Sochi…Russian resort on the Black Sea
Sosi…poplar tree in Armenian
"It was the cu...
Arshile Gorky. The Liver is the Cock's Comb. 1944.
"I do not believe in anarachy in art. There must be some structure...Fo...
Arshile Gorky. The Liver is the Cock's Comb. 1944
The work, if taken from a symbolic statement of the artist, seems to spe...
Arshile Gorky, American (born Armenia), 1904-1948, The Black Monk (“Last
Painting”), c. 1948, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Ma...
Meyer Schapiro wrote of Gorky, “To be a disciple of Picasso
in New York in the 1920s and early ’30s was an act of
original...
NCC ART104 2
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NCC ART104 2

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  • http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/highlights/highlight56935.html
  • He was found hanged in a shed, leaving a note that read "Goodby all my loved" or, some said, "Goodbye My Loveds". His wife Mougouch had left him, taking the children; he had lost some paintings in a studio fire; he had cancer, he had had a colostomy and he had recently broken his neck in a car ­accident.
    Teaching one’s self the principles of art is no mean feat, but artist Arshile Gorky seemed to have a lot to say as well as being determined to express it.  Born in Armenia in 1905, he immigrated to America in 1920 to escape the Turkish genocide of Armenians.  Most of his works express his experiences and feelings on the matter, as well as contain both outright and implied sexual images. His style is characterized by both figuration and abstraction seemingly melded into one another, much in the styles of Cezanne and Picasso.  This work captures that nature perfectly by creating a wild landscape and a perfectly ordered interpretation of a human internal anatomy simultaneously.  The work itself, if taken from a symbolic statement of the artist, seems to speak of the perfectly ordered world in which Gorsky lived before the wild and savage world around him came and destroyed it.  The title as well as the work itself suggest many double meanings, such as the “cock’s comb”, which is both a headdress, and a feathered phallic symbol that seem to link both mind and body.  The liver was often  thought of in past as a the source of passion and love rather than the heart, so the title itself could be suggesting that it is connected the both the mind and body, as well as being represented on the canvas.
  • He was found hanged in a shed, leaving a note that read "Goodby all my loved" or, some said, "Goodbye My Loveds". His wife Mougouch had left him, taking the children; he had lost some paintings in a studio fire; he had cancer, he had had a colostomy and he had recently broken his neck in a car ­accident.
    Teaching one’s self the principles of art is no mean feat, but artist Arshile Gorky seemed to have a lot to say as well as being determined to express it.  Born in Armenia in 1905, he immigrated to America in 1920 to escape the Turkish genocide of Armenians.  Most of his works express his experiences and feelings on the matter, as well as contain both outright and implied sexual images. His style is characterized by both figuration and abstraction seemingly melded into one another, much in the styles of Cezanne and Picasso.  This work captures that nature perfectly by creating a wild landscape and a perfectly ordered interpretation of a human internal anatomy simultaneously.  The work itself, if taken from a symbolic statement of the artist, seems to speak of the perfectly ordered world in which Gorsky lived before the wild and savage world around him came and destroyed it.  The title as well as the work itself suggest many double meanings, such as the “cock’s comb”, which is both a headdress, and a feathered phallic symbol that seem to link both mind and body.  The liver was often  thought of in past as a the source of passion and love rather than the heart, so the title itself could be suggesting that it is connected the both the mind and body, as well as being represented on the canvas.
  • The dealer Julien Levy revealed in his monograph on Gorky that The Black Monk was the painting on the artist’s easel on the day he committed suicide in July 1948 and can therefore be considered to embody his depressed emotional state. The iconography of the painting stems from Gorky’s reaction to reading Anton Chekhov’s short story The Black Monk, written in January 1894, telling of the degeneration and delirium of a man to whom a menacing black monk appears and announces to him that he is a genius: “Beneath the balcony the serenade was being played, and the Black Monk whispered to him that he was a genius, and he died only because his feeble, mortal body had lost its balance, and could no longer serve as the covering of genius.”Harry Rand took this quotation, which is stressed by Levy, to be a suicide note.
    In addition to this symbolic narration, the painting displays formal characteristics of great emotional intensity. It is executed rapidly in a claustrophobic gestural style; the large patches of black appear to intimidate the biomorphic forms, which are no longer linear and delicately drawn as in previous works but gestural and aggressive. As in many of Gorky’s paintings, the compositional complexity of The Black Monk and the accumulation of forms and figures that interact without losing their identity might be linked to the tradition of great Baroque painting, while the appearance of an unfinished oil painting or enlarged sketch, resulting from the manner of separating line and colour typical of his late works (which Clement Greenberg defined as “tinted drawings”), stems from the influence of Picasso, Matisse and, above all, Joan Miró. The Miró retrospective held at The Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1941 provided Gorky with the key to resolving the tension between his desire for spontaneity and his need to clarify his compositions. Although the influence of the New York-based Surrealists on Gorky’s fanciful imagery is more than proven, it was the Catalan who led him to realise that he could “draw” the essential forms in black on the canvas and then add with greater freedom a series of bright colours, applied in very thin layers and not with the thick impastos of his earlier works.
  • Transcript of "NCC ART104 2 "

    1. 1. NCC ART104 DIALOGUE WITH EUROPE Avant-garde…artists or works that are novel or experimental Relates to military term for soldiers who explore battlefield ahead of advancing army suggests small group of intellectuals who push the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm
    2. 2. Manet. Luncheon on the Grass (Le Dejeuner Sur L'Herbe). 1863.
    3. 3. The term "modernism" develops out of the avant-garde Modernism…philosophy that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their lives, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation. The term covers many political, cultural and artistic movements rooted in the changes in Western society at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.
    4. 4. The Modern World Emerges • At the turn of the century (1900), a number of traditional points of view were replaced with radically new ways of thinking • Einstein publishes his Theory of Relativity in physics • Increasing industrialization changes the way people live, buy and work • Freud introduces his concepts of the subconscious mind • The Wright brothers demonstrate that humans can fly • Ford proves that machines can be made quickly and efficiently • And... the traditional center of the art world in Paris was losing its hold
    5. 5. Characteristics of Modern Art: • Discarded “traditional” forms of art as old- fashioned and irrelevant • Embraced disruption • Belief in universals and the essential • Emphasis on innovation (being the first)
    6. 6. The 1913 Armory Show introduces radical European abstraction to America for the first time
    7. 7. Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase. 1912
    8. 8. Marcel Duchamp. L.H.O.O.Q. 1919.
    9. 9. Marcel Duchamp. Fountain. 1917.
    10. 10. The Mexican Muralists - "Los Tres Grandes" Orozco, Siquieros & Rivera American artists identified with the Mexican Muralists because they sought many of the same goals: – In search of a distinctive national imagery and style – Belief in use art as a vehicle for social change – Embraced the notion that art was for "the people" rather than the wealthy elite
    11. 11. Jose Clemente Orozco. Prometheus. 1930
    12. 12. In Greek mythology, Prometheus (meaning "forethought”) is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods and gives fire to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization. Prometheus is known for his intelligence and as a champion of mankind. The punishment of Prometheus as a consequence of the theft is a major theme of his mythology, and is a popular subject of both ancient and modern art. Zeus, king of the Olympian gods, sentenced the Titan to eternal torment for his transgression. The immortal Prometheus was bound to a rock, where each day an eagle, the emblem of Zeus, was sent to feed on his liver, which would then grow back to be eaten again the next day. In the Western classical tradition, Prometheus became a figure who represented human striving, particularly the quest for scientific knowledge, and the risk of overreaching or unintended consequences. In particular, he was regarded in the Romantic era as embodying the lone genius whose efforts to improve human existence could also result in tragedy: Mary Shelley, for instance, gave The Modern Prometheus as the subtitle to her novel Frankenstein
    13. 13. David Siqueiros would paint América Tropical above what is now La Placita Olvera in Downtown Los Angeles on October 9, 1932. It was poorly received and criticized for its political and social message. It was whitewashed soon thereafter. Eighty years later, The Getty Conservation Institute conserved and restored the mural. It became accessible to the public on its 80th birthday, October 9, 2012. No known color photographs of América Tropical are known to exist so conservators used scientific analysis and best practices to get at the artist's vision of his piece.
    14. 14. Diego Rivera. Man, Controller of the Universe. 1934 Man at the Crossroads was a fresco in the Rockefeller Center, New York. The painting was controversial because it included an image of Lenin and a Soviet Russian May Day parade. Despite protests from artists, Nelson Rockefeller ordered its destruction before it was completed.
    15. 15. SOCIAL REALISM & REGIONALISM
    16. 16. Grant Wood. American Gothic. 1930.
    17. 17. Dorothea Lange. Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California. 1936.
    18. 18. Thomas Hart Benton. The Arts of the West. 1932. "I wallowed in every cockeyed ism that came along, and it took me ten years to get all that modernist dirt out of my system." - Thomas Hart Benton
    19. 19. ARSHILE GORKY 1904 - 1948 Vostanik Manoog Adoyan , Arshile (refers to the hero Achilles), Gorky (Russian for bitter)…The bitter Achilles. Most of his works express his experiences and feelings on the armeanian genocide, as well as sexual images. His style is characterized by figuration and abstraction seemingly melded into one another, much in the styles of Cezanne and Picasso.
    20. 20. Arshile Gorky. The Betrothel II. 1947. Vassily Kandinsky. Improvisation No. 30 (Cannons). 1913.
    21. 21. Arshile Gorky dancing at a party
    22. 22. Arshile Gorky, The Artist and His Mother, 1926—42 …from a 1912 photograph I don’t like that word, “finish.” When something is finished, that means it’s dead, doesn’t it? I believe in everlastingness. I never finish a painting—I just stop working on it for a while. Arshile Gorky, 1948 In March 1919, 14-year-old Vosdanig Manoog Adoian watched his mother starve to death, one of countless victims of the Ottoman Turkish effort to displace or exterminate the empire’s Armenian population. His painting is both an exploration of modern painting and an emotional evocation of personal and national tragedy, it is one of the most powerful portraits of the 20th century.
    23. 23. Arshile Gorky. Garden in Sochi. c. 1943. Sochi…Russian resort on the Black Sea Sosi…poplar tree in Armenian "It was the custom in our family at the birth of a son to plant a poplar tree which would later have the birth date and name carved on it. Gorky as a child loved his tree and took great pride in caring for it.”
    24. 24. Arshile Gorky. The Liver is the Cock's Comb. 1944. "I do not believe in anarachy in art. There must be some structure...For me, art must be a facet of the thinking mind...unrelenting spontaneity is chaos." - Gorky
    25. 25. Arshile Gorky. The Liver is the Cock's Comb. 1944 The work, if taken from a symbolic statement of the artist, seems to speak of the perfectly ordered world in which Gorky lived before the wild and savage world around him came and destroyed it. The title suggests many double meanings, such as the “cock’s comb”, which is both a headdress, and a feathered phallic symbol…seem to link both mind and body. The liver was often thought of in past as a the source of passion and love rather than the heart, so the title could be suggesting that mind and body connection, as well as being represented on the canvas.
    26. 26. Arshile Gorky, American (born Armenia), 1904-1948, The Black Monk (“Last Painting”), c. 1948, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid Around. 1946 Gorky’s works, which had been populated with distorted, menacing figures since the Cubist period, began to convey his own angst even more intensely. Although by then his work had earned a certain amount of recognition, he failed to achieve financial stability. On top of this, his studio was gutted by fire, he was diagnosed with throat cancer, he split up with his second wife and his painting hand was paralyzed in a car accident. He committed suicide in 1948
    27. 27. Meyer Schapiro wrote of Gorky, “To be a disciple of Picasso in New York in the 1920s and early ’30s was an act of originality [and] an enormous risk.” And an act of self- assertion. But it was also humble, since Gorky considered painting a language to be learned. How better to grasp it than by imitation, just as the Renaissance masters had copied the ancients. Innovation and self-expression were secondary. Gorky’s growing proficiency would lead a friend to call him “the Poussin of America [who] knew what art was, how it was put together. He knew like Poussin where all the blocks fit.”
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