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Ncc art100 ch.10

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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Probably Picasso's most famous work, Guernica is certainly the his most powerful political statement, painted as an immediate reaction to the Nazi's devastating casual bombing practice on the Basque town of Guernica during Spanish Civil War.
    Guernica shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians. This work has gained a monumental status, becoming a perpetual reminder of the tragedies of war, an anti-war symbol, and an embodiment of peace. On completion Guernica was displayed around the world in a brief tour, becoming famous and widely acclaimed. This tour helped bring the Spanish Civil War to the world's attention.
    This work is seen as an amalgmation of pastoral and epic styles. The discarding of clor intensifis the drama, producing a reportage quality as in a photographic record. Guernica is blue, black and white, 3.5 metre (11 ft) tall and 7.8 metre (25.6 ft) wide, a mural-size canvas painted in oil. This painting can be seen in the Museo Reina Sofía in Madrid.
    Interpretations of Guernica vary widely and contradict one another. This extends, for example, to the mural's two dominant elements: the bull and the horse. Art historian Patricia Failing said, "The bull and the horse are important characters in Spanish culture. Picasso himself certainly used these characters to play many different roles over time. This has made the task of interpreting the specific meaning of the bull and the horse very tough. Their relationship is a kind of ballet that was conceived in a variety of ways throughout Picasso's career."
    Some critics warn against trusting the polital message in Guernica. For instance the rampaging bull, a major motif of destruction here, has previouse figured, whether as a bull or Minotaur, as Picasso' ego. However, in this instance the bull probably represents the onslaught of Fascism. Picasso said it meant brutality and darkness, presumably reminiscent of his prophetic. He also stated that the horse represented the people of Guernica.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Exploring Art:A Global,Thematic Approach Chapter 10 Power, Politics, and Glory
    • 2. The Glory of the Ruler Artistic devices used to glorify a ruler’s image are idealization, symbols, and composition. Divine rulers and royalty Objects of royalty and prestige Contemporary political leaders n what ways can art be used in the service of the state and rulers?
    • 3. Menkaure and his Chief Wife, Khamerernebty II, Giza, 4th Dynasty Idealized—young, strong & confident Compact pose suggest permanence befitting the pharaoh as a divinity and a descendant of the Sun God, Re.
    • 4. San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
    • 5. Justinian, Bishop Maximianus and attendants north wall apse mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic
    • 6. Emperor Justinian and His Attendants, Church or San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c.547. mosaic on north wall of the apse.
    • 7. Empress Theodora and Her Attendants, Church or San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c.547. mosaic on south wall of the apse.
    • 8. Crowned Head of an Oni. Zinc, brass. Nigeria, 12-15th c. ..(naturalistic…idealized royal portrait—note facial scarification and neck rings) Jayavarman VII, Cambodia, Angkor region, 12-13th c. (mystic/meditative…his conversion from Hinduism to Buddhism spread that religion in the area)
    • 9. Contemporary Political Leaders Images no longer works of art, but newspaper or television images Propaganda glorifies rule Triumph of the Will
    • 10. Leni Riefenstahl (1902-2003) Triumph of the Will, 1934 propaganda film for the Nazi party—friend of Hitler. Her propaganda value may repel but histories cite the aesthetics as outstanding. 1934 Nazi party rally in Nuremberg
    • 11. Triumph of the Will, 1934 film
    • 12. The Power of the State Palaces and palace sculpture Seats of government and architectural styles Monuments and monumental sculpture How does politics influence the design of architecture?
    • 13. Palaces and Palace Structures Palaces Grand size Lavish ornamentation Importance of height Art featured prominently to add symbolic content Ancient Persia Royal Audience Hall Mayan Civilization Palenque
    • 14. Lamassu, Khorsabad, Iraq, 720 BCE Limestone, 14’ Assyrians dominated the Near East for over 300 years
    • 15. Persepolis, capitol of ancient Persia (Iran), founded over 2500 years ago by the first kings of the Persian empire.
    • 16. Palace at Palenque. Maya. Chiapas, Mexico, 514–784. Center for religious rites, facilities fro astronomical studies and an administrative precinct.
    • 17. Imperial Throne Room, in Hall of Supreme Harmony. Forbidden City, Beijing. It’s magnificence supported the Emperor’s rule as Son of Heaven, father of the people and the one who maintained Heaven on Earth.
    • 18. Versailles, France—sign of power and an instrument for maintaining that power. Built by King Louis XIV—the Sun King (Apollo)—moved his court from Paris to Versailles in 1682 in order to better control them.
    • 19. Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, France, c.1680
    • 20. OLOWE OF ISE. Palace Sculpture. Yoruba. Ikere, Nigeria, 1910–1914.
    • 21. Seats of Government: England’s Houses of Parliament, 1836—Gothic revival
    • 22. U.S. Capitol, 1793 the Rotunda was intended to recall the Pantheon, the ancient Roman temple.
    • 23. Monuments—Arch of Titus, Rome, c.81; Grand Army Plaza, Bklyn.; Washington Square Park, NYC Stanford White, dedicated in 1895 the centennial of George Washington’s inauguration in NYC John Duncan, Soldier’s and Sailors Arch (recalls Arc de Triomphe) 1889 (bronze statues added later
    • 24. War Art in the service of war and reflecting attitudes toward war Art depicting warriors Fortifications, armor, and weapons War scenes and 19th century battle scenes Twentieth century images of war War memorials
    • 25. Tula Warrior Columns. 16’ to 20' high. Toltec. Mexico, 900–1000. They once “supported” the temple roof. The warriors’ attire is functional and aesthetic to increase their power and prestige. Stylized butterflies—symbolize souls of past warriors.
    • 26. Verrocchio’s Equestrian Monument of Bartolomeo Colleoni, c.1483 Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Roman
    • 27. Begun 206 BCE, Qin Dyn., 1,500 miles “a wonder of the world”
    • 28. WAR SCENES GLORIFYING WAR
    • 29. Palette of King Narmer, Egypt, c. 3000 BCE. Slate, 25” high. c. Jurgen Liepe, Berlin.
    • 30. Burning of the Sanjo Palace. From the Heiji Monogatari. Hand scroll (detail), ink and color on paper; 161/4" high, 22'9" long. Japan, Kamakura period, late thirteenth century. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Shows the disorder of warfare—contrasts heighten the chaos—jumbled shapes vs. clean lines of palace
    • 31. Matthew Brady, Dead Confederate Soldier with Gun, 1865—staged scene U.S. Civil War—note the parellels of body and guns and the horizontal tree in foreground.
    • 32. Battleship Potemkin is an important film because, even though it was made a long time ago, it is such a strong modernist statement. I expect that when people think of silent films they imagine slapstick comedy or something boring with no dialogue. But Battleship Potemkin is a very exciting, very moving film and it looks beautifully fresh. I've always felt that silent films are pure cinema and that, in many ways, adding words is cheating. Film at its purest is putting images together to tell a story, which is why it's not television or theatre. And Battleship Potemkin is a groundbreaking example of that.
    • 33. "The Battleship Potemkin" af Sergei Eisenstein, 1925
    • 34. By now, the editing style of Sergei Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin is the textbook example of montage, and deservedly so. Eisenstein more or less invented the use of quick cuts of several pieces of ongoing action, reaction shots, and close-ups, all spliced together to tell one complete story.
    • 35. Guernica shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians. On completion Guernica was displayed around the world in a brief tour, becoming famous and widely acclaimed. This tour helped bring the Spanish Civil War to the world's attention.
    • 36. Picasso, Guernica, Spain, 1937 Bull—onslaught of Fascism Horse—people of Guernica
    • 37. WAR MEMORIALS
    • 38. In 1981, at age 21, Maya Lin won a public design competition for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, beating out 1,441 submissions. A black cut-stone masonry wall, with the names of 58,261 names. The wall is granite and V-shaped, with one side pointing to the Lincoln Memorial and the other to Washington Monument. Ross Perot called her an “egg roll” after it was revealed that she was Asian.
    • 39. Vietnam War Eddie Adams This picture is the most famous of all picture taken from the Vietnam War. The girl running in the middle is named Kim Phuc, at the time 9 years old. The American planes dropped napalm on the town, and it hit the girl, burning her flesh.
    • 40. By most accounts, the Tet Offensive of 1968 was the beginning of the end of America’s positive outlook on Vietnam, not because American soldiers were defeated, but because of the way the Tet was portrayed by the press. Eddie Adams, General Loan shooting a young Vietnamese suspect.
    • 41. Nick Ut, June 8, 1972, Children running from burning napalm droped by S. Vietnamese fighter plan Ut photo helped push the Vietnam War into the realm of the greatest political disasters of all time.
    • 42. Peace Art about peace Peaceable Kingdom by Edward Hicks Peace offerings and peace monuments Moctezuma’s Headdress  Believed to have belonged to the last Aztec ruler Presentation Pipe Tomahawk Ara Pacis Augustae Peace parks
    • 43. Ara Pacis Augustae,. Rome, 13-9 BCE. Marble; outerwall, 34’5” X 38’ X 23’.
    • 44. Discussion Topics Why do governments and rulers support or suppress art and architecture project? What other institutions have the significant resources to commission large-scale works of art? What are some contemporary examples of art that promotes the power of the government? Is all art that is government funded intended to be used as a propaganda tool? Do you think artists involved in creating state-sponsored art think they are creating propaganda?
    • 45. In what ways can art be used in the service of the state and rulers? What kinds of art/architecture have been so employed? Why have the designers of objects of war included aesthetic considerations? How has war influenced the form/function of architecture? How has art documented both war and peace.