Ncc 15th c. n. europe


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  • In the Carthusian monastery, intended to be the burying place of the Prince of Burgundy, Philip the Bold and his family. The monastery was destroyed during the French revolution, but the hexagonal base with the figures of the six prophets who had forseen the death of Christ on the Cross (Moses, David, Jeremiah, Zachariah, Daniel and Isaiah) survived.
  • In the Carthusian monastery, intended to be the burying place of the Prince of Burgundy, Philip the Bold and his family. The monastery was destroyed during the French revolution, but the hexagonal base with the figures of the six prophets who had forseen the death of Christ on the Cross (Moses, David, Jeremiah, Zachariah, Daniel and Isaiah) survived.
  • A
  • In 1410 the Limburg brothers were called to the court of Duke Jean de Berry at Mehun-sur-Yevre, near Bourges. There they painted a unique masterpiece, Les Très Riches Heures, which today still draws countless admirers to the Musée Condé in Chantilly, north of Paris. Now only ruins remain of the duke's favourite castle, the Mehun-sur-Yevre, but in his chronology of 1400, the French poet Jean Froissart praised this castle as the most beautiful in the world. One of the illustrations from the Très Riches Heures depicting the temptation of Christ does justice to Froissart's hymn of praise. With its white towers decorated with Gothic tracery, the castle depicted looks like a monumental crown. It symbolizes the wealth of the world which Christ, seen on top of a minaret-like mountain, has refused in order to overcome the temptations offered by the Devil. The duke possibly wanted to relate this scene to the change in his own life, the quality of which is hinted at in the depiction of the castle, a metaphor for the temptations of the world of the senses. But it is doubtful whether de Berry was always as upright as the model he set himself.
  • The Crucifixion and the Last Judgment (Metropolitan Museum) were the side wings of a triptych, the central panel of which is lost. The attribution to Jan van Eyck is debated.
  • Ghent Altarpiece (open), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Gelgium, 1432
  • The mirror is the focal point of the whole composition. It has often been noted that two tiny figures can be seen reflected in it, their image captured as they cross the threshold of the room. They are the painter himself and a young man, perhaps arriving to act as witnesses to the marriage. The essential point, however, is the fact that the convex mirror is able to absorb and reflect in a single image both the floor and the ceiling of the room, as well as the sky and the garden outside, both of which are otherwise barely visible through the side window. The mirror thus acts as a sort of hole in the texture of space. It sucks the entire visual world into itself, transforming it into a representation.
  • The portrayal of the woman's open right palm, facing the viewer, must have been very important to the painter, so much so, that he drew the man's left arm somewhat incorrectly: it is too short and the slightly upward turning wrist is anatomically incorrect. As an explanation it is therefore assumed that the open palm is an allusion to the marriage engagement.
  • The earliest painting that can be ascribed to Rogier van der Weyden with any certainty is also the artist's greatest and most influential extant work: the great Deposition. It was an altarpiece, intended for the chapel of the Confraternity of the Archers of Leuven, who commissioned it.
  • Portrait of a Lady c. 1455; Oil on wood, 37 x 27 cm
  • The triptych consists of The Adoration of the Shepherds; Saints Margaret and Mary Magdalen with Maria Portinari; Saints Anthony and Thomas with Tommaso Portinari. Painted at Brugges on the commission of Tommaso Portinari, who was Medicean agent in that city. It was subsequently sent to Florence and placed upon the high altar of Sant'Egidio.
  • Ncc 15th c. n. europe

    1. 1. Dukes of Burgundy—most powerful rulers of northern Europe for most of the 15th c. – Philip the Bold of Burgundy – Jean Duke of Berry--enthusiastic art collector— known for the Tres Riches Heures – Philip the Good of Burgundy—court painters Jan van Eyck
    2. 2. Burgundy and Flanders • In the 15th century, Flanders (more or less equivalent to modern Belgium, Holland, and parts of northern France) was part of the Duchy of Burgundy, a region in what is today east-central France. • Philip the Bold controlled Flanders. Through marriage he acquired Bruges (wool, banking) • He built a major “charter house” in Dijon, France to be a ducal mausoleum.
    3. 3. Charteuse (charter house) de Champmol • One of Philip the Bold’s most lavish projects • Chartusian monks were dedicated exclusively to prayer and solitary meditation. • The monks did not provide for themselves.
    4. 4. Charteuse (charter house) de Champmol • The monastery, intended to be the burying place of the Prince of Burgundy, Philip the Bold and his family. • Claus Sluter—in charge of sculptural program • Melchior Broederlam—altarpiece—carved and painted
    5. 5. • Some Flemish sculpture shows an intense observation of natural appearances. • In painting, the new oil technique was used to enhance the naturalistic representation of figures and objects with meticulous detail. • In both sculpture and painting, textures are skillfully and minutely differentiated. • Medieval ideas and conventions, however, persist in the treatment of space, scale, and figure proportions.
    6. 6. Moses rendered as physically and psychologically distinct individual--sad eyes, wrinkles Sluter looked at the individual in new way--as a ponderous mass defined by voluminous drapery. Claus Sluter, Well of Moses1395-1406
    7. 7. Nicola Piasan, Pisa pulpit Classical and Medieval Style: fusion of International Gothic and northern realism
    8. 8. International style characteristics: • Slender, gracefully posed figures • Delicate features framed by masses of curling hair • Extraordinarily complex headdresses • Noble men and women in rich brocaded and embroidered fabrics and elaborate jewelry • Landscape and architectural minaturized • Details of nature--leaves, flowers, insects, birds-- rendered by nearly microscopic detail • Spatial recession--rising tiled floors • Buildings open at front (ala stage set) • Fanciful mountains and meadows--high horizon lines • Light, bright colors and liberal use of gold
    9. 9. Melchior Broederlam • The Dijon Altarpiece • 1393-99 oil on panel 5’5 ¾”x4’1 ¼” • Broederlam's use of oil paint had a strong impact on the painters of the following generation, including Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck. • The spatial arrangements recall Duccio
    10. 10. Outer wings Retalbe (altarpiece) de Champmol: Annunication and Visitation; Presentation and Flight into Egypt, installed 1339, Dijon. panels each 65x49”
    11. 11. Although the perspective is far from fully developed, light and shadow are used to create a sense of depth in a very advanced fashion, and the realistic depiction of Saint Joseph was to become characteristic of Netherlandish painting.
    12. 12. LIMBOURG brothers (Herman, Jean, Paul) Flemish painters (b. 1370-80, Nijmegen, d. 1416, Nijmegen) The Limbourg Brothers began the Tres Riches Heures about 1413 (died of the Plague 1416…some pages unfinished) Tres Riches Heures (Very Sumptuous Book of Hours) Patron: John the Good..the Duke of Berry
    13. 13. Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (The Very Sumptuous House of the Duke of Berry) (1340-1416) "the king of the illuminated manuscripts" • Calendar: zodiac signs and labors of the month • Gospel readings: portraits of the evangelists • Little office of the Virgin (hours)
    14. 14. The month of giving gifts (a custom which seems to have died out now). Jean de Berry himself can be seen on the right, wearing the brilliant blue robe. John is singled out by the red cloth of honor with his heraldic arms--swans and the lilies of France--and by a large fire screen that circles his head liked a secular halo.
    15. 15. Tapestry on the back walls depicts scenes from Homer’s Battle of Troy… theatrical backdrop to court celebrations. Tapestries had three major themes: religion; courtly love and heroic themes. The story of the Trojan Was were particularly popular. The French royal family traced its ancestry back to the family of the great Trojan prince, Hector.
    16. 16. February Winter in a peasant village. The inhabitants of a farm are shown warming themselves by the fire, while in the background daily life - cutting wood, taking cattle to the market - goes on as normal. International Gothic characteristics: high placement of the horizon line, small size of trees and buildings in relation to people, cutaway view of house (ala stage).
    17. 17. October Tilling and sowing are being carried out by the peasants, in the shadow of the Louvre - Charles V's royal palace in Paris.
    18. 18. Flanders • Strong economy based on wool, textile and international trade • Patrons: civic groups, town councils and wealthy merchants • Cities: self-governed and largely independent of the landed nobility • Guilds oversaw nearly every aspect of their members’ lives
    19. 19. Flemish artists: • Known for exquisite illuminated manuscripts, tapestries and stained glass • Perfected technique of painting with oil – Slow to dry – Luminous quality Robert Campin (or Master of Flemalle) ran a workshop in Belgium
    20. 20. Campin, Robert (the Master of Flemalle) Merode Altarpiece c. 1425 Triptych, oil on wood The Annunciation was a popular subject but…Campin placed the supernatural event in and everyday setting.
    21. 21. Lively narrative and bold three- dimensional treatment of figures reminiscent of the sculptural style of Claus Sluter
    22. 22. Donor portraits became popular in the 15th c. Peter Inghelbrecht, wealthy merchant, his name means “angel bringer” The wife’s name, Scrynmakers means “cabinet or shrine maker”
    23. 23. Jan van Eyck Campin’s contemporary…painted for the court of Philip the Good…Jan perfected the medium of oil by building up his images in very thin transparent oil layers.
    24. 24. Philip the Good, (van der Weyden) Duke of Burgundy 1419-1467 In 1430 Philip the Good handed Joan of Arc over to the English
    25. 25. The Crucifixion and the Last Judgment (Metropolitan Museum)
    26. 26. Madonna in the Church c. 1425 Oil on wood The asymmetric composition, unusual at Van Eyck, is explained by the fact that this panel was the left wing of a diptych.
    27. 27. The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin 1435 Wood, 66 x 62 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
    28. 28. The Ghent Altarpiece (wings closed) 1432 Oil on wood
    29. 29. The Offering of Abel and Cain The Killing of Abel
    30. 30. Man in a Turban 1433 “As I can” (The best I am capable of doing)… humanist spirit of the age and confident expression of an artist who knows his capabilities and is proud to display them.
    31. 31. Giovanni Arnolfini, a prosperous Italian banker who had settled in Bruges, and his wife Giovanna Cenami, stand side by side in the bridal chamber, facing towards the viewer. The husband is holding out his wife's hand. “Johannes de eyck fuit hic 1434 (Jan van Eych was present, 1434)
    32. 32. • It is uncertain that the picture depicts an actual marriage ceremony. The Latin inscription on the back wall, 'Jan van Eyck was here/1434', has been interpreted as the artist's witness to their marriage, but may simply attest to his authorship of the painting, • his creation of 'here'. The mirror is the focal point of the whole composition.
    33. 33. • The central motif of the painting, the so-called 'joining of hands', has long been recognized as a special gesture with a specific meaning. It has been the subject of debate for decades.
    34. 34. • Oranges placed on the low table and the windowsill are a reminder of an original innocence, of an age before sin. Unless, that is, they are not in fact oranges but apples (it is difficult to be certain), in which case they would represent the temptation of knowledge and the Fall.
    35. 35. • The small dog in the foreground is an emblem of fidelity and love.
    36. 36. • The clogs and outdoor sandals which the couple have removed might be typical wedding presents, or represent the taking of shoes in a sacred precincts.
    37. 37. Giovanni Arnolfini, a prosperous Italian banker who had settled in Bruges, and his wife Giovanna Cenami, stand side by side in the bridal chamber, facing towards the viewer. The husband is holding out his wife's hand. “Johannes de eyck fuit hic 1434 (Jan van Eych was present, 1434)
    38. 38. Deposition in the Prado, Madrid by Rogier van der WEYDEN Altarpiece commissioned by the Crossbowmen’s Guild, Belgium before 1443,oil on panel Renowned for his dynamic compositions stressing human action and drama.
    39. 39. • In the decoration of the upper left corner a bow can be seen. The explanation is that the altarpiece was commissioned by the Confraternity of the Archers of Leuven for a church, now demolished, outside the city walls.
    40. 40. • The grief stricken woman (who may be Mary Salome) reflects the attitude of Mary Magdalene on the right of the panel. In keeping with her advanced age and the distribution of various elements of movement throughout the picture, however, she expresses her emotion in a rather restrained, less extrovert way.
    41. 41. St Luke Drawing a Portrait of Virgin Mary Rogier van der Weyden about 1434-1440 Oil on panel, 137.5 x 111 cm Boston, Museum of Fine Arts
    42. 42. about 1434-14401435
    43. 43. Rogier van der Weyden, Portrait of a Lady c. 1455
    44. 44. St. Eligius, as a Goldsmith, Hands the Wedding Couple a Ring (Petrus Christus 1469)
    45. 45. The Portinari Triptych by Hugo van der GOES
    46. 46. Portinari Altarpiece (open) c.1474 tempera and oil on panel
    47. 47. • The Adoration of the Shepherds, the most important work by the greatest Netherlandish painter of the late 15th century, has a unique historical and artistic significance. The altar was donated to the Florentine church of San Egidio by Tommaso Portinari, who since 1465 had been living in princely style in Bruges as manager of the Medici family's commercial interests. The central panel is flanked by two wings depicting other members of the Portinari family and the family's patron saints, with a grisaille Annunciation on their reverse.
    48. 48. 15th century French Art Jean Fouquet Melun Diptych c.1451 oil on wood
    49. 49. Etienne Chevalier (treasurer of France) and Saint Stephen and Virgin and Child Diptych rendered in meticulous detail (recalls Flemish art) Virgin modeled after mistress (who had recently died) of K. Charles VII
    50. 50. Virgin and Child
    51. 51. 15th century German Art New medium: printmaking Gutenberg invented movable type, but the roots of printing lie in the ancient Near East. The technique of manufacturing paper came to Europe from the Islamic regions.
    52. 52. Graphics by Martin SCHONGAUER
    53. 53. • The Man of Sorrows with the Virgin Mary and St John the Evangelist • 1470-75 Copper-plate engraving • One of the earliest engravings of Schongauer, showing the influence of Rogier van der Weyden.
    54. 54. • Adoration of the Magi • c. 1475 • The scene is as concentrated as Rogier's, but more naturalistic and modern in its spatial development. Different colors and material textures, such as the eldest king's velvet robe, are very well suggested in the engraving.
    55. 55. • Temptation of St Anthony - Copper engraving • Wide range of tonal values and a rhythmic quality of line • Textures—spiky, scaly, leathery, furry—enhance the expressive impact of the image
    56. 56. The End