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Meeting 27: What is a Civil Rights Movement?
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Meeting 27: What is a Civil Rights Movement?

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  • 1. HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION: 1648 TO PRESENT What is a Civil Rights Movement?
  • 2. I. WWII and Civil Rights A. Rights in the 1930s & 40s 1. The Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXX6ER9_I2s
  • 3. Lawrence H. Beitler. Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith Postcard. Marion, Indiana. August 7, 1930.
  • 4. Strange Fruit (1939) Southern trees bear strange fruit Blood on the leaves and blood at the root Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees Pastoral scene of the gallant south The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh Then the sudden smell of burning flesh http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Web007rzSOI Here is fruit for the crows to pluck For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop Here is a strange and bitter crop
  • 5. I. WWII and Civil Rights A. Rights in the 1930s & 40s 1. The Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith 2. A Jim Crow War "Why Should We March?" March on Washington fliers, 1941. A. Philip Randolph Papers, Manuscript Division (8-8) Courtesy of the A. Philip Randolph Institute, Washington, D.C..
  • 6. I. WWII and Civil Rights A. Rights in the 1930s & 40s 1. The Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith 2. A Jim Crow War Toni Frissell. Tuskegee Airmen, 1945. Silver gelatin print. LOC Prints and Photographs Division. Reproduction Number: LC-F9-02-4503-330-5 (8-6)
  • 7. I. WWII and Civil Rights A. Rights in the 1930s & 40s 1. The Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith 2. A Jim Crow War Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps. 1945
  • 8. I. WWII and Civil Rights A. Rights in the 1930s & 40s 1. The Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith 2. A Jim Crow War Double V Campaign
  • 9. I. WWII and Civil Rights A. Rights in the 1930s & 40s 1. The Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith 2. A Jim Crow War Left: Isaac Woodward Right: Charles White.The Return of the Soldier, 1946. Pen and ink on illustration board. Prints and Photographs Division. Reproduction Number: LC-USZC4-4886 (8-19)
  • 10. I. WWII and Civil Rights A. Rights in the 1930s & 40s 1. The Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith 2. A Jim Crow War 3. The G.I. Bill • Low cost mortgages • Low-interest loans for business • Tuition & living expenses for college
  • 11. I. WWII & Civil Rights II. The Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement (1954-1971) adapted from <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/timeline/civil_01.ht ml> 1954 In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court rules unanimously against school segregation, overturning its 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. 1955 Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama, bus to a white person, triggering a successful, year-long African American boycott of the bus system. 1956 The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the segregation of Montgomery, Ala., buses is unconstitutional. 1957 King, Jr., helps found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to work for full equality for African Americans. Rosa Parks sits in the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, after the Supreme Court ruled segregation illegal on the city bus system on December 21st, 1956. Parks was arrested on December 1, 1955 for refusing to give up her seat in the front of a bus in Montgomery set off a successful boycott of the city busses. Man sitting behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a reporter for United Press International out of Atlanta. © Bettmann/CORBIS For the first time since Reconstruction, the federal government uses the military to uphold African Americans' civil rights, as soldiers escort nine African American students to desegregate a school in Little Rock, Arkansas. Daisy Bates, an NAACP leader, advised and assisted the students and eventually
  • 12. I. WWII & Civil Rights II. The Civil Rights Movement 1964 The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), CORE and the NAACP and other civilrights groups organize a massive African American voter registration drive in Mississippi known as "Freedom Summer." Three CORE civil rights workers are murdered. In the five years following Freedom Summer, black voter registration in Mississippi will rise from a mere 7 percent to 67 percent. President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, which gives the federal government far-reaching powers to prosecute discrimination in employment, voting, and education. 1965 One year after splitting from the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X is assassinated in New York by gunmen affiliated with the NOI. King organizes a protest march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, for African American voting rights. A shocked nation watches on television as police club and teargas protesters. Segregationist protests civil rights march outside Montgomery Capitol building by carrying a sign that reads, "Civil Rights Bill Un-Constitutional." Civil rights activists marched from Selma to Montgomery to protest denial of voting rights to African Americans.March 1965. © Steve Schapiro/Corbis In the wake of the Selma-Montgomery March, the Voting Rights Act is passed, outlawing the practices used in the South to disenfranchise African American voters
  • 13. I. WWII & Civil Rights II. The Civil Rights Movement 1965 Race riots break out in the Watts area of Los Angeles, leaving 34 dead and roughly a thousand hurt. The immediate trigger is the arrest of a young African American man charged with reckless driving; the underlying cause is probably mass unemployment and poor living conditions among L.A,'s African Americans, combined with widespread racism. 1966 Stokely Carmichael, chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, calls for "black power" in a speech, ushering in a more militant civil rights stance. Stokely Carmichael at a peace rally at the United Nations in New York City. 1967. © Bob Adelman/Corbis Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seales found the Black Panther Party, a radical black power group, in Oakland, California. Although it develops a reputation for militant rhetoric and clashes with the police, the group also becomes a national organization that supports food, education, and healthcare programs in poor African American communities. 1967 Thurgood Marshall becomes the first African American justice on the Supreme Court. Stokely Carmichael. Speech at UC Berkley. January 1966.
  • 14. I. WWII & Civil Rights II. The Civil Rights Movement 1968 Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. His murder sparks a week of rioting across the country. Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African American woman to be elected to Congress. 1971 Fifteen African American members of Congress form the Congressional Black Caucus to present a unified African American voice in Congress. Shirley Chisholm after winning Brooklyn’s 12th District on 5 November 1968 © Bettmann/CORBIS

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