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H114 Meeting 8: The North Atlantic Revolutions

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  • 1. HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION: 1688 TO PRESENT LECTURE 8: THE NORTH ATLANTIC REVOLUTIONS
  • 2. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime A. Hierarchy, Order, and the Challenges of State Centralization 1. Political Philosophy a. Absolutism b. Constitutionalism 2. Towns, Churches, Representative Institutions, Regional Allegiances and Traditions 3. Warfare, Bureaucracy, and Tax Collection 4. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
  • 3. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime A. Hierarchy, Order, and the Challenges of State Centralization B. The State and the Economy 1. Warfare and Its Costs 2. Slavery, Empire, and the Global Economy
  • 4. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime A. Hierarchy, Order, and the Challenges of State Centralization B. The State and the Economy 1. Warfare and Its Costs 2. Slavery, Empire, and the Global Economy 3. Middling Sorts 4. Peasants a. Population surge b. Agricultural output and distribution 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 1700 1750 1800 European Population Growth in the 18th Century (millions)
  • 5. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime A. Hierarchy, Order, and the Challenges of State Centralization B. The State and the Economy 1. Warfare and Its Costs 2. Slavery, Empire, and the Global Economy 3. Middling Sorts 4. Peasants a. Population surge b. Agricultural output, enclosure, and distribution c. The Moral Economy and Food Riots William Hogarth, Skimmington from the Hudibras series
  • 6. Population and Subsistence Crises Poor Harvests Grain Shortage High Prices Undernourishment Unemployment Disease Migration Marriages and Birth Rates Fall Death Rate Rises Population Declines
  • 7. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime A. Hierarchy, Order, and the Challenges of State Centralization B. The State and the Economy C. A Society of Orders and the Three Estates
  • 8. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime A. Hierarchy, Order, and the Challenges of State Centralization B. The State and the Economy C. A Society of Orders and the Three Estates D. The Wars of the Eighteenth Century 1. Struggle for Territory in Europe (e.g. War of Austrian Succession and French desire for Austrian Netherlands) 2. Struggle for Empire (e.g. 7 Yrs.’ War and French- English struggle for N. America and India) 3. Struggle for Independence (e.g. War of American Independence)
  • 9. League of Augsburg (1689-1697) Diderot and d’Alembert, Encyclopedia (1751-72) England William III (1688-1702) Anne (1702-1714) George I (1714-1727) George II (1727-1760) George III (1760-1820) The Enlightenment (1687-1789) Locke (1632-1704) PoliticalPersonagesEnlightenment Thought Newton, Principia mathematica (1687) Spanish Succession (1701-1714) Voltaire (1694-1766) Montesquieu (1689-1755) Diderot (1713-1784) Rousseau (1712-1788) Hume (1711-1776) Newton (1642-1727) Smith (1723-1790) Equiano (1745-1797) Locke, Second Treatises on Government, Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) Voltaire, Philosophical Letters (1734) Hume, Treatise on Human Nature (1740) Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws (1748) Rousseau, Social Contract (1762) Smith, Wealth of Nations (1776) MajorWars Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Seven Yrs.’ War (1756-1763) American Revolution (1776-1783) France Louis XIV (1651-1715) Duc of Orleans, Regent (1715-1723) Louis XV (1723-1774) Louis XVI (1774-1793) Spain Charles II (1665-1701) Philip V (1701-1746) Ferdinand VI (1746-1759) Charles III (1759-1788) Charles IV (1788-1808) Austria Leopold VI (1657-1705) Joseph I (1705-1711) Charles III (1711-1740) Maria Theresa (1740-1780) Joseph II (1780-1790) Prussia Frederick I (1701-1713) Frederick William (1713-1740) Frederick II (1740-1786) Frederick William II (1786-1797) Great Northern War (1700-1720)
  • 10. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime II. The Revolution in the British Colonies A. Historiography
  • 11. socio-economic causes Ideological causes Whigs (19th century) e.g. Bancroft, Fiske 1.Progress and modernity 2.Constitutional development 3.Whiggish heroes were moderate reformers, not radicals Neo-Whigs (late 20thh century-) e.g. Bailyn, Wood 1.Ideological origins of revolution 2.Constitutional development 3.Public sphere and the radicalism of people through debate Revolutionaries are progressive Revolutionaries are conservative Progressives (late19thh century-) e.g. Beard, Schlesinger 1.Economic factors drove revolution 2.Democratic radicalism unleashed by revolution; constitution was attempt to control 3.Colonial American society was undemocratic & divided by class New Left (1960s-) e.g. Zinn, Lemisch, Nash 1.Centrality of class, race, gender 2.History from below 3.Whiggish heroes often self-interested Imperial School (late 19thh century-) e.g. Namier, Gipson Schuyler 1.Revolution part of larger imperial policy and debates 2.Revolution a response to poor political policy in Britain Conservative (mid 20thh century) e.g. Hoftsader, Boorstin 1.Revolutionaries desired to replace leaders, not system 2.American system was relatively democratic before revolution 3.Class conflict not significant to revolution
  • 12. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime II. The Revolution in the British Colonies A. Historiography B. Justifications (Declaration of Independence)
  • 13. We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their CREATOR, with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that Governments long established, should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
  • 14. We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their CREATOR, with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that Governments long established, should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
  • 15. We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their CREATOR, with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that Governments long established, should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
  • 16. I. Review: The Structure of the Old Regime II. The Revolution in the British Colonies A. Historiography B. Justifications (Declaration of Independence) C. Women and the Revolution
  • 17. Response to the Sugar Act (1764) and the Townsend Duties (1767) Since the Men from a Party, on fear of a Frown,Are kept by a Sugar-Plumb, quietly down.
Supinely asleep, & depriv'd of their Sight Are strip'd of their Freedom, and rob'd of their Right.
 If the Sons (so degenerate) the Blessing despise [hate], Let the Daughters of Liberty, nobly arise, And tho' we've no Voice, but a negative here.
The use of the Taxables, let us forebear [boycott], (Then Merchants import till yr.
 Stores are all full May the Buyers be few & yr.
 Traffick [sales] be dull.
) Stand firmly resolved & bid Grenville to see That rather than Freedom, we'll part with our Tea --Hannah Griffitts,"The Female Patriots," 1768, http://womhist.
alexanderstreet.
com/teacher/DBQamrev1.
htm
  • 18. OBITUARY FROM THE LEADER OF THE LADIES ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA We hear from Maryland, that the most liberal contributions have been made by the women of that State, for the assistance of the army, -- That some individuals have presented 15 guineas -- that in one of the smallest and most remote counties, have been collected upwards of 60,000 dollars -- that a considerable part of the sums collected has been laid out in the purchase of linen, and a thousand shirts are already made up; no woman of whatever quality neglecting the honour of assisting with her own hands to make them up.
 The women of this city [Philadelphia] have been employed in like manner, which, when it is related in Europe, will be a signal honour to our cause.
 Those disposed to lessen [hurt] the reputation of female patriotism might have said that what our women have contributed, must, in the first instance, have come from the pockets of their husbands; but, where their own labour is bestowed, the most delicate fingers being employed in the workmanship, it must be acknowledged an effort of virtue, the praise of which must peculiarly belong to themselves.
 --Excerpt from Esther Reed Obituary, Pennsylvania Gazette, 27 September 1780, http://womhist.
alexanderstreet.
com/teacher/DBQamrev7.
htm
  • 19. I.
 Review: The Structure of the Old Regime II.
 The Revolution in the British Colonies A.
 Historiography B.
 Justifications (Declaration of Independence) C.
 Women and the Revolution D.
 Choosing Sides: The Example of the Six Nations
  • 20. We desire you will hear and receive what we have now told you, and that you will open a good ear and listen to what we are now going to say.
 This is a family quarrel between us and Old England.
 You Indians are not concerned in it.
 We don't wish you to take up the hatchet against the king's troops.
 We desire you to remain at home, and not join on either side, but keep the hatchet buried deep.
" —The Second Continental Congress A Speech to the Six Confederate Nations, Mohawks, Oneidas, Tusscaroras, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senekas [a.
k.
a.
 Iriquois Confederacy], from the Twelve United Colonies, convened in Council at Philadelphia, July 13, 1775, http://avalon.
law.
yale.
edu/18th_century/contcong_07-13-75.
asp
  • 21. Joseph Thayendanegea (Brant) to George III, 1776 The Six Nations who always loved the king, sent a number of their Chiefs and Warriors with their Superintendent to Canada last summer, where they engaged their allies to joyn with them in the defense of that country, and when it was invaded by the New England people they alone defeated them.
 Brother.
 In that engagement we had several of our best Warriors killed and wounded, and the Indians think it very hard they should have been so deceived by the White people in that country, the enemy returning in great numbers, and no White people supporting the Indians, they were obliged to return to their villages and sit still.
 We now Brother hope to see these bad children chastised, and that we may be enabled to tell the Indians who have always been faithfull and ready to assist the King, what his Majesty intends.
 Brother.
 The Mohocks [Mohawks] our particular nation, have on all occasions shewn their zeal and loyalty to the Great King; yet they have been very badly treated by the people in that country, the City of Albany laying an unjust claim to the lands on which our Lower Castle is built, .
 .
 .
 We have only therefore to request that his Majesty will attend to this matter: it troubles our Nation & they can not sleep easie in their beds.
 Indeed it is very hard when we have let the Kings subjects have so much land for so little value, they should want to cheat us in this manner of the small spots we have left for our women and children to live on.
 We are tired out in making complaints & getting no redress.
 (E.
 B.
 O’Callaghan, ed.
 Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York 15 vols.
 (Albany, 1853–87): 8:670–71.
)
  • 22. 1783 Joseph Thayendanegea (Brant) to Governor Frederick Haldimand of Quebec Brother Asharekowa and Representatives of the King, the sachems and War Chieftains of the Six United Nations of Indians and their Allies have heard that the King, their Father, has made peace with his children the Bostonians.
 The Indians distinguish by Bostonians, the Americans in Rebellion, as it first began in Boston, and when they heard of it, they found that they were forgot and no mention made of them in said Peace, wherefore they have now sent me to inform themselves before you of the real truth, whether it is so or not, that they are not partakers of that Peace with the King and the Bostonians.
 Brother, listen with great attention to our words, we were greatly alarmed and cast down when we heard that news, and it occasions great discontent and surprise with our People; wherefore tell us the real truth from your heart, and we beg that the King will be put in mind by you and recollect what we have been when his people first saw us, and what we have since done for him and his subjects.
 Brother, we, the Mohawks, were the first Indian Nation that took you by the hand like friends and brothers, and invited you to live amongst us, treating you with kindness upon your debarkation in small parties.
 The Oneidas, our neighbors, were equally well disposed towards you and as a mark of our sincerity and love towards you we fastened your ship to a great mountain at Onondaga, the Center of our Confederacy, and the rest of the Five Nations approving of it.
 We were then a great people, conquering all Indian Nations round about us, and you in a manner but a handfull, after which you increased by degrees and we continued your friends and allies, joining you from time to time against your enemies, sacrificing numbers of our people and leaving their bones scattered in your enemies country.
 At last we assisted you in conquering all Canada, and then again, for joining you so firmly and faithfully, you renewed your assurances of protecting and defending ourselves, lands and possessions against any encroachment whatsoever, procuring for us the enjoyment of fair and plentiful trade of your people, and sat contented under the shade of the Tree of Peace, tasting the favour and friendship of a great Nation bound to us by Treaty, and able to protect us against
  • 23. I.
 Review: The Structure of the Old Regime II.
 The Revolution in the British Colonies III.
 The Causes of the French Revolution A.
 Historiography B.
 Economy: Financing wars in the Eighteenth Century 1.
 Taxation 2.
 Borrowing: High interest/short term loans 3.
 Charles Calonne’s audit League of Augsburg (1689-1697) Spanish Succession (1701-1714) MajorWars Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Seven Yrs.
’ War (1756-1763) American Revolution (1776-1783) Default 1720 Calonne finishes audit 1786 France Louis XIV (1651-1715) Duc of Orleans, Regent (1715-1723) Louis XV (1723-1774) Louis XVI (1774-1793)
  • 24. Louis XIV’s Debt in 1786 Debt Deficit Revenue (GDP) 1.
25 billion livres 112 million livres 448 million livres
  • 25. Louis XIV’s Debt in 1786 Deficit as percentage of state’s revenue 25%
  • 26. Louis XIV’s Debt in 1786 Debt as percentage of state’s revenue 250%
  • 27. Louis XIV’s Debt in 1786 Annual interest payments as percentage of state’s revenue 50%
  • 28. I.
 Review: The Structure of the Old Regime II.
 The Revolution in the British Colonies III.
 The Causes of the French Revolution A.
 Historiography B.
 Economy: Financing wars in the Eighteenth Century Solutions? • Pay down debt • Reduce size army • Increase taxes • Tax nobles • Bankruptcy • Solution: Assembly of Notables / Estates General
  • 29. I.
 Review: The Structure of the Old Regime II.
 The Revolution in the British Colonies III.
 The Causes of the French Revolution A.
 Historiography B.
 Economy: Financing wars in the Eighteenth Century C.
 Public Opinion 1.
 Public debate 2.
 Politicized nation in an economic crisis 3.
 Blaming the king
  • 30. I.
 Review: The Structure of the Old Regime II.
 The Revolution in the British Colonies III.
 The Causes of the French Revolution IV.
 The Causes of the French Revolution A.
 Historiography B.
 Economy: Financing wars in the Eighteenth Century C.
 Public Opinion D.
 Poor harvest (1788) 1.
 Hunger 2.
 Loss of tax revenue 3.
 Estates General (May 1789)
  • 31. The French Revolution 1. First FR (1789-1792) 2. French Republic (1792-1799) a. Creation of Republic (1792-3) b. The Terror (1793-4) c. The Directory (1795-99) Napoleon (1799-1815) 1. The Consulate (1799-1804) 2. Empire (1804-1815)
  • 32. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) A. Estates General and the vote: The Three Estates 1787 Feb. 22 Convening of Assembly of Notables 1788 Aug. 8 Announcement of Estates general 1789 May 5 Estates General opens at Versailles June 17 National Assembly declared June 20 Tennis Court Oath July 14 Storming of Bastilles Late July The Great Fear Aug. 4 Abolition of feudal privileges Aug. 26 Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Oct. 5 March to Versailles; Louis XVI and National Assembly in Paris Nov. 2 Church Property Nationalized
  • 33. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) A. Estates General and the vote: The Three Estates B. Creation of the National Assembly: “one man, one vote” • Tennis Court Oath 1787 Feb. 22 Convening of Assembly of Notables 1788 Aug. 8 Announcement of Estates general 1789 May 5 Estates General opens at Versailles June 17 National Assembly declared June 20 Tennis Court Oath July 14 Storming of Bastilles Late July The Great Fear Aug. 4 Abolition of feudal privileges Aug. 26 Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Oct. 5 March to Versailles; Louis XVI and National Assembly in Paris Nov. 2 Church Property Nationalized
  • 34. Tennis Court Oath
  • 35. Tennis Court Oath
  • 36. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) A. Estates General and the vote: The Three Estates B. Creation of the National Assembly: “one man, one vote” • Significance: not a violent revolution, until . . . C. Storming the Bastille 1. Urban strikes and bread riots 2. 17,000 troops to Paris 3. Seizing the Bastille 1787 Feb. 22 Convening of Assembly of Notables 1788 Aug. 8 Announcement of Estates general 1789 May 5 Estates General opens at Versailles June 17 National Assembly declared June 20 Tennis Court Oath July 14 Storming of Bastilles Late July The Great Fear Aug. 4 Abolition of feudal privileges Aug. 26 Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Oct. 5 March to Versailles; Louis XVI and National Assembly in Paris Nov. 2 Church Property Nationalized
  • 37. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789
  • 38. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) A. Estates General and the vote: The Three Estates B. Creation of the National Assembly: “one man, one vote” • Significance: not a violent revolution, until . . . C. Storming the Bastille D. The Great Fear 1787 Feb. 22 Convening of Assembly of Notables 1788 Aug. 8 Announcement of Estates general 1789 May 5 Estates General opens at Versailles June 17 National Assembly declared June 20 Tennis Court Oath July 14 Storming of Bastilles Late July The Great Fear Aug. 4 Abolition of feudal privileges Aug. 26 Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Oct. 5 March to Versailles; Louis XVI and National Assembly in Paris Nov. 2 Church Property Nationalized
  • 39. The Great Fear, July 1789
  • 40. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) A. Estates General and the vote: The Three Estates B. Creation of the National Assembly: “one man, one vote” • Significance: not a violent revolution, until . . . C. Storming the Bastille D. The Great Fear E. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, Natural Law, and de Gouges (discussion) 1787 Feb. 22 Convening of Assembly of Notables 1788 Aug. 8 Announcement of Estates general 1789 May 5 Estates General opens at Versailles June 17 National Assembly declared June 20 Tennis Court Oath July 14 Storming of Bastilles Late July The Great Fear Aug. 4 Abolition of feudal privileges Aug. 26 Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Oct. 5 March to Versailles; Louis XVI and National Assembly in Paris Nov. 2 Church Property Nationalized
  • 41. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, August 26, 1789
  • 42. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) A. Estates General and the vote: The Three Estates B. Creation of the National Assembly: “one man, one vote” • Significance: not a violent revolution, until . . . C. Storming the Bastille D. The Great Fear E. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, Natural Law, and de Gouges (discussion) F. March to Versailles 1787 Feb. 22 Convening of Assembly of Notables 1788 Aug. 8 Announcement of Estates general 1789 May 5 Estates General opens at Versailles June 17 National Assembly declared June 20 Tennis Court Oath July 14 Storming of Bastilles Late July The Great Fear Aug. 4 Abolition of feudal privileges Aug. 26 Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Oct. 5 March to Versailles; Louis XVI and National Assembly in Paris Nov. 2 Church Property Nationalized
  • 43. March to Versailles, October 5, 1789
  • 44. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) A. Estates General and the vote: The Three Estates B. Creation of the National Assembly: “one man, one vote” • Significance: not a violent revolution, until . . . C. Storming the Bastille D. The Great Fear E. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, Natural Law, and de Gouges (discussion) F. March to Versailles G. Seizure of Church property and 1787 Feb. 22 Convening of Assembly of Notables 1788 Aug. 8 Announcement of Estates general 1789 May 5 Estates General opens at Versailles June 17 National Assembly declared June 20 Tennis Court Oath July 14 Storming of Bastilles Late July The Great Fear Aug. 4 Abolition of feudal privileges Aug. 26 Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Oct. 5 March to Versailles; Louis XVI and National Assembly in Paris Nov. 2 Church Property Nationalized
  • 45. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) A. Estates General and the vote: The Three Estates B. Creation of the National Assembly: “one man, one vote” C. Storming the Bastille D. The Great Fear E. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, Natural Law, and de Gouges (discussion) F. March to Versailles G. Seizure of Church property and loyalty oaths H. Constitutional Monarchy and the 1790 July 12 Civil Constitution of Clergy Nov. 27 Loyalty Oath from Clergy 1791 June 20 Royal family flees to Varennes and is apprehended by National Guard Oct. 1 Legislative Assembly opens
  • 46. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) II. The French Republic (1792-1799) A. Flight to Varennes and war with Leopold II’s Austria 1. Declaration of War April 21, 1792 2. August 10, 1792: sans- culottes attack Tuileries and force suspension of monarchy 3. September massacres 1790 July 12 Civil Constitution of Clergy Nov. 27 Loyalty Oath from Clergy 1791 June 20 Royal family flees to Varennes and is apprehended by National Guard Oct. 1 Legislative Assembly opens 1792 April 20 War declared against Austria Aug. 10 Attack on Tuileries; monarchy suspended Sept. 2-6 September Massacre of prisoners in Paris Sept. 21 National Convention meets Sept. 22 Abolition of monarchy and creation of Republic
  • 47. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) II. The French Republic (1792-1799) A. Flight to Varennes and war with Leopold II’s Austria B. National Convention to write new constitution 1. Middle class professionals 2. Jacobins a. Girondins -- relatively moderate b. The Mountain -- militants 3. Vote to execute King 1790 July 12 Civil Constitution of Clergy Nov. 27 Loyalty Oath from Clergy 1791 June 20 Royal family flees to Varennes and is apprehended by National Guard Oct. 1 Legislative Assembly opens 1792 April 20 War declared against Austria Aug. 10 Attack on Tuileries; monarchy suspended Sept. 2-6 September Massacre of prisoners in Paris Sept. 21 National Convention meets Sept. 22 Abolition of monarchy and creation of Republic
  • 48. January 21, 1793
  • 49. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) II. The French Republic (1792-1799) A. Flight to Varennes B. National Convention C. The Terror (1793-4) 1. Committee of Public Safety: food distribution, war effort, counterrevolutionary surveillance (Vendée) 2. Robespierre 3. The Guillotine 1793 Jan. 21 King executed Feb. 1 Declaration of war against Britain and Dutch Republic March 11 Vendée April 6 Creation of Committee of Public Safety June 2 Purge of Girondins June 24 Ratification of republican constitution July 27 Robespierre elected to Committee of Public Safety Aug. 23 Levée en masse Oct. 5 Adoption of revolutionary calendar Oct. 16 Execution of Mari Antoinette 1794 July 28 10th Thermidor; execution of Rebespierre Nov. 12 Jacobin clubs closed
  • 50. Dr. Guillotin's machine." Engraving. 1789. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France •Reason •Humanity •Equality
  • 51. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) II. The French Republic (1792-1799) A. Flight to Varennes B. National Convention C. The Terror (1793-4) 1. Committee of Public Safety: food distribution, war effort, counterrevolutionary surveillance 2. Robespierre (discussion) 3. The Guillotine 4. Republican Virtue a. La Marseillaise 1793 Jan. 21 King executed Feb. 1 Declaration of war against Britain and Dutch Republic March 11 Vendée April 6 Creation of Committee of Public Safety June 2 Purge of Girondins June 24 Ratification of republican constitution July 27 Robespierre elected to Committee of Public Safety Aug. 23 Levée en masse Oct. 5 Adoption of revolutionary calendar Oct. 16 Execution of Mari Antoinette 1794 July 28 10th Thermidor; execution of Rebespierre Nov. 12 Jacobin clubs closed
  • 52. La Marseillaise, 1792 Let us go, children of the fatherland Our day of Glory has arrived. Against us stands tyranny, The bloody flag is raised, The bloody flag is raised. Do you hear in the countryside The roar of these savage soldiers They come right into our arms To cut the throats of your sons, your country. Sacred love of the fatherland Guide and support our vengeful arms. Liberty, beloved liberty, Fight with your defenders; Fight with your defenders. Under our flags, so that victory Will rush to your manly strains; That your dying enemies Should see your triumph and glory To arms, citizens! Form up your battalions Let us march, Let us march! That their impure blood Should water our fields http://old.marseillaise.org/francais/audio/mireille_mathieu_-_la_marseillaise.mp3 Rousseau and the French Revolution
  • 53. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) II. The French Republic (1792-1799) A. Flight to Varennes B. National Convention C. The Terror (1793-4) 1. Committee of Public Safety Robespierre (discussion) 2. The Guillotine 3. Republican Virtue a. La Marseillaise b. Calendar and Civic Religion c. Republican Motherhood 1793 Jan. 21 King executed Feb. 1 Declaration of war against Britain and Dutch Republic March 11 Vendée April 6 Creation of Committee of Public Safety June 2 Purge of Girondins June 24 Ratification of republican constitution July 27 Robespierre elected to Committee of Public Safety Aug. 23 Levée en masse Oct. 5 Adoption of revolutionary calendar Oct. 16 Execution of Mari Antoinette 1794 July 28 10th Thermidor; execution of Rebespierre Nov. 12 Jacobin clubs closed
  • 54. Women of the Revolution Marie Antoinette as serpent
  • 55. mfr 86.184 Republican Motherhood
  • 56. I. The First Revolution (1789-1791) II. The French Republic (1792-1799) A. Flight to Varennes B. National Convention C. The Terror (1793-4) D. The Thermidorian Reaction 1. July 27, 1794: Arrest of Robespierre 2. Release of suspects 3. Truce in the Vendée III. New Constitution: The Directory 1. Two-house legislature 2. Executive (Directory) w/ 5 members 1793 Jan. 21 King executed Feb. 1 Declaration of war against Britain and Dutch Republic March 11 Vendée April 6 Creation of Committee of Public Safety June 2 Purge of Girondins June 24 Ratification of republican constitution July 27 Robespierre elected to Committee of Public Safety Aug. 23 Levée en masse Oct. 5 Adoption of revolutionary calendar Oct. 16 Execution of Mari Antoinette 1794 July 28 10th Thermidor; execution of Rebespierre Nov. 12 Jacobin clubs closed
  • 57. I. Napoleon A. Early Career B. 18th Brumaire C. Reforms 1. Meritocracy 2. Centralized and organized bureaucracy 3. Finances 4. Public education 5. Napoleonic Codes 6. Peace with Papacy J.L. David, Napoleon (1812)
  • 58. I. Napoleon A. Early Career B. 18th Brumaire C. Reforms D. Enlightened rule or despotism? 1. Nobility 2. Freedom of speech 3. Habeas corpus 4. Spies J.L. David, Napoleon (1812)
  • 59. I. Napoleon A. Early Career B. 18th Brumaire C. Reforms D. Enlightened rule or despotism? 1. Nobility 2. Freedom of speech 3. Habeas corpus 4. Spies 5. Warfare to spread revolution Goya, Third of May, 1808: Execution of Defenders of Madrid
  • 60. Napoleon’s Conquests in 1812
  • 61. I. Napoleon A. Early Career B. 18th Brumaire C. Reforms D. Enlightened rule or despotism? E. The Fall of Napoleon Wellington as Achilles (Hyde Park, London) To Arthur, Duke of Wellington, and his brave companions in arms this statue of Achilles cast from cannons won at the victories of Salamanca, Vittoria, Toulouse and Waterloo is inscribed by their countrymen Placed on this spot on the XVIII day of June MDCXXII by command of His Majesty George IIII.
  • 62. I. Napoleon A. Early Career B. 18th Brumaire C. Reforms D. Enlightened rule or despotism? E. The Fall of Napoleon F. Europe in 1815