HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION:
1648 TO PRESENT
LECTURE 4:
A Newtonian Universe?
Sixteenth-Century Europe
• Discovery of the New World (1492)  challenge to Old World
Cosmology
• Reformation (1517)  cha...
Mappamundi, ca. 1485-1500
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
A. Hans Schlunk
B. Religion in 1648
1. Catholics and
Protestants
a. Theolo...
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
II. The Scientific Revolution
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and...
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and...
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and...
Final Cause (or Purpose)
Final Cause (or Purpose)
Final Cause (or Purpose)
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and...
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and...
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and...
I. Life and Religion in the early modern period
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and...
I. The Thirty Years’ War
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and Harmony
B. The New Sci...
I. The Thirty Years’ War
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and Harmony
B. The New Sci...
I. The Thirty Years’ War
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and Harmony
B. The New Sci...
David DeVore Jr.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txqiwrbYGrs
David DeVore Jr.
Frans Hals, René Descartes (1596-1650). 1648. Louvre, Paris
I. The Thirty Years’ War
II. The Scientific Revolution
A. Epistemology and Authority:
Hierarchy and Harmony
B. The New Sci...
I. The Thirty Years’ War
II. The Scientific Revolution
III. The Newtonian Synthesis
A. Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
1. Princip...
I. The Thirty Years’ War
II. The Scientific Revolution
III. The Newtonian Synthesis
A. Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
B. Gravity
Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604)
REFORMATIONS (1500-1600)“Discovery” of New
World (1492)
95 Theses
(1517)
Act of Supremacy
(1...
Regency: Marie de Medici
(1610-1614)
Descartes, Discourse on Method (1637)
Bacon, Advancement of Learning (1605)
Kepler, H...
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?
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H114 Meeting 4: A Newtonian Universe?

  1. 1. HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION: 1648 TO PRESENT LECTURE 4: A Newtonian Universe?
  2. 2. Sixteenth-Century Europe • Discovery of the New World (1492)  challenge to Old World Cosmology • Reformation (1517)  challenge to religious and political authority • Scientific Revolution (roughly 1540-1700)  challenge to theology and cosmology
  3. 3. Mappamundi, ca. 1485-1500
  4. 4. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period A. Hans Schlunk B. Religion in 1648 1. Catholics and Protestants a. Theology b. Liturgy C. Religious Warfare to 1648 1. Political and Religious Order 2. Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  5. 5. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period II. The Scientific Revolution
  6. 6. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony 1. Scripture a. God b. Prime Mover 2. Classical Philosophy a. Plato b. Aristotle c. Ptolemy 3. Tradition Peter Apian, Cosmographia (1524)
  7. 7. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony 1. Scripture a. God b. Prime Mover 2. Classical Philosophy a. Plato b. Aristotle c. Ptolemy 3. Tradition Didacus Valades, “Great Chain of Being,” Rhetorica Christiana (1579)
  8. 8. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony 1. Scripture 2. Classical Philosophy 3. Tradition 4. Sin and the Medieval Synthesis a. Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas b. Theology (e.g. transubstantiation) c. Essence/accident d. Final Cause
  9. 9. Final Cause (or Purpose)
  10. 10. Final Cause (or Purpose)
  11. 11. Final Cause (or Purpose)
  12. 12. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony 1. Scripture 2. Classical Philosophy 3. Tradition 4. Challenges to the classical order a. Bestiaries and herbals b. The New Science Martin de la Cruz and Juannes Badianus. Badianus Manuscript (Codex Barberini), 1552. Vatican Library. This herbal was in Nahuatl, written by two Aztecs, who studied at the College of Santa Cruz at Tlaltelco, Mexico City. The manuscript outlined Aztec herbal medicines and was a gift to Charles V.
  13. 13. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony B. The New Science: Astronomy 1. Geocentrism
  14. 14. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony B. The New Science: Astronomy 1. Geocentrism 2. Epicycles
  15. 15. I. Life and Religion in the early modern period II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony B. The New Science: Astronomy 1. Geocentrism 2. Epicycles 3. Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) and Heliocentrism
  16. 16. I. The Thirty Years’ War II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony B. The New Science: Astronomy 1. Geocentrism 2. Epicycles 3. Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) and Heliocentrism 4. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  17. 17. I. The Thirty Years’ War II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony B. The New Science: Astronomy 1. Geocentrism 2. Epicycles 3. Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) and Heliocentrism 4. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) 5. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): Stars, Moons of Jupiter, Sunspots, Planetary axis
  18. 18. I. The Thirty Years’ War II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony B. The New Science C. Doubt and Knowledge Frans Hals, René Descartes (1596-1650). 1648. Louvre, Paris
  19. 19. David DeVore Jr. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txqiwrbYGrs
  20. 20. David DeVore Jr. Frans Hals, René Descartes (1596-1650). 1648. Louvre, Paris
  21. 21. I. The Thirty Years’ War II. The Scientific Revolution A. Epistemology and Authority: Hierarchy and Harmony B. The New Science C. Doubt and Knowledge D. The New Science: Significance 1. Humans no longer center of the universe 2. Universe is no longer “perfect” 3. New ways of seeing  machines to view the world 4. Movement can me measured 5. Movement can be described mathematically 6. No metaphysical purpose to motion 7. BIG QUESTION: We know how things move, but WHY do they move?
  22. 22. I. The Thirty Years’ War II. The Scientific Revolution III. The Newtonian Synthesis A. Isaac Newton (1643-1727) 1. Principia (1687) 2. Calculus / Fluxions (1669) 3. Motion operates upon mathematical principles, described in the formula for gravity  physical rather than metaphysical laws can describe motion  RATIONAL UNIVERSE 4. Clockwork universe: God/Reason/Science
  23. 23. I. The Thirty Years’ War II. The Scientific Revolution III. The Newtonian Synthesis A. Isaac Newton (1643-1727) B. Gravity
  24. 24. Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604) REFORMATIONS (1500-1600)“Discovery” of New World (1492) 95 Theses (1517) Act of Supremacy (1534) Peace of Augsburg “cuius regio, eius religio” (1555) Council of Trent (1545-1563) 1581: United Provinces declare independence from Spanish Netherlands John Calvin (1509-1564) Peasant’s War (1524-5) Society of Jesus, the Jesuits, form (1540) Schmalkaldic League (1531) Augsburg Confession (1530) Diet of Worms (1521) Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) Martin Luther (1483-1546) Genevan Reformation begins (1541) Dutch Revolt (1568-1648) French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) Charles V (1500-1558) De revolutionibus (1543) Edict of Nantes (1598) Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) Philip II (r. 1556-1598)
  25. 25. Regency: Marie de Medici (1610-1614) Descartes, Discourse on Method (1637) Bacon, Advancement of Learning (1605) Kepler, Harmonice Mundi (1619): 3rd Laws of Planetary Motion Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639-1652) Charles I (1625-1649) James I (1603-1625) Naval war with Spain (1623-28) The Seventeenth Century (1600-1700) Protectorate (1653-1660) Commonwealth (1649-1653) William III (1688-1702) and Mary II (1688-1694) Charles II (1660-1685) James II (1685-1688) Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652-54, 1665-67, 1672-74) “Glorious Revolution” (1688/9) Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) Ship Money collected in peacetime (1634-41) Personal Rule begins (1629) Forced Loan (1626-7) War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697) England/Scotland/IrelandFranceScientific Revolution Galileo, Sidereus nuncius (1610) Kepler, Astronomia nova (1609): 1st & 2nd Laws of Planetary Motion Newton, Principia mathematica (1687) Henry IV (r. 1589-1610) Louis XIII (r. 1610-1643) Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) Fronde (1648-1653) Regency: Anne of Austria / Mazarin (1643-1651) Cardinal Richelieu (1685-1642) The War of Devolution (1667-68) The Dutch War (1672-78)

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