Metadata in Concept and Practice K R I S T I PA L M E R K L PA L M E R @ I U P U I . E D U F E B RUA RY 4 , 2 0 1 3 http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf
what is metadata? you tell me. . . information about information “structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource.”* “value added information that is created to arrange, describe, track and otherwise enhance access to information objects.”** cataloging is creating metadata. . .how is it different? *Understanding Metadata by NISO Press (2004), p. 1. ** Gillaland-Swetland, A. J. (2000). Introduction to Metadata: Setting the Stage. www.getty.edu/research/institute/standards/intrometadata/, p. 2.
why is metadata important? find what we are looking for find what we didn’t know we were looking for assembling items that have something in common finding out how items are different accessing an item preserving an item sharing an item/information easily tells us how an item is used indicates authenticity inform of legal issues
STANDARDIZE If metadata is to be effective on a broader scale we must. . . use standardize forms of metadata, use a standard that is specific to our purpose for creating the information, use a standard that considers the audience or information users.
examples of metadata amazon ebay art.com allrecipes google maps mibor
3 main types/forms of metadata1. descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes of discovery and identification it’s the words you can search by2. structural metadata indicates how objects are put together, for ex. the order of pages in a chapter it’s technical, behind the scenes metadata
3 main types/forms of metadata3. administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource it is also often, behind the scenes metadata rights management metadata copyright, usage rights information preservation metadata archiving and preservation information
** Gillaland-Swetland, A. J. (2000). Introduction to Metadata: Setting the Stage. www.getty.edu/research/institute/standards/intrometadata/, p. 5
each metadata standard has. . . element set the list of fields (and their definition) in a metadata standard for example, Title is one item in a Dublin Core element set content rules (optional) the rules for constructing the elements that will be a part of this field for example, Capitalize first word in field and end with a period OR the Title of the item can only be taken from words written on the first page of the document are rules for the Title element syntax rules (optional) the rules for tagging or encoding the metadata scheme for example, Dublin Core schemes use XML tagging
Example metadata standards Dublin Core all encompassing (descriptive) TEI literature MARC libraries (traditional catalog data) METS libraries (structuring descriptive data) ONIX publishers CSDGM data sets, geospatial info. (for GIS) GEM educational materials VRA Core art, visual works EAD archives, special collections, finding aids RDF web data, characterized by triplicates, used in linked data, allows integration of various standards
example public and xml records public record https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/640 METS XML with DC https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/metadata/handle/1805/640/mets.xml
standards: controlled vocabulary LCSH general, can combine terms to make more complex headings TGM I and II graphic materials, photos, prints AAT architecture, paintings, sculpture, art in general TGN place, geographic names GEM education materials MeSH medical termsExtensive list of vocabularies at: Taxonomy Warehouse
metadata crosswalksMetadata crosswalks translate one field in a particularorganizing scheme or database into another field ofanother organizing scheme or database. http://www.getty.edu/research/publications/electronic_publicatio ns/intrometadata/crosswalks.html
standards: descriptive metadata schemes schemes or element sets Dublin Core all encompassing TEI literature MARC libraries ONIX publishers CSDGM data sets, geospatial info. (for GIS) GEM educational materials VRA Core art, visual works EAD archives, special collections, finding aids
let’s practice: Indianapolis Sanborn Maps Decide: Who is your audience? How will this audience access, search, interact? What elements do you want to describe? What DC tags will you connect to each described element? What public field name will you give each DC tag? Will you use any controlled vocabularies if so for what described element?
what did you come up with? What does your metadata schema and record look like? Example Sanborn collections Indianapolis http://indiamond6.ulib.iupui.edu/cdm/ref/collection/SanbornJP2/id/473 Milwaukee http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/landingpage/collection/san Pennsylvania http://collection1.libraries.psu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/maps1/id/2198 Georgia http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/sanb/id:dublin_ga-1913-s-4 Nevada http://www.delamare.unr.edu/maps/digitalcollections/nvmaps/sanborns/
Thinking about digital history and going beyond making paper digital… What datasets could you imagine connecting to these maps? What other ways of map interaction can you imagine?