Meeting 25: The Cold War, 1945-1962

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Meeting 25: The Cold War, 1945-1962

  1. 1. HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION: 1648 TO PRESENT THE COLD WAR (1948-1962)
  2. 2. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War A. A World War B. The Cold War in Europe 1. Roots of Mistrust 2. Consequences of Mistrust 3. Conferences a. Tehran (Nov. 1943) b. Yalta (Feb. 1944) c. Bretton-Woods Agreement (July 1944) 4. UN, IMF, World Bank
  3. 3. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War A. A World War B. The Cold War in Europe 1. Roots of Mistrust 2. Consequences of Mistrust 3. Conferences 4. UN, IMF, World Bank 5. Fracture of the Alliance a. Yugoslavia and Tito b. Greek Civil War (1946-9)
  4. 4. Winston Churchill, “Iron Curtain Speech” at Westminster College, in Fulton, Missouri (March 5, 1946) “It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere . . . . In a great number of countries, far from the Russian frontiers and throughout the world, Communist fifth columns are established and work in complete unity and absolute obedience to the directions they receive from the Communist center . . . . If we adhere faithfully to the Charter of the United Nations and walk forward in sedate and sober strength, seeking no one's land or treasure, seeking to lay no arbitrary control upon the thoughts of men, if all British moral and material forces and convictions are joined with your own in fraternal association, the high roads of the future will be clear, not only for us but for all, not only for our time but for a century to come.
  5. 5. Truman’s speech [Truman Doctrine] to Joint Session of Congress (March 12, 1947) “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.”
  6. 6. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War A. A World War B. The Cold War in Europe C. Dividing the World North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949) Marshall Plan a.k.a. European Recovery Plan (1947) Warsaw Pact (1955) Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) (1949)
  7. 7. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War A. A World War B. The Cold War in Europe C. Dividing the World
  8. 8. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War A. A World War B. The Cold War in Europe C. Dividing the World Howard Sochurek. Ku Klux Klan meeting shown on Soviet TV as anti-US propaganda. Moscow, Russia. Photograph. March 1959 Captain America #78, September 1954
  9. 9. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War A. A World War B. The Cold War in Europe C. Dividing the World D. A Nuclear Age 1. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) 2. Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)
  10. 10. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War II. The Politics of Cold War Europe A. Stalin’s Legacy B. Nikita Kruschev (1894-1971) 1. Détente 2. Secret Speech, February 25, 1956
  11. 11. Stalin . . . used extreme methods and mass repressions at a time when the revolution was already victorious, when the Soviet state was strengthened, when the exploiting classes were already liquidated, and Socialist relations were rooted solidly in all phases of national economy, when our party was politically consolidated and had strengthened itself both numerically and ideologically. It is clear that here Stalin showed in a whole series of cases his intolerance, his brutality, and his abuse of power. Instead of proving his political correctness and mobilizing the masses, he often chose the path of repression and physical annihilation, not only against actual enemies, but also against individuals who had not committed any crimes against the party and the Soviet Government. Here we see no wisdom but only a demonstration of the brutal force which had once so alarmed V.I Lenin. . . .” Nikita Krushchev
  12. 12. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War II. The Politics of Cold War Europe A. Stalin’s Legacy B. Nikita Kruschev (1894-1971) 1. Détente 2. Secret Speech, February 25, 1956 3. Why did he do this?
  13. 13. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War II. The Politics of Cold War Europe A. Stalin’s Legacy B. Nikita Kruschev (1894-1971) C. Hungary, 1956 1. Imre Nagy (1896-1956) Imre Nagy
  14. 14. Hungarian Revolutionaries Burn Soviet Flag, 1956
  15. 15. Hungarian Resistance Fighter, 1956
  16. 16. Universal International News, 10/24/1956
  17. 17. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War II. The Politics of Cold War Europe A. Stalin’s Legacy B. Nikita Kruschev (1894-1971) C. Hungary, 1956 1. Imre Nagy (1896-1956) 2. János Kádár (1912-1989) János Kádár
  18. 18. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War II. The Politics of Cold War Europe A. Stalin’s Legacy B. Nikita Kruschev (1894-1971) C. Hungary, 1956 D. Collapse of Detente 1. Cuban Revolution (26 July 1953 to 1 January 1959) 2. U2 Incident (1 May 1960) 3. Bay of Pigs (15-20 April 1961) 4. Cuban Missile Crisis (18-29 October 1962)
  19. 19. I. World War II, the Colonies, and the Origins of the Cold War II. The Politics of Cold War Europe A. Stalin’s Legacy B. Nikita Kruschev (1894-1971) C. Hungary, 1956 D. Collapse of Detente E. The Space Race and Nuclear Proliferation 1. Sputnik (1957) 2. Yuriy Gagarin (1961) Popular Mechanics 112, no. 2 (August 1959).

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