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H114 Meeting 17: What Was Different about 19th-century Imperialism?
 

H114 Meeting 17: What Was Different about 19th-century Imperialism?

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    H114 Meeting 17: What Was Different about 19th-century Imperialism? H114 Meeting 17: What Was Different about 19th-century Imperialism? Presentation Transcript

    • HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION: 1648 TO PRESENT LECTURE 17: WHAT IS IMPERIALISM?
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions 1. Colonialism/colony: settlement in a conquered territory 2. Imperialism/empire: “Empire is a relationship, formal or informal, in which one state controls the effective political sovereignty of another political society. It can be achieved by force, by political collaboration, by economic, social, or cultural dependence.” Michael Doyle, Empires (1986)
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century
    • Sir Thomas Brock and Sir Aston Webb. Victoria Memorial, Buckingham Palace. 1911. Painted Bronze and marble. Hundrieser and Schmitz. Monument to Kaiser Wilhem I. 1893-97. Granite and copper. 37 m. Inscription: "Nimmer wird das Reich zerstört, wenn Ihr einig seid and treu!” (The Empire will never be destroyed, for as long as you stand united and loyal to each other, quote from Max von Schenkendorf. Notre Dame Architectural Library.
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century John H. Mahoney. William Henry Harrison [comemmorating the Battle of Tippecanoe and the War of 1812]. Completed 1902. Bronze. Monument Circle, Indianapolis, IN.
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century The Opposition tells us that we ought not to govern a people without their consent. I answer, The rule of liberty that all just government derives its authority from the consent of the governed, applies only to those who are capable of self government. We govern the Indians without their consent, we govern our territories without their consent, we govern our children without their consent. How do they know what our government would be without their consent? Would not the people of the Philippines prefer the just, humane, civilizing government of this Republic to the savage, bloody rule of pillage and extortion from which we have rescued them? And, regardless of this formula of words made only for enlightened, self governing people, do we owe no duty to the world? Shall we turn these peoples back to the reeking hands from which we have taken them? Shall we abandon them, with Germany, England, Japan, hungering for them? Shall we save them from those nations, to give them a self rule of tragedy? They ask us how we shall govern these new possessions. I answer: Out of local conditions and the necessities of the case methods of government will grow. If England can govern foreign lands, so can America. If Germany can govern foreign lands, so can America. If they can supervise protectorates, so can America. Why is it more difficult to administer Hawaii than New Mexico or California? Both had a savage and an alien population: both were more remote from the seat of government when they came under our dominion than the Philippines are to day. Albert Beveridge, Campaign Speech for Senator, Indiana, September 16, 1898 Albert Beveridge (1862-1927, US Senator 1899-1911). Library of Congress, Washington D.C.
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century http://www.nationalatlas.gov/index.html
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century The British Raj in 1947 (Britannica.com)
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century Qing Dynasty in 1911 (Britannica.com) 1st Opium War (1839-42) • ended in the "Unequal Treaties" (Treaties of Nanking and Tianjin) • opening of ports for unrestricted foreign trade • cession of Hong Kong to Britain 2nd Opium War (1856-60) • opened more ports to British traders • permission of foreigners to travel throughout country Consequences included the weakening of Qing Dynasty (1644-1912), the Taiping Rebellion (1850-64), the Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901), and the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1912.
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century Japanese Empire (Britannica.com)
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century Southeast Asia, c. 1940
    • I. Introduction A. Definitions B. Empires in the late nineteenth century Russian Expansion (Britannica.com)
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire A. Stage 1: Colonies in the Americas (1492-1800) 1. Warfare and disease 2. Migration 3. Slavery Theodor De Bry, Map of the Americas with portraits of Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, Ferdinand Magellan and Francisco Pizarro. 1596. (Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress)
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire A. Stage 1: Colonies in the Americas (1492-1800) B. Stage 2: Strategic Outposts (1700-1850) 1. Trading Companies 2. Informal Empire Francis Hayman, Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey [1757], c. 1762.
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire A. Stage 1: Colonies in the Americas (1492-1800) B. Stage 2: Strategic Outposts (1700-1850) C. Stage 3: Formal Empire (1850-1945) D. Stage 4: Decolonization and Globalization (1945-present)
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” A. Missionaries 1. Religion 2. Civilizing Mission 3. White Man’s Burden Hardwick Christian Boys' School, Narsinghpur from Margaret B. Denning, Mosaics from India: talks about India, its peoples, religions, and customs (Edinburgh: Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier, 1902).
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” A. Missionaries B. Merchants 1. Free trade 2. Markets
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” A. Missionaries B. Merchants C. Military 1. Nationalism/Competition 2. Social Darwinism/Racism 3. Masculinity " Lord Randolph Churchill's Brilliant Son” from [London] Sunday Telegraph, February 18, 1900. Moreton Frewen Papers, Library of Congress
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa A. Slavery and Underdevelopment B. Causes 1. New technology a. Steamship b. Guns -- rifle and Gatling gun c. Arms Race d. Quinine
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa A. Slavery and Underdevelopment B. Causes 1. New technology 2. Economics a. Great Depression of 1873 b. S. Africa gold and diamonds c. Suez Canal d. King Leopold II’s Congo Young Persons' Cyclopedia of Persons and Places (1881)
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa A. Slavery and Underdevelopment B. Causes 1. New technology 2. Economics 3. Politics a. Mass Politics b. Ideology Alfred Morgan, An Omnibus ride to Piccadilly Circus - Mr Gladstone traveling with ordinary passengers (1885)
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa A. Slavery and Underdevelopment B. Causes C. Berlin Conference (1884-5) 1. “Effective Administration” 2. “Treaty of Protection”
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa A. Slavery and Underdevelopment B. Causes C. Berlin Conference (1884-5)
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa V. Cultures of Empire: Selling Empire at Home
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa V. Cultures of Empire: Selling Empire at Home VI. The Boer War (1899-1902) A. Dutch Boers and British Expansionism B. Diamonds (1871) and Gold (1886) Map of Southern Africa Showing the British Colonies and the Boer Republics
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa V. Cultures of Empire: Selling Empire at Home VI. The Boer War (1899-1902) A. Dutch Boers and British Expansionism B. Diamonds (1871) and Gold (1886) C. Cecil Rhodes 1. Invested in diamond minds and by 1880s held virtual monopoly (founder of De Beers) 2. Imperialist politician in S. Africa: British S. African Company given charter in 1889  given rights to police and expand empire in S. Africa Edward Linley Sambourne. The Colossus of Rhodes. Punch.
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa V. Cultures of Empire: Selling Empire at Home VI. The Boer War (1899-1902) A. Dutch Boers and British Expansionism B. Diamonds (1871) and Gold (1886) C. Cecil Rhodes D. Technologies 1. Gatling gun 2. Barbed wire 3. Total war: scorched earth (burning crops, killing livestock, poisoning wells, salting earth) and concentration camps
    • Destruction of Afrikaner farms in scorched earth campaign (Anglo Boer War Museum, South Africa)
    • Waiting for water in concentration camp (Anglo Boer War Museum, South Africa)
    • Mrs Mitchell and children in front of their tent, Bloemfontein camp (Anglo Boer War Museum, South Africa)
    • The Boy Scouts • Founded by Sir Baden-Powell in 1908 • Uniforms based in the British South African Police Force
    • Jason M. Kelly, Ph.D. Associate Professor of British History, IUPUI @histback #H109 © 2011 Jason M. Kelly I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa V. Cultures of Empire: Selling Empire at Home VI. The Boer War (1899-1902) VII. The Herero and the Germans A. Genocide
    • UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, New York, 9 December 1948 The Convention defines genocide as any of a number of acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, and forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa V. Cultures of Empire: Selling Empire at Home VI. The Boer War (1899-1902) VII. The Herero and the Germans A. Genocide B. Origins
    • Daniel Kariko (Under-Chief of Omaruru): The result of this war is known to everyone. Our people, men, women and children were shot like dogs and wild animals. Our people have disappeared now. I see only a few left; their cattle and sheep are gone too, and all our land is owned by the Germans. . . . After the fight at Waterberg we asked for peace; but von Trotha said there would only be peace when we were all dead, as he intended to exterminate us. I fled to the desert with a few remnants of my stock and managed more dead than alive to get away far north. House of Commons, great Britain, Accounts and Papers, vol. 17 Colonies and British Possessions, 12 February 1918-21 November 1918 (HMSO, 1918); Report on the Natives of South-West Africa and their Treatment by germant, Prepared in the Administrator's Office, Windhuk, South-West Africa, January 1918
    • Daniel Kariko (Under-Chief of Omaruru): Manuel Timbu (Cape Bastard), at present Court Interpreter in native languages at Omaruru, states under oath: I was sent to Okahandja and appointed groom to the German commander, General von Trotha. I had to look after his horses and to do odd jobs at his headquarters. We followed the retreating Hereros from Okahandja to Waterberg, and from there to the borders of the Kalahari Desert. When leaving Okahandja, General von Trotha issued orders to his troops that no quarter was to be given to the enemy. No prisoners were to be taken, but all, regardless of age or sex, were to be killed. General von Trotha said, "We must exterminate them, so that we won't be bothered with rebellions in the future." As a result of this order the soldiers shot all natives we came across. It did not matter who they were. Some were peaceful people who had not gone into rebellion; others, such as old men and old women, had never left their homes; yet these were all shot . . . . While we were there a Herero woman came walking up to us from the bush. I was the Herero interpreter. I was told to take the woman to the General to see if she could give information as to the whereabouts of the enemy. I took her to General von Trotha; she was quite a young woman and looked tired and hungry. Von Trotha asked her several questions, but she did not seem inclined to give information. She said her people had all gone towards the east, but as she was a weak woman she could not keep up with them. Von Trotha then ordered that she should be taken aside and bayoneted. I took the woman away and a soldier came up with his bayonet in his hand. He offered it to me and said I had better stab the woman. I said I would never dream of doing such a thing and asked why the poor woman could not be allowed to live. The soldier laughed, and said, "If you won't do it, I will show you what a German soldier can do." He took the woman aside a few paces and drove the bayonet through her body. He then withdrew the bayonet and brought it all dripping with blood and poked it under my nose in a jeering way, saying, "You see, / have done it." Officers and soldiers were standing around looking on, but no one interfered to save the woman. Her body was not buried, but, like all others they killed, simply allowed to lie and rot and be eaten by wild animals. House of Commons, great Britain, Accounts and Papers, vol. 17 Colonies and British Possessions, 12 February 1918-21 November 1918 (HMSO, 1918); Report on the Natives of South-West Africa and their Treatment by germant, Prepared in the Administrator's Office, Windhuk, South-West Africa, January 1918
    • Jan Cloete (Bastard), of Omaruru, states under oath: I was in Omaruru in 1904. I was commandeered by the Germans to act as a guide for them to the Waterberg district, as I knew the country well. I Avas with the 4th Field Company under Hauptmann Richardt. The commander of the troops was General von Trotha. I was present at Hamakari, near Waterberg when the Hereros were defeated in a battle. After the battle, all men, women and children, wounded and unwounded, who fell into the hands of the Germans were killed without mercy. The Germans then pursued the others, and all stragglers on the roadside and in the veld were shot down and bayoneted. The great majority of the Herero men were unarmed and could make no fight. They were merely trying to get away with their cattle. Some distance beyond Hamakari we camped at a water-hole. While there, a German soldier found a little Herero baby boy about nine months old lying in the bush. The child was crying. He brought it into the camp where I was. The soldiers formed a ring and started throwing the child to one another and catching it as if it were a ball. The child was terrified and hurt and was crying very much. After a time they got tired of this and one of the soldiers fixed his bayonet on his rifle and said he would catch the baby. The child was tossed into the air towards him and as it fell he caught it and transfixed the body with the bayonet. The child died in a few minutes and the incident was greeted with roars of laughter by the Germans, who seemed to think it was a great joke. I felt quite ill and turned away in disgust because, although I knew they had orders to kill all, I thought they would have pity on the child. I decided to go no further, as the horrible things I saw upset me, so I pretended that I was ill, and as the Captain got ill too and had to return, I was ordered to go back with him as guide. After I got home I flatly refused to go out with the soldiers again. House of Commons, great Britain, Accounts and Papers, vol. 17 Colonies and British Possessions, 12 February 1918-21 November 1918 (HMSO, 1918); Report on the Natives of South-West Africa and their Treatment by germant, Prepared in the Administrator's Office, Windhuk, South-West Africa, January 1918
    • I. Introduction II. The Stages of Empire III. Actors and Justifications: “God, Gold and Glory” IV. Scramble for Africa V. Cultures of Empire: Selling Empire at Home VI. The Boer War (1899-1902) VII. The Herero and the Germans A. Genocide B. Origins C. Consequences and Genocide 1. Concentration Camps 2. Sex Slavery 3. Medical Experiments "So accord them just the measure of protection they may require as a race which is inferior to us, in order to continue their existence: nothing more, and only as long as they are of use to us. Otherwise survival of the fittest, ie, to my mind, in this case, extinction. This point of view sounds almost brutally egotistic, but whoever thinks through thoroughly the notion of race, can not arrive at a different conclusion.” Eugen Fisher
    • Jason M. Kelly, Ph.D. Associate Professor of British History, IUPUI @histback #H109 © 2011 Jason M. Kelly