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H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics
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H114 Meeting 18: What Are Mass Politics

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  • 1. HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION: 1648 TO PRESENT LECTURE 18: WHAT ARE MASS POLITICS?
  • 2. THE “ISMS” OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 1815 Congress of Vienna and the “Balance of Power” 1820 Revolutions in Italy and Spain War of Greek Independence (1821-1832) Decembrist Revolt in Russia (1825) July Revolution in France (1830) Reform Acts in England (1832) Chartism (1832-1848) 1848 Revolutions Communist Manifesto On the Origin of the Species (1859) Descent of Man (1871) On the Interpretation of Dreams (1900) Nationalism Conservatism Liberalism Socialism Marxism Romanticism Realism Impressionism Unification of Italy (1870) and Unification of Germany (1871) Paris Commune (1871) Feminism Congress of Berlin (1878) Scramble for Africa (1882-1887)
  • 3. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution 1. Different from 1st Industrial Revolution a. Agriculture: chemical fertilizers b. Heavy industry: coal and steam c. Transportation: railroads and steamships d. Communication: telegraph e. Economic swings: crashes of 1857, 1866, 1873
  • 4. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution 1. Different from 1st Industrial Revolution 2. Mass consumption
  • 5. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution B. Mass Politics and Reform Movements 1. State Reforms a. Russia’s emancipation of the serfs (1861) b. Bismark’s strategy to undermine socialism • National sickness and accident insurance • Social security
  • 6. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution B. Mass Politics and Reform Movements 1. State Reforms a. Russia’s emancipation of the serfs (1861) b. Bismark’s strategy to undermine socialism c. Britain’s Electoral Reform Acts (1832, 1867, 1884): electorate increases from approximately 366,000 in England and Wales in 1831 to slightly fewer than 8 million in 1885. d. Public education
  • 7. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution B. Mass Politics and Reform Movements 1. State Reforms 2. Marxism a. First International organized by Marx (1864-71) b. Paris Commune, supported by First International, (1871) violently put down by National Assembly c. Growth of national socialist parties in 1880s d. Second International (1889-1914)
  • 8. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution B. Mass Politics and Reform Movements 1. State Reforms 2. Marxism 3. Trade Unionism a. Generally not radical as demonstrated by collapse of First International as moderate labor leaders abandoned it b. Increased recognition of unions in much of Europe
  • 9. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution B. Mass Politics and Reform Movements 1. State Reforms 2. Marxism 3. Trade Unionism 4. Feminism and Women’s Suffrage "We are continually told that civilization and Christianity have restored to the woman her just rights. Meanwhile the wife is the actual bondservant of her husband; no less so, as far as the legal obligation goes, than slaves commonly so called." John Stuart Mill, “The Subjection of Women” (1869)
  • 10. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution B. Mass Politics and Reform Movements 1. State Reforms 2. Marxism 3. Trade Unionism 4. Feminism and Women’s Suffrage a. Women’s Rights b. Women’s Suffrage
  • 11. I. Mass Society A. 2nd Industrial Revolution B. Mass Politics and Reform Movements 1. State Reforms 2. Marxism 3. Trade Unionism 4. Feminism and Women’s Suffrage a. Women’s Rights b. Women’s Suffrage c. Gender Discrimination • a system of advantage or disadvantage based on sex or gender
  • 12. 2005 Census Statistics show males 25 and older had a higher yearly income than females 25 and older among all races. Data from http://pubdb3.census.gov/macro/032006/perinc/new03_000.htm at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Income_inequity_US.png The “Gender Wage Gap” in the United States (2005)
  • 13. What is Feminism? Feminism is a term encompassing the broad range of political, social, and cultural strategies and movements meant to end oppression based on the biological or gender identity of being a woman.
  • 14. The Declaration of Sentiments (Seneca Falls, 1848) When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of those who suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon the institution of a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer. while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their duty to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of the women under this government, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to demand the equal station to which they are entitled.
  • 15. The Declaration of Sentiments (Seneca Falls, 1848) The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world. He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise. He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice. He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and degraded men--both natives and foreigners. Having deprived her of this first right of a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides. He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead. He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns. He has made her, morally, an irresponsible being, as she can commit many crimes with impunity, provided they be done in the presence of her husband. In the covenant of marriage, she is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master--the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty, and to administer chastisement. He has so framed the laws of divorce, as to what shall be the proper causes, and in case of separation, to whom the guardianship of the children shall be given, as to be wholly regardless of the happiness of women--the law, in all cases, going upon a false supposition of the supremacy of man, and giving all power into his hands.
  • 16. The Declaration of Sentiments (Seneca Falls, 1848) After depriving her of all rights as a married woman, if single, and the owner of property, he has taxed her to support a government which recognizes her only when her property can be made profitable to it. He has monopolized nearly all the profitable employments, and from those she is permitted to follow, she receives but a scanty remuneration. He closes against her all the avenues to wealth and distinction which he considers most honorable to himself. As a teacher of theology, medicine, or law, she is not known. He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her. He allows her in church, as well as state, but a subordinate position, claiming apostolic authority for her exclusion from the ministry, and, with some exceptions, from any public participation in the affairs of the church. He has created a false public sentiment by giving to the world a different code of morals for men and women, by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society, are not only tolerated, but deemed of little account in man. He has usurped the prerogative of Jehovah himself, claiming it as his right to assign for her a sphere of action, when that belongs to her conscience and to her God. He has endeavored, in every way that he could, to destroy her confidence in her own powers, to lessen her self- respect, and to make her willing to lead a dependent and abject life. Now, in view of this entire disfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation--in view of the unjust laws above mentioned, and because women do feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.
  • 17. Sylvia Pankhurst Arrested in Front of Buckingham Palace Suffragettes Against the Militancy of the WSPU
  • 18. Women’s Social and Political Union Trafalgar Square Riot, 1913: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgfhm1XOdYk Iron Jawed Angels: Alice Paul http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pO70ZjZ0wrw
  • 19. Suffrage as a Jekyll and Hyde Phenomenon, Puck Magazine (1913)
  • 20. News film from the 1913 Derby race showing the death of Suffragette Emily Davison (British Pathe: 1700.33. 1913. http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/britain1906to1918/g4/cs1/g4cs1s6.htm
  • 21. Emily Davison’s Funeral, 1913
  • 22. Ian McAllister and Donley T. Studlar, "Electoral Systems and Women’s Representation: A Long-Term Perspective" Representation 39, no. 1 (2002): 3-14
  • 23. I. Mass Society II. Case Study: Emile Zola and the Dreyfus Affair A. Film: William Dieterle (dir.). The Life of Emile Zola (1937). 116 min. B. Mass Media and Racism in European Society 1. During Third Republic, nationalism and antisemitism were linked, especially in newspapers such as Edouard Drumont's La Libre Parole
  • 24. Emile Courtet. 'Les Qualites du juif d’apres la methode de Gall [inventor of phrenology]'. La Libre Parole, 23 December 1893
  • 25. What was the Dreyfus Affair? 1894 Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army, is arrested and falsely accused of handing over to Germany documents involving the national defense of France. After a summary trial before a military court, Dreyfus is found guilty of treason and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island, located off the coast of French Guiana. This case divides the French nation into two opposing groups: those who insist that Dreyfus is guilty (conservatives, nationalists, and antisemitic groups), and those who insist that Dreyfus should receive a fair trial (liberals and intellectuals). In 1899, Dreyfus receives a new trial, but is again found guilty by a military court. However, the president of the French Republic intervenes, granting him a pardon. Shortly before World War I, Dreyfus is fully vindicated by a civilian court. The controversy surrounding the Dreyfus affair reflects latent antisemitism in the French officer corps and other conservative French groups. http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007691
  • 26. I. Mass Society II. Case Study: Émile Zola and the Dreyfus Affair A. Film: William Dieterle (dir.). The Life of Emile Zola (1937). 116 min. B. Mass Media and Racism in European Society 1. During Third Republic, nationalism and antisemitism were linked, especially in newspapers such as Edouard Drumont's La Libre Parole 2. Émile Zola, J’accuse!
  • 27. “Indeed, it is a crime to have relied on the most squalid elements of the press, and to have entrusted Esterhazy's defense to the vermin of Paris, who are now gloating over the defeat of justice and plain truth. It is a crime that those people who wish to see a generous France take her place as leader of all the free and just nations are being accused of fomenting turmoil in the country, denounced by the very plotters who are conniving so shamelessly to foist this miscarriage of justice on the entire world. It is a crime to lie to the public, to twist public opinion to insane lengths in the service of the vilest death-dealing machinations. It is a crime to poison the minds of the meek and the humble, to stoke the passions of reactionism and intolerance, by appealing to that odious anti-Semitism that, unchecked, will destroy the freedom-loving France of the Rights of Man. It is a crime to exploit patriotism in the service of hatred, and it is, finally, a crime to ensconce the sword as the modern god, whereas all science is toiling to achieve the coming era of truth and justice.”
  • 28. William Dieterle (dir.). The Life of Emile Zola (1937). 116 min
  • 29. I. Mass Society II. Case Study: Émile Zola and the Dreyfus Affair A. Film: William Dieterle (dir.). The Life of Emile Zola (1937). 116 min. B. Mass Media and Racism in European Society 1. During Third Republic, nationalism and antisemitism were linked, especially in newspapers such as Edouard Drumont's La Libre Parole 2. Émile Zola, J’accuse! 3. L'Affaire Dreyfus by Georges Méliès
  • 30. The Dreyfus Affair (aka L'Affaire Dreyfus) is a multi-film narrative by Georges Méliès regarding the controversial political scandal surrounding Captain Alfred Dreyfus, convicted of Treason in 1894 France. After Emile Zola published his infamous letter, "J'Accuse", which accused the government of anti-Semitism and unlawful jailing, Dreyfus was eventually re-tried. In 1906, he was exonerated and reinstated as a major in the French Army. This film, produced in the midst of the scandal, would become the 1st censored movie as it was banned in France. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6aZeM-NoybI
  • 31. I. Mass Society II. Case Study: Émile Zola and the Dreyfus Affair A. Film: William Dieterle (dir.). The Life of Emile Zola (1937). 116 min. B. Mass Media and Racism in European Society 1. During Third Republic, nationalism and antisemitism were linked, especially in newspapers such as Edouard Drumont's La Libre Parole 2. Émile Zola, J’accuse! 3. L'Affaire Dreyfus by Georges Méliès 4. Dreyfus Affair Timeline: http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/guieuj/others/Dre yfusToDay/DreyfusToday.htm
  • 32. I. Mass Society II. Case Study: Émile Zola and the Dreyfus Affair A. Film: William Dieterle (dir.). The Life of Emile Zola (1937). 116 min. B. Mass Media and Racism in European Society 1. Significance: links between nationalism, racism, and hate speech 2. http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/hate-map 3. Example: The Council of Conservative Citizens
  • 33. "We believe the United States is a European country and that Americans are part of the European people. … We therefore oppose the massive immigration of non- European and non-Western peoples into the United States that threatens to transform our nation into a non-European majority in our lifetime. We believe that illegal immigration must be stopped, if necessary by military force and placing troops on our national borders; that illegal aliens must be returned to their own countries; and that legal immigration must be severely restricted or halted through appropriate changes in our laws and policies. We also oppose all efforts to mix the races of mankind, to promote non-white races over the European-American people through so-called ‘affirmative action' and similar measures, to destroy or denigrate the European-American heritage, including the heritage of the Southern people, and to force the integration of the races.” —Statement of Principles, Citizens Informer, 2007 http://www.splcenter.org/get- informed/intelligence-files/groups/council-of-conservative-citizens, accessed 3 March 2010
  • 34. "We believe the United States is a European country and that Americans are part of the European people. … We therefore oppose the massive immigration of non- European and non-Western peoples into the United States that threatens to transform our nation into a non-European majority in our lifetime. We believe that illegal immigration must be stopped, if necessary by military force and placing troops on our national borders; that illegal aliens must be returned to their own countries; and that legal immigration must be severely restricted or halted through appropriate changes in our laws and policies. We also oppose all efforts to mix the races of mankind, to promote non-white races over the European-American people through so-called ‘affirmative action' and similar measures, to destroy or denigrate the European-American heritage, including the heritage of the Southern people, and to force the integration of the races.” —Statement of Principles, Citizens Informer, 2007 http://www.splcenter.org/get- informed/intelligence-files/groups/council-of-conservative-citizens, accessed 3 March 2010 God is the author of racism. God is the One who divided mankind into different types. ... Mixing the races is rebelliousness against God." — Council of Conservative Citizens website, 2001 http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/groups/council-of-conservative-citizens, accessed 3 March

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