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Psychotherapies (1)

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  • 1. Modern Psychotherapies By Nelofar Rauf
  • 2. Traditional Therapies • Exorcism • Trephination • Mesmerism • Burning and lashing • Putting head of patient in old fashion oven • Electric phrenometer • Witchcraft • Drum beating • Animal Blood
  • 3. Situation in Pakistan • “Shamans” or ‘middle man” • “Pir” ,”Faqris” • Use of holy water • Violent actions
  • 4. Reasons • Belief system • Lack of education • Lack of availability of professionals
  • 5. Modes of Threatening Mentally ill 1. The Muslim Spiritual healing Method 2. The pagan Ritual of Jin and Black Magic 3. The Modern psychotherapies
  • 6. Muslim Spiritual Healing Method Ibne-Sina, Ibn-e-Arabi, Al-Kundi, Al –Razi, Roomi and Adbul Qadir Jilani paved the way following humanistic approach. • Therapy through Zakr • Therapy through Reflection • Therapy through Group Discussion • Therapy through Music • Dream Interpretation • Therapy through Dialogue & reading
  • 7. Ritual of Jin and Black Magic • Faith healers • Hypnosis • Music • Written magic words • Tactics to end the spell or black magic
  • 8. Modern Psychotherapies What is Psychotherapy Psychotherapy consists of a series of techniques for treating Mental health, emotional and some psychiatric disorders. Psychotherapy helps the patient understand what helps them feel positive or anxious, as well as accepting their strong and weak points. If people can identify their feelings and ways of thinking they become better at coping with difficult situations.
  • 9. Definition Treatment of • Emotional, • Behavioral, personality, • and Psychiatric disorders based primarily on verbal or nonverbal communication and interventions with the patient, in contrast to treatments using chemical and physical measures.
  • 10. Psychodynamic therapy • Credit of Psychodynamic therapy goes to Sigmund Freud. • This is also called insight-oriented therapy. • It focuses on the automatic processes as they are exhibited in a person's current behavior. • This type of therapy aims to increase the client's self-awareness and understanding of the impact of the past on present behavior.
  • 11. psychodynamic therapy helps people understand the roots of emotional distress, usually by exploring unconscious motives, needs and defenses.
  • 12. Techniques in psychoanalytical approach Free association Free association (considered the "fundamental rule") is the method used in psychoanalytic treatment. In free association the patient says whatever comes to mind without exercising any selectivity or censorship.
  • 13. Dream Analysis & Interpretations Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams. In many of the ancient societies, such as Egypt & Greece, dreaming was considered a supernatural communication or a means of divine intervention, whose message could be unraveled by those with certain powers. In modern times, various schools of psychology have offered theories about the meaning of dreams.
  • 14. Transference “A reproduction of emotions relating to repressed experiences, especially of childhood, and the substitution of another person ... for the original object of the repressed impulses. Transference was first described by Sigmund Freud.
  • 15. Analyst uses transference as a vehicle for resolution of interpersonal conflicts. 1. Positive transference 2. Negative transference 3. Ambivalent transference
  • 16. Counter Transference Counter Transference is defined as redirection of a therapist's feelings toward a client, or more generally as a therapist's emotional entanglement with a client. It help the therapist regulate their emotions in the therapeutic relationship, but it also gives the therapist valuable insight into what the client is attempting to elicit in them.
  • 17. Behaviorist Psychotherapies Behavior therapy can be studied scientifically by observing overt behavior, without discussing internal mental states. Without holding inner states as causal, accepted internal states as part of a causal chain of behavior, but continued to hold that the only way to improve the internal state was through environmental manipulation.
  • 18. Techniques in Behavior therapy Systematic Desensitization technique Joseph Wolpe, a pioneer of behavioral therapy, developed a technique called systematic desensitization for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders and phobias. • Exposure therapies – Flooding – In vivo • Modeling • Assertive Training and Social skills
  • 19. Systematic desensitization Systematic desensitization usually starts with imagining yourself in a progression of fearful situations and using relaxation strategies that compete with anxiety. Once you can successfully manage your anxiety while imagining fearful events, you can use the technique in real life situations. The goal of the process is to become gradually desensitized to the triggers that are causing your distress.
  • 20. Exposure therapies The rationale underlying exposure therapies is that continuous exposure to anxiety provoking stimulus will decrease anxiety because the individual will become desensitized to it.
  • 21. Modeling Modeling is a psychological terms that simply means learning by copying or mimicking behavior that we are exposed to. • Live modeling : direct observation of model • Symbolic modeling: indirect observation via film or TV • Covert modeling: individual is asked to imagine
  • 22. Important points 1. Attend 2. Retain 3. Respond 4. Motivate
  • 23. Assertive training Assertiveness Training is a type of behavior therapy in which people are taught appropriate methods of asserting themselves in various situations through honest and direct expression of their feelings.
  • 24. Cognitive Therapy • Cognitive therapy seeks to help the patient overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking, behavior, and emotional responses. • This involves helping patients develop skills for modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking, relating to others in different ways, and changing behaviors
  • 25. Types • Cognitive therapy Based on the theory that depression is due to distortions in the patient's perspectives, such as all-or-none thinking, over-generalization, and selective perception. The therapist initially tries to highlight these distortions, then encourages the patient to change her attitudes.
  • 26. Rational-emotive therapy (RET) Based on the belief that most problems originate in irrational thought. For example, perfectionists and pessimists usually suffer from issues related to irrational thinking; for example, if a perfectionist encounters a small failure, she might perceive a much bigger failure. It is better to establish a reasonable standard emotionally, so the individual can live a balanced life. This form of cognitive therapy is an opportunity for the patient to learn of his current distortions and successfully eliminate them.
  • 27. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) The most commonly practiced type of cognitive therapy. It is based on the belief that using both cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy is more effective than just one of these types. Very few therapists believe in using just one style of therapy for success any more.
  • 28. Family Therapy Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. It tends to view change in terms of the system of interaction between family members. It emphasizes family relationships as an important factor in psychological health
  • 29. What the different schools of family therapy have in common is a belief that, regardless of the origin of the problem, and regardless of whether the clients consider it an "individual" or "family" issue, involving families in solutions is often beneficial. This involvement of families is commonly accomplished by their direct participation in the therapy session. The skills of the family therapist thus include the ability to influence conversations in a way that catalyzes the strengths, wisdom, and support of the wider system.
  • 30. Group Therapy In group therapy approximately 6-10 individuals meet face-to-face with a trained group therapist. During the group meeting time, members decide what they want to talk about.
  • 31. Process of Group Therapy • When people come into a group and interact freely with other group members, they usually recreate those difficulties that brought them to group therapy in the first place. • Under the direction of the group therapist, the group is able to give support, offer alternatives, and comfort members in such a way that these difficulties become resolved and alternative behaviors are learned.
  • 32. Advantages • The group also allows a person to develop new ways of relating to people. • During group therapy, people begin to see that they are not alone and that there is hope and help. It is comforting to hear that other people have a similar difficulty, or have already worked through a problem that deeply disturbs another group member. • Another reason for the success of group therapy is that people feel free to care about each other because of the climate of trust in a group.
  • 33. Humanistic approach in psychotherapy Humanistic Therapy places emphasis on an individual's capacity for self-determination. Although recognizing past problems, it's therapists encourage the client to recognize their ability to make choices that can positively effect their existence in a present and future context.
  • 34. • Humanistic psychotherapy involves a variety of different approaches that include Gestalt and Client centered therapy. • All humanistic therapists, whatever their discipline believe that the person is unique, that they consist of an integrated whole of which harmony and balance is integral, and that each person has the right to autonomy and respect.
  • 35. Ethical Issues in Psychotherapy • Role of APA • Psycho education • Confidentiality • Privacy • Professionalism