• Burning and lashing
• Putting head of patient in old fashion oven
• Electric phrenometer
• Drum beating
• Animal Blood
Situation in Pakistan
• “Shamans” or ‘middle man”
• “Pir” ,”Faqris”
• Use of holy water
• Violent actions
• Belief system
• Lack of education
• Lack of availability of professionals
Modes of Threatening Mentally ill
1. The Muslim Spiritual healing Method
2. The pagan Ritual of Jin and Black Magic
3. The Modern psychotherapies
Muslim Spiritual Healing Method
Ibne-Sina, Ibn-e-Arabi, Al-Kundi, Al –Razi,
Roomi and Adbul Qadir Jilani paved the way
following humanistic approach.
• Therapy through Zakr
• Therapy through Reflection
• Therapy through Group Discussion
• Therapy through Music
• Dream Interpretation
• Therapy through Dialogue & reading
Ritual of Jin and Black Magic
• Faith healers
• Written magic words
• Tactics to end the spell or black magic
What is Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy consists of a series of techniques for
treating Mental health, emotional and some psychiatric
Psychotherapy helps the patient understand what helps
them feel positive or anxious, as well as accepting their
strong and weak points.
If people can identify their feelings and ways of thinking
they become better at coping with difficult situations.
• Behavioral, personality,
• and Psychiatric disorders based primarily
on verbal or nonverbal communication
and interventions with the patient, in
contrast to treatments using chemical and
• Credit of Psychodynamic therapy goes to
• This is also called insight-oriented therapy.
• It focuses on the automatic processes as they
are exhibited in a person's current behavior.
• This type of therapy aims to increase the client's
self-awareness and understanding of the impact
of the past on present behavior.
psychodynamic therapy helps people
understand the roots of emotional distress,
usually by exploring unconscious motives,
needs and defenses.
Techniques in psychoanalytical
Free association (considered the
"fundamental rule") is the method used
in psychoanalytic treatment. In free
association the patient says whatever
comes to mind without exercising any
selectivity or censorship.
Dream Analysis & Interpretations
Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning
In many of the ancient societies, such as Egypt & Greece,
dreaming was considered a supernatural communication
or a means of divine intervention, whose message could
be unraveled by those with certain powers.
In modern times, various schools of psychology have
offered theories about the meaning of dreams.
“A reproduction of emotions relating to
repressed experiences, especially of
childhood, and the substitution of another
person ... for the original object of the
Transference was first described
by Sigmund Freud.
Analyst uses transference as a vehicle for
resolution of interpersonal conflicts.
1. Positive transference
2. Negative transference
3. Ambivalent transference
Counter Transference is defined as redirection of a
therapist's feelings toward a client, or more
generally as a therapist's emotional
entanglement with a client.
It help the therapist regulate their emotions in
the therapeutic relationship, but it also gives the
therapist valuable insight into what the client is
attempting to elicit in them.
Behavior therapy can be studied scientifically by
observing overt behavior, without discussing
internal mental states.
Without holding inner states as causal, accepted
internal states as part of a causal chain of
behavior, but continued to hold that the only way
to improve the internal state was through
Techniques in Behavior therapy
Systematic Desensitization technique
Joseph Wolpe, a pioneer of behavioral therapy, developed
a technique called systematic desensitization for the
treatment of anxiety-related disorders and phobias.
• Exposure therapies
– In vivo
• Assertive Training and Social skills
Systematic desensitization usually starts with
imagining yourself in a progression of fearful
situations and using relaxation strategies that
compete with anxiety.
Once you can successfully manage your anxiety
while imagining fearful events, you can use the
technique in real life situations. The goal of the
process is to become gradually desensitized to
the triggers that are causing your distress.
The rationale underlying exposure therapies
is that continuous exposure to anxiety
provoking stimulus will decrease anxiety
because the individual will become
desensitized to it.
Modeling is a psychological terms that simply
means learning by copying or
mimicking behavior that we are exposed to.
• Live modeling : direct observation of model
• Symbolic modeling: indirect observation via film
• Covert modeling: individual is asked to imagine
Assertiveness Training is a type of behavior
therapy in which people are taught
appropriate methods of asserting
themselves in various situations through
honest and direct expression of their
• Cognitive therapy seeks to help the patient
overcome difficulties by identifying and
changing dysfunctional thinking, behavior,
and emotional responses.
• This involves helping patients develop
skills for modifying beliefs, identifying
distorted thinking, relating to others in
different ways, and changing behaviors
• Cognitive therapy
Based on the theory that depression is due to
distortions in the patient's perspectives, such
as all-or-none thinking, over-generalization,
and selective perception. The therapist initially
tries to highlight these distortions, then
encourages the patient to change her
Rational-emotive therapy (RET)
Based on the belief that most problems originate
in irrational thought. For
example, perfectionists and pessimists usually suffer
from issues related to irrational thinking; for example,
if a perfectionist encounters a small failure, she might
perceive a much bigger failure. It is better to establish
a reasonable standard emotionally, so the individual
can live a balanced life. This form of cognitive therapy
is an opportunity for the patient to learn of his current
distortions and successfully eliminate them.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
The most commonly practiced type of cognitive
therapy. It is based on the belief that using
both cognitive therapy and behavioral
therapy is more effective than just one of
these types. Very few therapists believe in
using just one style of therapy for success any
Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family
therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch
of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in
intimate relationships to nurture change and
It tends to view change in terms of the system of
interaction between family members.
It emphasizes family relationships as an important factor in
What the different schools of family therapy have in
common is a belief that, regardless of the origin of the
problem, and regardless of whether the clients consider
it an "individual" or "family" issue, involving families in
solutions is often beneficial.
This involvement of families is commonly accomplished by
their direct participation in the therapy session. The skills
of the family therapist thus include the ability to influence
conversations in a way that catalyzes the strengths,
wisdom, and support of the wider system.
In group therapy approximately 6-10
individuals meet face-to-face with a
trained group therapist. During the group
meeting time, members decide what they
want to talk about.
Process of Group Therapy
• When people come into a group and interact
freely with other group members, they usually
recreate those difficulties that brought them to
group therapy in the first place.
• Under the direction of the group therapist, the
group is able to give support, offer alternatives,
and comfort members in such a way that these
difficulties become resolved and alternative
behaviors are learned.
• The group also allows a person to develop new ways of
relating to people.
• During group therapy, people begin to see that they are
not alone and that there is hope and help. It is comforting
to hear that other people have a similar difficulty, or have
already worked through a problem that deeply disturbs
another group member.
• Another reason for the success of group therapy is that
people feel free to care about each other because of the
climate of trust in a group.
Humanistic approach in
Humanistic Therapy places emphasis on an
individual's capacity for self-determination.
Although recognizing past problems, it's
therapists encourage the client to
recognize their ability to make choices that
can positively effect their existence in a
present and future context.
• Humanistic psychotherapy involves a variety of
different approaches that include Gestalt and
Client centered therapy.
• All humanistic therapists, whatever their
discipline believe that the person is unique, that
they consist of an integrated whole of which
harmony and balance is integral, and that each
person has the right to autonomy and respect.
Ethical Issues in Psychotherapy
• Role of APA
• Psycho education