What is meant by land reforms?The redistribution of land from those who own large chunks of land to those who are landless In an agrarian society land represents wealth, therefore ownership of land ,if unfair ,causes concentration of wealth in the hands of a few. Land reforms as a major tool to economic prosperity was identified as early as 1945.Unfortunately nothing serious was done ever since. The main reason behind the failure of land reform efforts was due to dominance of big land lords an successive regime.
In 1951 provincial election in Punjab 80% of seats, and in 1953 provincial election in sindh 90% of seats were won by these large land owners unfortunately ,as they were politically empowered, the civil bureaucracy also supported them. even land reforms of 1959(general ayub khan) were criticized on benefitting civil bureaucracy and military. therefore it did little to bring change.
• Key features of 1959 land reforms.1.Ceiling on holdings: 500 acres2.Abolition of jagirs.3.Occuping tentas made owners.4.Legal protection to farmers.5.Rents to be paid in kind.
more than 50% of land resumed was uncultivated deserts/hills. many land lords sold low quantity land to the govt: at gold price. the resumed land which was to be sold to land less tents as per law, was sold to rich farmers and civil and military officials. only 20% of land was sold to the poor farmers by 1967,and they were only 67000 in number.
The reforms failed due to: (by mahmood hassan khan)1.Generous ceiling of holdings.(500 acres).2.Transfers and exemptions.3.About 3/4 of land was uncultivated.
THE BHUTTO REFORMS OF 1972. BHUTTO’S REFORMS WERE DIFFERENT FROM 1959, AS THEY AIMED AT. 1. Breaking in equitable concentration of landed wealth. 2. Reducing income disparities. 3. Increasing production. 4. Reducing unemployment. 5. Administration of revenue and taxes. 6. Leging down the relationship of farmer between land lords and tenant. (BHUTTO SPEECH IN MARCH 1972)
MAIN FEATURES:1.Ceiling :100 acres.2.No compensation to land owners.3.Free distribution of land to tentas.4.Land revenue, water rates, seed costs borne by land lords.5.Cost of fertilizers and pesticides to be shared equally.6.Tent eviction decision by revenue courts.
7.Consequently,all those tents who acquired land in 1959,and were owning dues, had their dues written off. Only 42% of the land could be resumed in Punjab and in 59% in sindh.In all 0.6 millions of acres were resumed, only 0.001% of total farms area. Only 50548 persons benefited. Only1% of land less tentas and small owners were benefited.