05 vdo

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05 vdo

  1. 1. Êส‹‹Çว¹น»ปÃรÐะ¡กÍอºบÁมÑัÅลµตÔิÁมÕีàเ´ดÕีÂย [ÇวÔิ´ดÕีâโÍอ] 7 ¡กÑั¹นÂยÒาÂย¹น 2553
  2. 2. ia Systems 520251: Multimed Êส‹‹Çว¹น»ปÃรÐะ¡กÍอºบÁมÑัÅลµตÔิÁมÕีàเ´ดÕีÂย [ÇวÔิ´ดÕีâโÍอ] 7 ¡กÑั¹นÂยÒาÂย¹น 2553
  3. 3. It’s everywhere!!!
  4. 4. It’s everywhere!!! Cinema
  5. 5. TV It’s everywhere!!! Cinema
  6. 6. TV DVD VCD It’s everywhere!!! Cinema
  7. 7. TV DVD VCD Mobile It’s everywhere!!! Phone Cinema
  8. 8. TV DVD VCD VDO Chat Mobile It’s everywhere!!! Phone Cinema
  9. 9. TV DVD Internet VCD Streaming VDO Chat Mobile It’s everywhere!!! Phone Cinema
  10. 10. TV DVD Internet VCD Streaming VDO VDO on- Chat demand e-Learning Mobile It’s everywhere!!! Phone Cinema
  11. 11. TV DVD Internet VCD Streaming VDO VDO on- Chat demand e-Learning Mobile It’s everywhere!!! Phone Cinema ...and Many MORE...
  12. 12. Agenda
  13. 13. Agenda VDO Fundamental
  14. 14. Agenda VDO Fundamental Properties of VDO
  15. 15. Agenda VDO Fundamental Properties of VDO Digital VDO Formats
  16. 16. Agenda VDO Digital VDO Fundamental Production Properties of VDO Digital VDO Formats
  17. 17. Agenda VDO Digital VDO Fundamental Production Record Properties of VDO Digital VDO Formats
  18. 18. Agenda VDO Digital VDO Fundamental Production Record Properties of VDO Digital VDO Capture Formats
  19. 19. Agenda VDO Digital VDO Fundamental Production Record Properties of Edit VDO Digital VDO Capture Formats
  20. 20. Properties of VDO
  21. 21. Analog VDO • Motion VDO was originally created and stored in analog form.
  22. 22. Digital VDO • A means of reproducing the continuous VDO waveform as a stream of digital numbers.
  23. 23. Digital VDO • A means of reproducing the continuous VDO waveform as a stream of digital numbers. to va rious t: im mune analog B enefi ttributed to di stor tion a ise ... such as n o
  24. 24. open wiki to Interlacing embrace the explanation!! • Interlacing was originally conceived as a way to achieve good visual quality within a limitations of a narrow bandwidth. odd field even field
  25. 25. Progressive Scanning (non-interlaced scanning) • A method of representing moving images on a display screen, in which every pixel is represented in each frame. • Computer monitors use a progressive scan. • The standard refresh rate for a flicker-free display is a vertical scan rate of 75 Hz or higher. • It’s used to project movies in theaters.
  26. 26. Note in digital TV terminology: interlaced scan is denoted by a lowercase i progressive scan is denoted by a lowercase p frame rate: (60i, 24p) resolution: (1080i, 720p)
  27. 27. Frame Rate • Frame frequency is a measure of how quickly an image device can produce unique consecutive images called frames. (expressed in frames per second - fps) • Typically, the human eye can interpret motion at 10 fps, but this rate causes a flicker effect that’s distract. • Increasing the frame rate reduces flickering.
  28. 28. Frame Rate • Movies - 14 fps • Television: • NTSC - 29.97 fps • HDTV - 60 fps • VDO games (frame rate is very important): • action-oriented games - 20-30 fps • 3D-heavy games - 90-100 fps
  29. 29. Aspect Ratios • The ratio of the width of the image to its height (w:h) • motion-picture - 1.85:1 and 2.35:1 • tv screens - 1.33:1 (aka 4:3) • HDTV - 1.78:1 (aka 16:9) 16:9 4:3 letterbox
  30. 30. Compression • VDO is huge - one sec of analog VDO stored in an uncompressed digital format takes up 1 MB of disk space • thus, 5-min VDO ~ 300 MB • not practical • VDO compression is a MUST • VDO contains many spatial and temporal redundancies • Codecs are needed for creating and viewing
  31. 31. VDO Compression • Spatial compression (intra-frame) • Temporal compression (inter-frame)
  32. 32. Spatial Compression • Just image compression applied to a sequence of images.
  33. 33. Temporal Compression • Make key frames, say every 6 frames and do the spatial compression on these frames. • Between key frames, each one of them will be replaced by a difference frame.
  34. 34. ที่มา: http://www.trustedreviews.com/camcorders/review/2007/12/22/The-Codec-Primer-Part-1/p1
  35. 35. Digital VDO File Formats
  36. 36. AVI • Most common AV data on Windows • Can be saved in a variety of compression schemes - full frames (uncompressed), Radius’s Cinepak, Intel Video, and Indeo.
  37. 37. MOV • Quicktime Movie was developed by Apple Computer • MPEG-4 • Qt 7 (and later) use H.264
  38. 38. MPG • The compressed VDO file format for standard DVD using the MPEG-2 encoding standard • A large file can be transferred to MPEG with little loss of quality while dropping the bit rate a great deal
  39. 39. • The MPEG group develops the standards for encoding VDO and audio • MPEG standards: • MPEG-1: used as VCD standard (MP3 is the popular compression) • MPEG-2: use in many things such as DVD, digital satellite TV and so on • MPEG-4: support 3D content, low bit-rate encoding, support for Digital Right Management
  40. 40. Others • WMV • a part of Windows Media framework • used for streaming VDO over the internet • uses MPEG-4 standard • RM • a multimedia container with RealVideo and RealAudio codecs in a single file • is used to stream AV over the internet
  41. 41. VDO Production
  42. 42. Equipments • Digital tapeless (D) • HDV (D) • DV (formerly DVC) • 8mm (A) • VHS (A)
  43. 43. Connecting Recorder to Computer
  44. 44. Analog Camcorder
  45. 45. Coaxial • VDO and audio signals are both carries in one cable • Poorest transfer
  46. 46. A/V • Use RCA connectors • Yellow is (composite) video • Red is right audio & White is left audio
  47. 47. S-Video • Separate video - transmit VDO signals over a cable by dividing the VDO info into 2 separate signals: color (chrominance) and brightness (luminance) • Sharper than composite VDO • must be used in conjunction with audio cables
  48. 48. Digital Camcorder
  49. 49. USB • USB 2.0 are common • 480 Mbps
  50. 50. FireWire • Developed by Apple Computer • IEEE-1394 standard • 400 Mbps • higher transfer rates are available (800, 1600, and up to 3100 Mbps)
  51. 51. Transferring from Recorder to Computer • Calculate disk space (uncompressed): • (pixel width) x (pixel height) x (color bit depth) x (fps) x (duration in secs) / 8,000,000 • say, 3-min VDO @ 15 fps, 24-bit depth, 320x240 pixels will take: • (320) x (240) x (24) x (15) x (180) / 8,000,000 = 622 MB
  52. 52. VDO Editing • Editing: • cut and paste sections • add special effects • add transitions • add titles
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