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Nanotechnology in energy applications

                      2005.11.16

1.
2.                         -
   • Solid state ...
-


                         料
        料
                Solid state silicon&
                III/V group solar cell



  ...
1.




     3
1928年 2004年
料來   Renewable Energy The Solution to Climate Change   www.erec-renewables.org

                              ...
• 20                                0.6~1°C

•      1950年 來        度        率                  度    率略

• 20              ...
1890年 來                                    年
     度     0.6~1.0                      度

                  度
六             ...
Humanity’s Top Ten Problems
           for next 50 years
1.    ENERGY
2.    WATER
3.    FOOD
4.    ENVIRONMENT
5.    POVER...
2004年COP10
   1992年                    1997年Rio+5                     2002年Rio+10      •      年
   •里                     ...
都
•    36         律                          量

• 2008-2012年降   量   1990年       5.2%

•                     例             ...
No more cheap oil




              National Geography, June 2004
                                              10
量
        •                        度 20年             了0.2
•                   量       1 338            (Barrel)          4...
0.8%,      0.3%
  度 3.8%,     1%,
  來     0.5%,    0.8%
,   1.4%
                                 聯


                    ...
料來
     13
CO2 量



CO2
      量
                                    •          : 2015年        2000年         (+-10%)
                 ...
都

                量




A                       B



            易

    都   量           B




                        林  ...
度
  0.5 kg CO2
 CO2      量                        行   類


                                           易
  ISO              ...
年
                年            年
年
                        行
                                  例




            年
    年  ...
行                           勵
類       勵

                                          累              69         (618kW)
    •...
來
                 (Act on Granting    2010年   量   12.5%
Priority to Renewable Sources)

    力
           (Utilities Act) ...
20
v.s   力

            力

例:         力                      量: 74MW
                                     : 200
     量: 74 MW...
勵



                                    料
                                             量
                                ...
2.
     -




         23
Notable evens in the history of photovoltaics
1839 Becquerel (FR) discovered photogalvanic effect in liquid electrolytes
1...
Notable evens in the history of photovoltaics
1974 Project Sunshine initiated in Japan to foster growth of PV industry and...
Notable evens in the history of photovoltaics

1994 Worldwide PV production reaches 100MW per
     year
1995 Cu(InGa)Se2 t...
Solar spectrum
                                                                             ASTM G173-03 Re fe re nc e Spe...
The solution is solar energy


Only 10 minutes of solar irradiation on the Earth’s
surface is equal to the total yearly hu...
金


    洞


            Conduction                                                         Mobile electrons
            ba...
-n   p




         洞



             30
洞
        量
    留
洞




                31
料         洞
                       洞
數量                 流
         來 論       洞   理




                           32
PN
P   N       N        P
        洞




                       P   N
                     type Type




                  ...
理 (Si solar cell)
            :N                   •        P    N             料
            :P




    N       + -       ...
類




Dye sensilitize Solar
Cells (DSC)
  料

                            35
Charge separation mechanism @ Solid state and DSC PVs

                                        Dye sensilitize Solar
Silic...
料                        (DSC)           理

                                                  料                           ...
38
率

                                       Cell
     類                     料
                                              ...
類                                量

                Production Forecast of Solar Modules Using
                          D...
Market Size in 2030 for the four market segments



    Off-Grid Industrial
                                              ...
量          :
  料
      1/5-1/10

  料來 :
Nikkei Electronics
(Japanese), 15, No.9, p-
69(2003).

       Research Triangle
in...
PV module shipments by applications


                       (I)                   PV
                                    ...
2020年                    55,000MW               US$ 490         ( ≈ NT$1.65          )
                                   ...
量
例    :           12 kW

                4 hours

         量   12kW*4hours = 48 kWhours = 48度

若                         ...
MWp        Cost/Wp (US$)
                                                                                                 ...
US$3.5/Wp


                                                                                                              ...
不 Si 料                                  (2000年 )

                                                            度
  金

  度 9...
料




    料       爐       切




                        切
拉       料
                            49
P-type Si
     Wafer

            1.                4.



            2.
                              5.




            ...
c-Si solar cells processing




                              Source:   51
Source:   ,   ; Shell Solar, DE   52
Source:   53
0.125"
+         EVA           0.015"
                        Cells 0.014"
          EVA           0.015"
    TedlarTM (Du...
III-V group PV cells and concentrator cells




Material   Bandgap       Growth       Application                         ...
56
聯




                                           列
(Unit Solar Cell)   (PV Module)   (PV Array)



       (Battery)



   ...
類

(A)     立                          PCU
      (Stand-Alone       列                              流
      System)




(B) ...
類
              立        (Stand-Alone System)
                           PCU
          列                                 -...
類
              立           (Stand-Alone System)




               :                   100W   90kW離   PV       Ho-Do   落
...
類




    61
聯   宅




        62
領
Various colours in a series-connected dye solar cell modules




    Courtesy Dr. Winfried Hoffman, CEO, RWE, SCHOTT Sol...
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSC)




Advantage: easy to fabricate flexible cell
                                          ...
領




    65
領




    66
First commercial DSC module produced by STI (www.sta.com.au)




                                                         ...
領




    68
例




Mobile phone with PV power supply   A telephone booth supplied by photovoltaics
                                    ...
70
ScotteVest CES   了                       了
     來                     PDA   Game Boy MP3
                 2004年           ...
林 DB Lehrter車




                72
(BIPV)       例




料來   料   Mont-Cenis        93年05
                                       73
(BIPV)   例




         Source: STI, AU   74
Semi-transparent architecture




                                Source: STI, AU   75
PV
         (     Sonnen, Bayern)




•   PV       量 1.7 MWp
•   Inverter 18  97 kW     聯   Inverter
    料來        Sharp  ...
力               例




            (Hybrid)     力               (Guerinda, Spain)


料來   Renewable Energy The Solution to C...
The Helios prototype aviation of NASA




                                  Ref: NASA, US   78
Acknowledgements
-
-       EPFL Prof. M. Graetzel, Dr. M. Nazeeruddin
-
-   料     林                 禮       理     林
-     ...
Thank you


 E-Mail : jmwu@itri.org.tw
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Transcript of "2005.11.16"

  1. 1. Nanotechnology in energy applications 2005.11.16 1. 2. - • Solid state silicon and III/V group solar cells ( ) • Dye-sensitized solar cells ( 料 ) 3. 奈 4. 5. Acknowledgements 1
  2. 2. - 料 料 Solid state silicon& III/V group solar cell Dye sensitized solar cell 料 力 ( ) 2
  3. 3. 1. 3
  4. 4. 1928年 2004年 料來 Renewable Energy The Solution to Climate Change www.erec-renewables.org 4
  5. 5. • 20 0.6~1°C • 1950年 來 度 率 度 率略 • 20 度 0.1- 0.2 m • 20 率略 • 20 北 度 率 2%-4% • 20 度 2% • 料 1960年 來 10% • 料 20 北 度 兩 5
  6. 6. 1890年 來 年 度 0.6~1.0 度 度 六 (Greenhouse gas, GHG) CO2 ( )CH4 ( )N2O ( )HFCs ( )PFCS (六 硫)SF6 1996 2100(BAU ) CO 2(ppm) 278 363 700 CH 4(ppb) 790 1780 3600 N 2O(ppb) 270 310 420 HFCs(ppt) 0 980 1107 *Tom M.L.Wigley 料來 料來 陵 陵 量 力 量 力 6
  7. 7. Humanity’s Top Ten Problems for next 50 years 1. ENERGY 2. WATER 3. FOOD 4. ENVIRONMENT 5. POVERTY 6. TERRORISM & WAR 7. DISEASE 8. EDUCATION 9. DEMOCRACY 10. POPULATION Source: Richard Smalley, Energy & Nanotechnology Conference Rice University, Houston May 3, 2003 7
  8. 8. 2004年COP10 1992年 1997年Rio+5 2002年Rio+10 • 年 •里 •里 • 2005/2/16 1992/6 • 1998年COP4 2003年COP9 • 諾 利 •CDM LULUCF 1994/3/2 行 • 1999COP5 2002年COP8 1995年COP1 • 里 • 林 2000年COP6-I 都 • 1996年COP2 • 2001年COP6-bis 都 • 1997年COP3 量 量 2001年COP7 • 都 • 量 GHG 量 • 拉 什 8
  9. 9. 都 • 36 律 量 • 2008-2012年降 量 1990年 5.2% • 例 12%~15% •6 類: CO2 — 1990年 類: 六 硫 1995年 : 力 浪... 不 利 料 來 9
  10. 10. No more cheap oil National Geography, June 2004 10
  11. 11. 量 • 度 20年 了0.2 • 量 1 338 (Barrel) 43年 • 量 146 立 62年 • 量 9,842 230年 • 量 395 64年 不 都 98% 20 11
  12. 12. 0.8%, 0.3% 度 3.8%, 1%, 來 0.5%, 0.8% , 1.4% 聯 拉 OECD : 12
  13. 13. 料來 13
  14. 14. CO2 量 CO2 量 • : 2015年 2000年 (+-10%) • : 2020年 2000年 (+-10%) • : 2025年 2000年 (+-10%) CO2 率 零 +10% 2000年 -10% 1998 2000 2008 2012 2015 2020 2025 • 狀 力論 CO2 •切 CO2 率 • 2008-2012年 度 零 行 量 14
  15. 15. 都 量 A B 易 都 量 B 林 量 量 量 量 15
  16. 16. 度 0.5 kg CO2 CO2 量 行 類 易 ISO 立 ISO “ ” ISO 14000 度 量 勵 林 量 2010年 CO2 量 率 2%-3% 2010年~2020年零 2020年 量 16
  17. 17. 年 年 年 年 行 例 年 年 年 勵 量 年 量 17
  18. 18. 行 勵 類 勵 累 69 (618kW) • 金 : 15 /kW • : 50% 蘭 利 • : 50% 5kW 1. 度 2 2. 9.9 kW 3. 30 KW 60 kW 1. 11% 勵 利 利 2. 利 3. 兩年 數 18
  19. 19. 來 (Act on Granting 2010年 量 12.5% Priority to Renewable Sources) 力 (Utilities Act) 2010年 量 10% 力 (Renewable Obligation) (Renewable 2010年 量 10.8% Portfolio Standards, RPS) 力 例 力 來 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. v.s 力 力 例: 力 量: 74MW : 200 量: 74 MW : 75 : 113 : : 7年 : : 100 林 量 泥 : 1 泥 便 0.89 CO2 21
  22. 22. 勵 料 量 度 量 力 理 料 量 量 立 力 量 1989年 度 力 不 率 浪 輻 率 浪 22
  23. 23. 2. - 23
  24. 24. Notable evens in the history of photovoltaics 1839 Becquerel (FR) discovered photogalvanic effect in liquid electrolytes 1873 Smith (UK) discovered photoconductivity of solid Se 1877 Adams and Day (UK) discover photogeneration of current in Se tubes; the first observation of PV effect in solids 1883 Fritts (US) makes first large solar cell using Se film 1954 First 6% efficiency solar cells reported: Si (Bell lab, US) and Cu2S/CdS (Air Force, US) 1955 Hoffman electronics (US) offers 2% efficient Si PV cells at $1500/W 1958 NASA Vanguard satellite with Si backup solar array 1959 Hoffman electronics (US) offers 10% efficient Si PV cells 1963 Sharp Corp. (JP) produces first commercial Si modules 1966 NASA Orbiting Astronomical Observatory launched with 1kW array 1970 First GaAs heterostructure solar cells by Alferov, Andreev et al., in the USSR 1972 First PV conference to include a session on terrestrial application (IEEE) 1973 A big year in photovoltaics: World oil crisis spurs many nations to consider renewable energy including photovoltaics Cherry Hill conference in US: established photovoltaics potentail and legitimacy for government research funding World’s first solar powered residence (Uni. Of Delaware, US) built with Cu2S (not c-Si) solar modules Source: Handbook of PV science and engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2003 24
  25. 25. Notable evens in the history of photovoltaics 1974 Project Sunshine initiated in Japan to foster growth of PV industry and applications Tyco (US) grows 2.5cm wide Si ribbon for photovoltaics, first alternative to Si wafers 1975 First book dedicated to PV science and technology by Hovel (US) 1980 First thin-film solar cell>10% using Cu2S/CdS (US) 1981 350kW concentrator array installed in Saudi Arabia 1982 First 1MW utility scale PV plant (CA, US) with Arco Si modules on 2-axis trackers 1984 6MW array installed in Carrisa Plains CA, US 1985 A big year for high efficiency Si solar cells: Si solar cell>20% under standard sun light (UNSW, AU) and >25% under 200x concentration (Stanford Uni. US) 1986 First commercial thin-film power module, the a-Si G4000 from Arco Solar (US) 1987 Fourteen solar powered cars complete the 3200km World solar challenge race (AU) with the winner averaging 70kph 1994 GaInP/GaAs 2-terminal concentrator multijunction > 30% (NREL, US) 1995 “1000 roofs” German demonstration project to install PV on houses, which triggered the present favorable PV legislation in DE, JP and other contries 1996 Photoelectrochemical “dye-sensitized” solid/liquid cell achieves 11% (EPFL, CH) Source: Handbook of PV science and engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2003 25
  26. 26. Notable evens in the history of photovoltaics 1994 Worldwide PV production reaches 100MW per year 1995 Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film solar cell reaches 19% efficiency (NREL, US) comparable with multicrystalline Si. First concentration array for space launched on Deep space 1 by US (5kW using high efficiency GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction cells) 1999 Cumulative worldwide installed PV reaches 1000MW 2002 Cumulative worldwide installed PV reaches 2000MW. It took 25 reats to reach the first 1000MW and only 3 years to double it; production of c-Si cells exceed 100MW per year at Sharp Corp. (JP). 樓 樓 樓 16 W 例 率 16% 100 W/m2 Source: Handbook of PV science and engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2003 26
  27. 27. Solar spectrum ASTM G173-03 Re fe re nc e Spe c tra 2.00 Etr W*m-2*nm-1 Global tilt W*m-2*nm-1 Solar power density @ AM1.5 G Direct+circums olar W*m-2*nm-1 1.75 UV: 1.3%, VIS: 37.2%, IR: 61.5% -1 1.50 nm -2 S pe c tral Irradianc e W m 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 Wave le ng th nm 27
  28. 28. The solution is solar energy Only 10 minutes of solar irradiation on the Earth’s surface is equal to the total yearly human consumption. Therefore, if we could accomplish harvesting merely a fraction of the solar energy reaching the Earth, we would solve many problems associated with the energy, and the global environment. 28
  29. 29. 金 洞 Conduction Mobile electrons band in conduction band Eg > 2eV Eg < 2eV Eg(SiO2) ~ 9eV Thermal Forbidden Eg(Si) ~ 1.12eV excitation band Eg(Si3N4) ~ 4.7eV Mobile holes in valance band valance band 金 狀 狀 狀 狀 (T = 0 K) (T > 0 K) 29
  30. 30. -n p 洞 30
  31. 31. 洞 量 留 洞 31
  32. 32. 料 洞 洞 數量 流 來 論 洞 理 32
  33. 33. PN P N N P 洞 P N type Type 33
  34. 34. 理 (Si solar cell) :N • P N 料 :P N + - • 量 料 - + 離( - 洞 ) P + N + - • (P ) (N ) - + P + N - - • 流流 流 ( 亮 ) + + P 34
  35. 35. 類 Dye sensilitize Solar Cells (DSC) 料 35
  36. 36. Charge separation mechanism @ Solid state and DSC PVs Dye sensilitize Solar Silicon Photovoltaic Cells Cells (DSC) TiO2 D*/D+ Electrolyte e--R p-Si (B) cb hν hν [CdTe] EF n-Si (P) D/D+ [CdS] Dye Charge separation by Charge separation by electric field within a p- and kinetic competition like in n-doped semiconductor photosynthesis material (Si, II-VI, a-Si: H) 36
  37. 37. 料 (DSC) 理 料 理 50fs~1.7ps Nanoparticles Ecb - 0.7 60ns ns-ms 10ms 0.2 Evb 110ns V vs SCE Ion Diffusion 率 料 hν 1. TiO2 2. HOMO-LUMO bandgap Anode : S + hν → S * Absorption 料 S * → S + + e − (TiO 2 ) Electron injection 3. 力 2 S + + 3I − → 2 S + I 3 − Regenerati on 4. 力 I 3 + 2e − ( Pt ) → 3 I − − Cathode : 5. Cell : e − ( Pt ) + hν → e − (TiO 2 ) M. Grätzel, Nature 2001, 414, 338−344. B. O’Regan, M. Grätzel, Nature 1991, 353, 737−740 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. 率 Cell 類 料 率 率 ( ) 15~20% 14~18% 12~17% 10~16% ( ) a-Si a-SiC a-SiGe 8~13% 6~9% III-V GaAs( / ) 18~35% II-VI CdS CdTe 10~14% 3 CuInSe( CuInSe2 2 ) 12~16% 10~12% TiO2/Dye 7 ~11 % 4 ~8 % 39
  40. 40. 類 量 Production Forecast of Solar Modules Using Different Technologies MW GW 30%p.a. 25%p.a. 3500 140 3000 120 2010 (Forecast) 2500 Si Solar 100 Jp 1.200 Cell EU 1.000 2000 不益 降 80 US 500 1500 60 SOA 500 ROW 500 1000 40 Σ 3.700 500 20 0 2002 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 0 c-Si 430 950 3340 c-Si thin film 20 50 290 thin film "New Concepts" 70 "New Concepts" c-Si 9 24 56 114 thin film 2 8 36 133 "New Concepts" 1 3 20 133 Courtesy Dr. Winfried Hoffman, CEO, RWE, SCHOTT Solar GmbH 40
  41. 41. Market Size in 2030 for the four market segments Off-Grid Industrial Consumer 70 GWp p.a. 20 GWp p.a. Total 300 GWp ⇒ 200 bio € Modul Turnover in 2030 Rural Electrification On-Grid 60 GWp p.a. 150 GWp p.a. Courtesy Dr. Winfried Hoffman, CEO, RWE, SCHOTT Solar GmbH 41
  42. 42. 量 : 料 1/5-1/10 料來 : Nikkei Electronics (Japanese), 15, No.9, p- 69(2003). Research Triangle institute(1994) DSC 金 0.6 42
  43. 43. PV module shipments by applications (I) PV 兩 (I) Grid-connected PV-systems (II) 立 SHS (Solar Home Systems) (II) European PV 43
  44. 44. 2020年 55,000MW US$ 490 ( ≈ NT$1.65 ) 3.5 3 3.0 55000 2.5 2.25 2.0 量 1.5 1.2 1.5 (U$/W) 年 1.0 12000 0.9 0.5 280 850 2800 0 年 降 料來 European Photovoltaic Industry Association, 2003 率 不論 2015年 度 5~8 44
  45. 45. 量 例 : 12 kW 4 hours 量 12kW*4hours = 48 kWhours = 48度 若 3kW*4 hours=12 kWhours, 48kWhours 4 45
  46. 46. MWp Cost/Wp (US$) 10 20 100 10 10,000 3 100,000 1.4 料 Much Effort by Nanotechnology Historical and projected costs for wafer c-Si and film c-Si photovoltaic modules versus their cumulative production (in megawatts). “Distributed fossil fuel” refers to off-grid generation of power, using, for instance, gas-driven generators. 46
  47. 47. US$3.5/Wp US$1.0/Wp US$0.5/Wp (NT$:17) Cost-efficiency analysis for first second-, and third-generation photovoltaic technologies (labeled I, II, and III, respectively). Region IIIa depicts very-high-efficiency devices that require novel mechanisms of device operation. Region IIIb—the region in which organic PV devices lie—depicts devices with devices with moderate efficiencies and very low costs. 47
  48. 48. 不 Si 料 (2000年 ) 度 金 度 98% 度 99.9999% 度 99.999999999% (6 9) (11 9) 金 料 •Silicon • 料 • • • ( ) 5 720 ~ 780 / 46,200 /t 1,058 /kg Wafer 1,037 ~ 1,095 / 25,920 /t 1,367 /kg 8 2,275 ~ 2,390 / 48
  49. 49. 料 料 爐 切 切 拉 料 49
  50. 50. P-type Si Wafer 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. 6. I-V • IC TFT-LCD 類 量 Solar Cell Structure 50
  51. 51. c-Si solar cells processing Source: 51
  52. 52. Source: , ; Shell Solar, DE 52
  53. 53. Source: 53
  54. 54. 0.125" + EVA 0.015" Cells 0.014" EVA 0.015" TedlarTM (DuPont) 0.0015" 0.125" EVA 0.015" Cells 0.014" EVA 0.015" 0.125" - 54
  55. 55. III-V group PV cells and concentrator cells Material Bandgap Growth Application The outdoor efficiency of our current test modules technique under typical conditions in Freiburg, Germany is in GaInP 1.9 eV MOVPE visible red emitter/receiver the range of 23-25 %. These modules are working GaAs 1.4 eV MOVPE, 1-sun and concentrator solar cells, with GaInP/GaInAs tandem solar cells achieving LPE Laser power and signal beaming efficiencies > 30 % at 150 suns. The next GaInAs 1.1 -1.4 eV MOVPE IR-emitter/receiver generation of our PV-concentrator modules will use GaInNAs 1 eV MOVPE Multijunction Solar Cell GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction concentrator solar AlGaAsSb 0.7 - 1 eV MOVPE Multijunction Solar Cell cells with an efficiency >35%. The intended module GaSb 0.7 eV Diffusion, Thermophotovoltaics, IR-Detector MOVPE efficiency is expected to be > 28 % making this Ge 0.7 eV MOVPE Thermophotovoltaics, IR-Detector technology by far the most efficient solar energy converter in the world. Source: ISE, DE 55
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57. 聯 列 (Unit Solar Cell) (PV Module) (PV Array) (Battery) 力 ( 力 ) (Inverter Conditioner) 57
  58. 58. 類 (A) 立 PCU (Stand-Alone 列 流 System) (B) PCU / 流 列 流 (Hybrid System) 流 (C) 聯 (Grid- connected / 流 System) 列 流 58
  59. 59. 類 立 (Stand-Alone System) PCU 列 -/~ 流 / 流 10年 : PV ; : 1. 更 2. 量 3. 量 ( ) PV 不易 : : 離 59
  60. 60. 類 立 (Stand-Alone System) : 100W 90kW離 PV Ho-Do 落 (100W*24hr)/(0.7*5hr)*(1.3~1.5)<900W (20 ) 60
  61. 61. 類 61
  62. 62. 聯 宅 62
  63. 63. 領 Various colours in a series-connected dye solar cell modules Courtesy Dr. Winfried Hoffman, CEO, RWE, SCHOTT Solar GmbH 63
  64. 64. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSC) Advantage: easy to fabricate flexible cell 64
  65. 65. 領 65
  66. 66. 領 66
  67. 67. First commercial DSC module produced by STI (www.sta.com.au) 67
  68. 68. 領 68
  69. 69. 例 Mobile phone with PV power supply A telephone booth supplied by photovoltaics with an energy management system 69
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. ScotteVest CES 了 了 來 PDA Game Boy MP3 2004年 零 300 不 200 71
  72. 72. 林 DB Lehrter車 72
  73. 73. (BIPV) 例 料來 料 Mont-Cenis 93年05 73
  74. 74. (BIPV) 例 Source: STI, AU 74
  75. 75. Semi-transparent architecture Source: STI, AU 75
  76. 76. PV ( Sonnen, Bayern) • PV 量 1.7 MWp • Inverter 18 97 kW 聯 Inverter 料來 Sharp PV 料 76
  77. 77. 力 例 (Hybrid) 力 (Guerinda, Spain) 料來 Renewable Energy The Solution to Climate Change www.erec-renewables.org 77
  78. 78. The Helios prototype aviation of NASA Ref: NASA, US 78
  79. 79. Acknowledgements - - EPFL Prof. M. Graetzel, Dr. M. Nazeeruddin - - 料 林 禮 理 林 - 龍 良 - 亮 理 料 References - Photocatalysis fundamentals and applications, John Wiley & Sons, 1989 - Handbook of PV science and engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2003 79
  80. 80. Thank you E-Mail : jmwu@itri.org.tw 80

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