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句型寶典


疑問句型
What is this?

結構︰問句:What+be 動詞+this(that…)?

  答句:This(that…)+be 動詞+a book(pen…)。

說明︰此句型意為“這(那)是什麼?這(那)是書(鋼筆...
句型寶典

are,you are,he is…。

  What are you? I am a student. 你是做什麼事情的?我是一名學生。

  What is she? She is a teacher. 她是做什麼事情的?她是一...
句型寶典


說明︰Who 是<疑問代名詞>,詢問人的“姓名”或“關係”;將<形容詞>直接放在<名詞>前面,

叫做“前位修飾”。

  Who is that short boy? That is Bill. 那位矮男孩是誰?那位是比爾。

...
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說明︰“<主詞>(人)正在做什麼?<主詞>(人)正在…”。注意:<祈使句>的動詞只能用原

形,不可造<現在進行式>;表示“瞬間產生”的動作的<動詞片語>,如 sit down,stand up,不

可造<現在進行式>。

 W...
句型寶典

Do you + V ...?

結構︰問句:Do/Does+主詞+原形動詞…?

       肯定簡答:Yes,主詞+do/does。

       否定簡答:No,主詞+don’t/doesn’t。

說明︰肯定句中,如有一...
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說明︰此句型意為“今天是星期幾?今天是星期日/星期一/…。”it 可用於指“星期的名稱”,

但 this 或 that 不可以;一星期七天的名稱,都是<專有名詞>,開頭的首字母要大寫,前面不

加<冠詞>。

 What day...
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  你有幾本書? 我有許多書。(我沒有書。)
  How many sweaters do you have? I have three sweaters. (I don’t have any sweaters.)

  你有幾件...
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結構︰Did+主詞+原形動詞+…過去時間?

說明︰將肯定句中的過去式改為“Did+原形<動詞>”,並將 Did 放在句首,句尾用問號,即

構成過去式的<疑問句>。

  Did he clean the room yester...
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說明︰此句型意為“你出生於幾月幾日(那一年)?”。born 是<原形動詞> bear 的過去<分詞>,

在文法上當 <形容詞>,前面常有 was 或 were;中文說“某人出生”,英語應說:“某人+was

/were born...
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    How did you do your work? I did my work happily.

      你怎樣做你的工作? 我很快樂地做了我的工作。
  How did Mrs. Lin look at Mr. Li...
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  Clean parks are beautiful, aren’t they? 乾淨的公園是美麗的,不是嗎?

  You can do it, can’t you?   你會做它,不是嗎?

  We should rise ...
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  Where ever did you lose it?   你到底在哪兒丟的呀?

  What in the world are they hoping for? 他們到底想要什麼?

Are you ... or ...?
...
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       裝詞序。全句末尾大多用句點,但也有用問號的。直接問句改為間接問句或間接句時,

       原先的<疑問句>要改為肯定句或<否定句>的順序;<助動詞>如

       will,should,would, mus...
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  Tell me if it doesn’t rain. 告訴我是否下不了雨。

  Ask him if it is true. 問他那是不是真的。

  I wonder if he is in the school. 我想知...
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說明︰疑問詞不是位於句子開頭,而是在句子中任何位置上,這種方法十分簡單,因此在口

語中經常出現。

  Two times what number makes ten? 什麼數的兩倍是十?

  You will go wher...
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  What if he comes back now? 如果他現在回來怎麼辦?

  What if the boy’s parents should die? 如果那男孩的父母死了該怎麼辦呢?

  What if I fail...
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  If I lose my job, I will/shall go abroad. 如果我失業了,我就出國。

  If I have a headache, I will take an aspirin. 如果我頭痛,我就服一...
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說明︰<If + should + V>代替<if + 現在式>,增加了條件的不確定性。本句型常用在想禮貌地

提出要求或建議,或者想圓通地告訴他人該做什麼事的場合。用 should 起始句子即可不用 if

而表示條件。這種用法...
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  Should that be true, the contract would be canceled. 假如那是真的,合約就該取消。

  Should another world war break out, what wo...
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  Were I rich enough, I would buy a sports car. 如果我有足夠的錢,我就買一輛賽車了。

  How happy I would be if I were a few inches ta...
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   如果我們事先知道你要離開,我們會到機場送行。
  I someone had been with him, he might not have been drowned.

   如果有人在他旁邊,或許他就不會溺死。
  I...
句型寶典


說明︰I wish 之後以 that <子句>為<受詞>時,該<子句>的<動詞>一定要用<假設語氣>:若<

動詞>用過去式,表示與現在事實相反的願望;若用<過去完成式>,則表示與過去事實相反

的願望。I wish+that-<...
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在或過去事實相反的<假設語氣>。

  He speaks like that as if he doesn’t want to attend the meeting.他那樣說話,似乎不想參加會議。

  He walks as ...
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可用“but for+<名詞>”或“without+<名詞>”代替。were 可以提前,省略 if,如例句 3。

  If it were not for his presence, I would punish you. 要不...
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結構︰主詞 1+意志動詞(demand/insist 等)+(that)+主詞 2+(should)+原形動詞

說明︰意志<動詞>有四類:建議(suggest,recommend,propose,advise,urge 等),要...
句型寶典


   他有必要整理些資料供我參考。

  It is essential that he get up early. 他有必要早起。

  It is urgent that food and clothing (should) ...
句型寶典


說明︰此句型意為“除非…”。unless 引導一個否定假設句,相當於 if ... not ...,有時可以互換

使用。總體上看,unless 的語氣強於 if ... not ...,而且有時較為常用,例如在最後通牒中。
  ...
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  You will never be good students so long as you goof around.

   如果你們成天游手好閒,就永遠也成不了好學生。
Suppose/Supposing (that) .....
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     Given time, they will probably agree.給以時間的話,他們可能會同意。(=If they are given

time/If we give them time)

To hear hi...
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結構︰as/so+形容詞或副詞原級+as…

說明︰此句型意為“…和…一樣…”。比較兩件東西,並表示它們的程度一樣。第一個 as 為<副

詞>,第二個 as 則為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾第一個 as。 as…a...
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  Mike read five books in as many (=in five) months. 麥克在五個月內看了五本書。

  I didn’t expect that he should have committed ...
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    彗星和其他的行星同樣是太陽家族的成員。

  To eat too much is as much a bad thing as to eat nothing.吃太多和什麼都不吃同樣是壞事。

  He is as muc...
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若<主詞>之後不是 be <動詞>,則 as 之後不用<形容詞>,而要用<副詞>。
  Being a good pedestrian is just as important as being a good driver.

 ...
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結構︰主詞+be 動詞+as+形容詞+as+(形容詞)+can be

說明︰此句型意為“極…,不亞於任何人…”。 <句型>借重複同一個<形容詞>而成為強調此<
                     此

形容詞>的說法。常用...
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  I am twice as old as he. 我的年紀是他的兩倍。

  She studies three times as hard as I. 她用功的程度是我的三倍。

  He earns twice as muc...
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  I am more than twice as old as he. 我的年齡是他的兩倍還不止。

  He has collected more than three times as many stamps as I (ha...
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說明︰此句型意為“與其說是…倒不如說是…”。相當於“<名詞>+rather than+<名詞>”。

  He is not so much a writer as a scholar. 與其說他是作家倒不如說他是學者。

  H...
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說明︰此句型意為“甚至都不…”。相當於“not even ...”。 <片語>使用時,要置於<助動詞>之後,
                                  本

即: cannot so much as+原形...
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  The better the boy (is), the more I like him. 這男孩愈好我愈喜歡他。

  The colder the weather (is), the more comfortable my ...
句型寶典

  You may also find that reading has become more fun than work!

   你或許也會發現閱讀已經變成是有趣的事,而不是工作。

  It is more a made-u...
句型寶典

  We were given more money than necessary for the project.

   我們被給了比計劃所要求來得更多的錢。
It is better to V1 than V2

結構︰It ...
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  I like the book all the more for its beautiful illustrations. 我因為精美的插圖而更加喜歡這本書。

  He studied all the harder becau...
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前。

  I love him none the less because he is poor. 即使他窮,我還是愛他。

  She is none the less beautiful for her shabby clo...
句型寶典


副詞>或 <形容詞>修飾。

  A whale is no less a mammal than a horse is. 鯨魚和馬一樣都是哺乳動物。

  He is no less clever than his elder ...
句型寶典

no more than ...

結構︰no more than+名詞

說明︰此句型意為“僅僅…”。等於“only+<名詞>”,強調稀少。

  It will take no more than five days to re...
句型寶典


說明︰此句型意為“至少…”。等於“at least+<數詞>+<名詞>”。

  The audience was not less than five thousand. 聽眾至少也有五千人。

  I’ll stay here...
句型寶典

  That father can’t discipline himself, much less set a good example for his children to follow.

   那位父親不能以身作則,更不用說...
句型寶典

  Nothing is more valuable than time, but nothing is less valued.

   沒有比時間更貴重的東西,但也沒有比它更受輕視的東西。

  No place is bett...
句型寶典


說明︰此句型意為“寧可…;最好還是…”。better 之後可接<形容詞>,<副詞>,<名詞>,<動

詞>等。

  Please try to attend the meeting. Better late than absen...
句型寶典

  Which is the most interesting subject for you? 哪個科目對你來說最有趣?

the ...est ... not ...

結構︰最高級+…not…

說明︰<最高級>詞類與 not...
句型寶典


說明︰此句型意為“在…中,…最…”。但須注意:“of the two+複數<名詞>+<比較級><子句>

”,表示“兩者中…較…”,如例句 7。<最高級><子句>也可置於句首。

  Of the three students, ...
句型寶典


結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the+最高級+of+複數名詞

說明︰此句型意為“…是最…的…”。 <句型>的意思等於“<主詞>+be <動詞>+the+<最高級
                 本

>+單數<名詞>”。

  Ro...
句型寶典

  A most beautiful girl came to see him yesterday. 昨天有一個很漂亮的女孩來看他。

  Such a most talented person as he shouldn’t be...
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Transcript of "14176343 句型寶典"

  1. 1. 句型寶典 疑問句型 What is this? 結構︰問句:What+be 動詞+this(that…)? 答句:This(that…)+be 動詞+a book(pen…)。 說明︰此句型意為“這(那)是什麼?這(那)是書(鋼筆…)”。what(什麼)叫做“疑問詞”, 用於詢問“事物”,通常放在句首,後接 be <動詞>,再接<主詞>,第一個字母 w 要大寫,句 尾要加問號(?),位置不可排錯。 What is this? This is a chair. 這是什麼?這是一張椅子。 What’s this? It’s a book. 這是什麼?它是一本書。 What is that? That is a desk. 那是什麼?那是一張書桌。 What are these? 結構︰問句:What are+these/those…? 答句:These/Those are+複數名詞(+s/es)。 說明︰<主詞>與<動詞>的形式要一致,is 後面接單數<名詞>,are 後面要接複數<名詞>。 What are these? These are books. 這些是什麼?這些是書。 What are those? Those are cups. 那些是什麼?那些是茶杯。 What are they? They are glasses. 它們是什麼?它們是玻璃杯。 What are you? 結構︰問句:What+be 動詞+主詞(人)…? 答句:主詞+be 動詞+a student…。 說明︰此句型意為“你是做什麼事情的?我是學生…”。疑問詞 what 除了詢問事物之外,還可 用於詢問“人的職業或身分”。be <動詞>隨<人稱代名詞>的變化而改變形態,如:I am,we 25
  2. 2. 句型寶典 are,you are,he is…。 What are you? I am a student. 你是做什麼事情的?我是一名學生。 What is she? She is a teacher. 她是做什麼事情的?她是一名教師。 Are you a ...? 結構︰問句:Be 動詞(am,are,is)+主詞+…? 肯定簡答:Yes,主詞+am(are,is)。 否定簡答:No,主詞+am(are,is)not。 說明︰在否定<簡答句>中,<主詞>和 am,is,are 可以縮寫;在肯定<簡答句>中則不可。 Is he a student? Yes, he is. (No, he isn’t.) 他是學生嗎?是的,他是。(不,他不是。) Are you a teacher? Yes, I am. (No, I’m not.) 你是教師嗎?是的,我是。(不,我不是。) Is that a clock? Yes, it is. (No, it isn’t.) 那是鐘錶嗎?是的,它是。(不,它不是。) What is your name? 結構︰問句:What+is+所有格+name? 答句:所有格+name+is+名字。 說明︰“my,your,his,her”為單數人稱的<所有格>;<所有格>後面必接<名詞>,即“<所有 格>+<名詞>”;<所有格>不可與 a,an,this,that,these 或 those 緊接一起使用。 What is your name? My name is Sue. 妳叫什麼名字?我的名字叫蘇。 What is his name? His name is John. 他叫什麼名字?他的名字叫約翰。 What is her name? Her name is Jean. 她叫什麼名字?她的名字叫珍。 Who is that ...? 結構︰問句:Who+be 動詞+that+形容詞+名詞? 答句:That is+名字。 26
  3. 3. 句型寶典 說明︰Who 是<疑問代名詞>,詢問人的“姓名”或“關係”;將<形容詞>直接放在<名詞>前面, 叫做“前位修飾”。 Who is that short boy? That is Bill. 那位矮男孩是誰?那位是比爾。 Who is that tall girl? That is Mary. 那位高女孩是誰?那位是瑪麗。 Who is that fat man? He is my uncle. 那位胖男子是誰?那位是我叔叔。 Where is ...? 結構︰問句:Where+be 動詞(am,are,is)+主詞…? 答句:主詞+be 動詞+in the+名詞…。 說明︰問句是“Where ...?”,簡答時可用<副詞片語>“In/On the+<名詞>”。 Where is Sue? She is in her room. 蘇在那裡?她在她的房間裡。 Where are your books? On the desk. 你的書在那裡?在書桌上。 Where is your mother? She is in the kitchen. 你媽嗎在哪裡?她在廚房裡。 Are you V-ing ...? 結構︰Am(Are,Is)+主詞+現在分詞…? 說明︰此句型意為“<主詞>(人,物)正在…嗎?”。這一<句型>轉換的三要素是:be <動詞> 移到句首;改為大寫;句尾用問號。 Is Mary sleeping? 瑪麗正在睡覺嗎? Are you reading a book? 你正在看書嗎? Is the dog playing? 小狗正在玩耍嗎? What are you doing? 結構︰問句:What+am(are,is)+主詞+現在分詞? 答句:主詞+am(are,is)+現在分詞…。 27
  4. 4. 句型寶典 說明︰“<主詞>(人)正在做什麼?<主詞>(人)正在…”。注意:<祈使句>的動詞只能用原 形,不可造<現在進行式>;表示“瞬間產生”的動作的<動詞片語>,如 sit down,stand up,不 可造<現在進行式>。 What am I doing? You are reading a book. 我正在做什麼? 你正在閱讀一本書。 What are the girls doing? They are singing. 姑娘們正在做什麼? 她們在唱歌。 What is Bill writing? He is writing a letter. 比爾在寫什麼? 他在寫一封信。 How old are you? 結構︰問句:How old+be 動詞+主詞(某人)? 答句:主詞(某人)+be 動詞+year(s) old。 說明︰此句型意為“某人幾歲?某人是…歲”。該句型中,<疑問詞>要用 how,不可用 what; 且 be <動詞>(am,is,are)要和後面的<主詞>(某人)配合;答句中的“year(s) old”可以省略。 How old are you? I am twelve (years old). 你幾歲?我十二歲。 How old is your sister? She is thirteen years old. 你的姊妹幾歲?她十三歲。 How old is John? He is one year old. 約翰幾歲?他一歲。 What time is it? 結構︰問句:What time is it? 答句:It is+數字+o’clock。 說明︰此句型意為“現在是幾點鐘?現在是…點鐘”。問句中 what 當<形容詞>,修飾後面的< 名詞> time;time 當時間解時,只能用單數,不可用複數。 What time is it? It is ten o’clock. 現在是幾點鐘?現在是十點鐘。 What time is it? It is six o’clock. 現在是幾點鐘?現在是六點鐘。 What time is it? It is nine o’clock. 現在是幾點鐘?現在是九點鐘。 28
  5. 5. 句型寶典 Do you + V ...? 結構︰問句:Do/Does+主詞+原形動詞…? 肯定簡答:Yes,主詞+do/does。 否定簡答:No,主詞+don’t/doesn’t。 說明︰肯定句中,如有一般<動詞>(speak,work,teach…),則在句首加<助動詞> do 或 does,並將一般<動詞>改為原形<動詞>(不加 s 或 es),即構成<疑問句>。 Do you speak English? Yes, I do. (No, I don’t.) 你講英語嗎?是的,我講英語。(不,我不講英語。) Does she have a cat? Yes, she does. (No, she doesn’t.) 她有一隻貓嗎?是的,她有一隻貓。(不,她沒有一隻貓。) Do they work in office? Yes, they do. (No, they don’t.) 他們在辦公室裡工作嗎?是的,他們在辦公室裡工作。(不,他們不在辦公室裡工作。) What time do you + V ...? 結構︰問句:What time+do/does+主詞+原形動詞…? 答句:主詞(某人)+一般動詞…+時間。 說明︰此句型意為“某人幾點做某事?”<助動詞> do 或 does 的選擇依<主詞>而定,若<主詞> 為第三人稱單數,用 does;其它用 do。 What time do you get up? I usually get up at six. 你幾點起床?我通常六點起床。 What time does he go to bed? He usually goes to bed at ten.他幾點就寢?他通常十點就寢。 What time does your class begin? It begins at eight-ten. 你的課幾點開始?八點十分開始。 What day is today? 結構︰問句:What day is today? 答句:It’s+Sunday/Monday/…。 29
  6. 6. 句型寶典 說明︰此句型意為“今天是星期幾?今天是星期日/星期一/…。”it 可用於指“星期的名稱”, 但 this 或 that 不可以;一星期七天的名稱,都是<專有名詞>,開頭的首字母要大寫,前面不 加<冠詞>。 What day is today? It’s Sunday. 今天是星期幾?今天是星期日。 What day is today? It’s Wednesday. 今天是星期幾?今天是星期三。 What day is today? It’s Saturday. 今天是星期幾?今天是星期六。 How many N are there ... 結構︰問句:How many+複數名詞+are there in/on+名詞? 答句:There is/are+單數(複數)名詞+in/on+名詞。 說明︰此句型意為“在某處有多少…?在某處有…。”該句型中,many 修飾複數<名詞>;又因 本句型是 <疑問句>,故用 are there,不可用 there are。 How many seasons are there in a year? There are four seasons in a year. 一年有幾個季節? 一年有四季。 How many days are there in a week? There are seven days in a week. 一星期有幾天? 一星期有七天。 How many lessons are there in this book? There are twelve lessons in this book. 這本書裡有幾課? 這本書裡有十二課。 How many ... do you have? 結構︰問句:How many+複數名詞+do/does+主詞+have? 答句:主詞+have/has…+複數名詞+…。 答句:主詞+don’t/doesn’t have…+複數名詞…。 說明︰“How many”後面接複數<可數名詞>,複數<名詞>的前面可用 many,a lot of,a few,some,few,any,no 等修飾。 How many books do you have? I have a lot of books. (I don’t have any books.) 30
  7. 7. 句型寶典 你有幾本書? 我有許多書。(我沒有書。) How many sweaters do you have? I have three sweaters. (I don’t have any sweaters.) 你有幾件毛衣? 我有三件毛衣。(我沒有毛衣。) How many friends does she have? She has a lot of friends. (She doesn’t have many friends.) 她有幾個朋友? 她有許多朋友。(她沒有許多朋友。) How much ... do you have? 結構︰問句:How much+單數不可數名詞+do/does+主詞+have? 答句:主詞+have/has…+單數不可數名詞。 答句:主詞+don’t/doesn’t have…+單數不可數名詞。 說明︰“How much”後面接單數<不可數名詞>,單數<不可數名詞>前面可用 much, a little,some,little,any,no 等修飾。 How much tea does he have? He has a lot of tea. (He doesn’t have any tea.) 他有多少茶? 他有很多茶。(他沒有茶。) How much homework do they have? They have a lot of homework. (They don’t have much homework.) 他們有多少家庭作業? 他們有許多家庭作業。(他們沒有許多家庭作業。) How much fruit do they have? They have a lot of fruit. (They don’t have a lot of fruit.) 他們有多少水果? 他們有許多水果。(他們沒有許多水果。) How much do(es) ... cost? 結構︰How much do(es)+某物+cost…? 說明︰此句型意為“某物值多少錢?”。how much 用來詢問商品的價格。還可以寫作:“How much+ be <動詞>+某物?"。 How much does this computer cost? (=How much is this computer?)這部電腦值多少錢? How much do the vegetables cost? 這些蔬菜值多少錢? How much do the movie tickets cost? 這些電影票值多少錢? Did ... V ... 31
  8. 8. 句型寶典 結構︰Did+主詞+原形動詞+…過去時間? 說明︰將肯定句中的過去式改為“Did+原形<動詞>”,並將 Did 放在句首,句尾用問號,即 構成過去式的<疑問句>。 Did he clean the room yesterday? 他昨天打掃房間嗎? Did she wash the skirt yesterday? 她昨天洗這裙子嗎? Did your brother play in the park this morning? 你弟弟今天上午在公園玩耍嗎? Did he eat lunch yesterday? 他昨天吃午飯嗎? Did you see any elephants in the zoo last week? 上星期你在動物園裡看到大象了嗎? Did Sue have her breakfast at eight? 蘇在八點鐘吃過早餐了嗎? Do you ever + V ...? 結構︰問句:Do/Does+主詞+ever+原形動詞…? 答句:No,主詞+never+一般動詞(加 s 或 es)…。 說明︰ever 通常用於<疑問句>,never 通常用於否定回答;never 也可放在句首,後接原形 < 動詞>,形成否定<祈使句>,如例句 4。 Do you ever use a computer? No, I never use a computer. 你曾經使用電腦嗎?不,我未曾使用過電腦。 Does Tom ever get up late? No, Tom never gets up late. 湯姆曾經晚起床嗎?不,湯姆未曾晚起床過。 Does Sally ever play the piano? No, Sally never plays the piano. 薩莉曾經彈鋼琴嗎?不,薩莉未曾彈過鋼琴。 Never be late for school, Bill. 比爾,上學絕不可遲到。 What year was he born in? 結構︰What date/year+was/were+主詞+born+on/in? 32
  9. 9. 句型寶典 說明︰此句型意為“你出生於幾月幾日(那一年)?”。born 是<原形動詞> bear 的過去<分詞>, 在文法上當 <形容詞>,前面常有 was 或 were;中文說“某人出生”,英語應說:“某人+was /were born…”。 What year were you born in? 你出生於那一年? What date was your mother born on? 你母親出生於幾月幾日? What month was your sister born in? 你妹妹出生於幾月? What will you do on ...? 結構︰What will/did+主詞+do+on+時間? 說明︰此句型意為“某人在某時間將做什麼?(未來式)某人在某時做了什麼事?(過去式)”。 指特定的日期(如幾月幾日)、星期幾或星期幾的早上(下午,晚上),要用介系詞 on。 What will you do on Teacher’s Day? 你在教師節將做什麼事? What will they do on Christmas Eve? 他們在聖誕夜將做什麼事? What will Helen do on her birthday? 海倫在她生日那天將做什麼事? What did John do on New Year’s Day? 約翰在元旦做了什麼事? What did Mary do on Youth Day? 瑪麗在青年節做了什麼事? What did the suspect do on July ninth? 嫌疑犯在七月九日做了什麼事情? How do you + V ...? 結構︰問句:How+do+主詞+一般動詞…? 答句:主詞+一般動詞…+情狀副詞。 說明︰How 是問情況的<疑問副詞>,表示“怎樣…?”。用於說明“狀態或性質”的副詞,稱為 < 情狀副詞>。當用來修飾<不及物動詞>時,<情狀副詞>位於其後;當用來修飾<及物動詞>時, <情狀動詞>位於<及物動詞>的前面或後面。 33
  10. 10. 句型寶典 How did you do your work? I did my work happily. 你怎樣做你的工作? 我很快樂地做了我的工作。 How did Mrs. Lin look at Mr. Lin? She looked at Mr. Lin coldly. 林太太怎樣注視林先生? 她冷漠地注視林先生。 How does Mr. Wang drive his taxi? He drives his taxi carefully. 王先生怎樣駕駛他的計程車? 他小心地駕駛他的計程車。 You are ..., aren’t you? 結構︰肯定句,+否定式助動詞+主詞? 說明︰這是一種反意<疑問句>,其結構特點是:第一部分是肯定式,第二部分就用否定式。 直述句的<主詞>是<名詞>時,附加問句的<主詞>要用<代名詞>代替:it 代替 this, that,< 不定詞>(當<主詞>)或<動名詞>(當<主詞>)等;they 代替 these,those, people 等。下列<助動 詞>的否定縮寫式較易弄錯:will not->won’t;would not-> wouldn’t;should not- >shouldn’t;can not->can’t;could not->couldn’t; might not->mightn’t;ought not- >oughtn’t。直述句有一般<動詞>現在式,則附加問句用 do 或 does 代替;有一般<動詞>過去 式,則附加問句用 did 代替。 They’re ready, aren’t they?(讀降調)他們準備好了吧?(讀升調)他們準備好了,不是嗎? Mike has a car, doesn’t he?(讀降調)麥克有輛車,是吧?(讀升調)麥克有輛車,不是嗎? The secretary typed the letter, didn’t she? 是祕書打了這封信,不是嗎? They will go to Europe, won’t they? 他們將去歐洲,不是嗎? You are the teacher, aren’t you? 你就是老師,不是嗎? I suppose you have been in our woods, haven’t you?我推想你在我們的森林裡呆過,不是嗎? I know he had a good time last night, didn’t he? 我知道他昨天晚上玩得很愉快,不是嗎? The wall plug is broken, isn’t it? 牆上的插座壞了,不是嗎? 34
  11. 11. 句型寶典 Clean parks are beautiful, aren’t they? 乾淨的公園是美麗的,不是嗎? You can do it, can’t you? 你會做它,不是嗎? We should rise early, shouldn’t we? 我們應該早起,不是嗎? He isn’t ..., is he? 結構︰否定句,+肯定式助動詞+主詞? 說明︰這是另一種反意<疑問句>。否定結構在第一部分,第二部分就要用肯定結構。對反意< 疑問句>的回答和對否定式一般<疑問句>一樣,要看答句。 He isn’t a manager, is he? -- Yes, he is. (No, he isn’t.) 他不是經理,是吧?--不,他是經理。(是的,他不是經理。) Mike doesn’t have a car, does he? 麥克沒有車,是嗎? The secretary didn’t type the letter, did she? 祕書沒有打過這封信,是嗎? They won’t go to Europe, will they? 他們不會去歐洲,是嗎? You aren’t the teacher, are you? 你不是老師,是嗎? I don’t think he can answer the question, can he? 我想他無法回答這個問題,是嗎? What in the world ...? 結構︰疑問詞+in the world/on earth/ever+其他 說明︰此句型意為“究竟…?到底…?”。這是特殊<疑問句>的強調說法。 the world,on earth in 和 ever 是強調疑問詞的<片語>。 How in the world will he do it? 他到底將如何做這件事? What in the world do you mean? 你的意思究竟是什麼? How on earth did you know it? 你到底是怎麼知道的? Who on earth told you that? 那件事究竟是誰告訴你的? 35
  12. 12. 句型寶典 Where ever did you lose it? 你到底在哪兒丟的呀? What in the world are they hoping for? 他們到底想要什麼? Are you ... or ...? 結構︰一般疑問句(讀升調)+or+一般疑問句(讀降調) 說明︰此句型意為“是…還是…?"。這是選擇<疑問句>,前面都是一般<疑問句>,後面的問 句如與前面有相同的部分,都可以省略。 Shall we come to see you or will you come to see us? 是我們來找你們,還是你們來找我們? Are you from the America or from the England? 您是美國人還是英國人? Will he go on Monday or on Tuesday? 他是星期一走還是星期二走? Would you like coffee or tea? 你是要咖啡還是茶? What ..., + A or B? 結構︰特殊疑問句(讀降調),+A(讀升調)or B(讀降調) 說明︰這種選擇<疑問句>使用得相當廣泛,其特點是:前面的特殊<疑問句>已經明確地指 出了要問的內容,再補充幾項具體事物讓對方做出肯定的答覆。其語調是“降-升-降”調。 What would you like - coffee or tea? 你要什麼?咖啡還是茶? Which would you rather to buy - silk or cotton? 您想買什麼?絲還是棉? Where did you go: to Tianjin or to Beijing? 您去了哪裡?天津還是北京? When will you go to the Fair, tomorrow or some other day? 你何時去交易會?明天還是另找哪一天? ... what/which ... 結構︰主要子句+疑問詞(what/how/which/why 等)+子句 說明︰這是間接<疑問句>。疑問詞後面的語句採用正常詞序,不採用特殊<疑問句>所用的倒 36
  13. 13. 句型寶典 裝詞序。全句末尾大多用句點,但也有用問號的。直接問句改為間接問句或間接句時, 原先的<疑問句>要改為肯定句或<否定句>的順序;<助動詞>如 will,should,would, must,may,can 等,須照抄,不可去掉;<助動詞>如 do,does,did,必須去掉,再將它後面的原形<動詞>改為適當的形式。 I’d like to know how old the manager is. 我想知道經理有多大年紀。 He inquired how it was done. 他問這事做得怎麼樣了。 Please advise me which item I should buy. 請問我該先買哪個品種。 Tell me why it is so important? 告訴我為什麼此事這麼重要? They do not know what the words mean. 他們不知道這些字的意思是什麼。 Tell me what happened yesterday. 告訴我昨天所發生的事。 What they talked about is what we want to know. 他們談論什麼是我們所想要知道的事。 She washed her hair every night and measured how much it grew in a week. 她每晚洗頭髮,而且量量看一星期長多少。 You will never know how much your encouragement meant to me. 你決不會知道你的鼓勵對我多麼有意義。 ... whether/if ... 結構︰主要子句+whether/if+子句 說明︰此句型意為“…是否…”。口語中使用 if 較為普遍。如果子句中帶有 or not 等詞,則只能 用 whether;另外,whether 不能引導否定的間接<疑問句>,而 if 則可以。 He asked me the question whether the price was too high. 他問我價格是否太高。 They asked him whether the quality is fine or not. 他們問他質量是否好。 Tell me whether you like this color. 告訴我你喜不喜歡這種顏色。 37
  14. 14. 句型寶典 Tell me if it doesn’t rain. 告訴我是否下不了雨。 Ask him if it is true. 問他那是不是真的。 I wonder if he is in the school. 我想知道他是否在學校。 Do you know if/where ... 結構︰一般疑問句+疑問詞(what/where/when 等)+子句 說明︰此句為雙重<疑問句>。疑問詞後面採用正常詞序,不用倒裝詞序。 Can you tell me where the teacher has gone? 你能告訴我老師到哪裡去了嗎? Have you any idea where he comes from? 他是哪裡人,您知道不知道? Do you know if they like this new item? 你知道他們是否喜歡這個新品種? Do you know who wants to go with me? 你知道誰想跟我一起去嗎? Do you know when the train will leave? 你知道火車何時開嗎? Can you tell me how much you earn a month? 你能告訴我你一個月賺多少嗎? He is ..., is he? 結構︰肯定式陳述句+肯定式反問句 說明︰這種疑問<句型>的前後一致,都是肯定式結構。後一部分進一步強調前一部分的內容, 是不需要回答的一種修辭方式。 We are old friends, not strangers, right? 我們是老朋友了,不是陌生人,是嗎? He’s a capable businessman, is he? 他是一位很有能力的業務員,可不是嗎? So you come importing Chinese textiles, do you? 原來你是來進口中國紡織品的,是麼? So you’ve been to Shanghai, have you? 原來你去過上海,是吧? ... what ...? 結構︰…疑問詞(在句中任何位置上)… 38
  15. 15. 句型寶典 說明︰疑問詞不是位於句子開頭,而是在句子中任何位置上,這種方法十分簡單,因此在口 語中經常出現。 Two times what number makes ten? 什麼數的兩倍是十? You will go where? 你要到哪裡去? You are twenty-what this year? 你今年二十幾歲? He’s your who? 他是你什麼人? What/How about + N/V-ing? 結構︰What/How about+名詞/動名詞? 說明︰此句型意為“…如何?”。這是徵求對方意見或提議的委婉說法。 What about the name Smith? 史密斯這個名字怎麼樣? What about going to a movie? 去看場電影如何? What about lending me some money? 借點錢給我如何? What about washing the car on Sunday? 禮拜天洗車怎麼樣? How about the others? 剩餘的怎麼樣? How about a drink? 來一杯吧? How about a cup of coffee at a nearby coffee shop? 去附近的咖啡屋喝杯咖啡吧? What if ...? 結構︰What if+主詞+動詞 說明︰此句型意為“如果…的話怎麼辦呢?”。但經常用於反語,有時也變成“即使…也沒關係” 之意。 What if it is true? 如果這是真的又該如何呢? What if he doesn’t agree? 如果他不同意該怎麼辦呢? 39
  16. 16. 句型寶典 What if he comes back now? 如果他現在回來怎麼辦? What if the boy’s parents should die? 如果那男孩的父母死了該怎麼辦呢? What if I fail! 即使我失敗了又怎樣! What ... for? 結構︰What+助動詞+主詞+動詞…+for? 說明︰此句型意為“為什麼…?”。相當於“For what…?” What are you running for? 你為什麼在跑步? What do you want it for? 你為什麼要那個? What did they go there for? 他們為什麼去那裡? How else ...? 結構︰How else+助動詞+主詞+助動詞? 說明︰此句型意為“…還有別的方法嗎?”。 How else should a father in this modern world express his affection and concern for his own son? 現代這個世界上,父親還應該有別的方法來對自己的兒子表示愛護和關心嗎? How else can the doctor save him? 醫院還有別的方法可以救他嗎? How else can I apologize for her? 我還能有別的方法可以向她道歉嗎? 假設法句型 If + Present Tense ..., S + will/shall + V ... 結構︰If+現在式…,S+未來式… 說明︰if 子句用現在式,表示須具備的條件,主句用未來式表示可能的結果,整句含意為“ 如果…,那麼…”。 用於所有的人稱,在 I 和 we 之後可用 shall 代替 will。 will 若主句的主詞為 I 或 we 時,可以用 shall 代替 will。像 if necessary(如果需要),if possible(如果可能),if so(如果這樣)等固定片語實際上是省略了的 if 子句。 40
  17. 17. 句型寶典 If I lose my job, I will/shall go abroad. 如果我失業了,我就出國。 If I have a headache, I will take an aspirin. 如果我頭痛,我就服一片阿斯匹林。 If it rains, we will stay at home. 如果下雨,我們將待在家裡。 If the weather clears, we’ll go for a walk. 如果天晴,我們就去散步。 If the weather doesn’t clear, we won’t go for a walk. 如果天不晴,我們就不去散步。 Inflation may be rising, if (it is) so, prices will go up. 通貨膨脹率可能上升。如果是這樣,物價就會上漲。 If possible, She wants to go with us. 可能的話,她想跟我們一起去。 Sterling may fall, if (this should be) so, interest rates will rise. 英國貨幣可能貶值,如果果真如此,利率就會上升。 If + Present Tense ..., S + Modal Verb ... 結構︰If + 現在式,主詞+情態助動詞 說明︰本句型實為<If + Present Tense ..., S + will/shall + V ...>句型之變體。之所以用情態助動 詞,主要是因為說話者對可能的結果不是太肯定或者是想表達例如必要的意思。 If it is fine tomorrow, we can go out. 如果明天天氣好,我門可以出門。 If it is fine tomorrow, we could go out. 如果明天天氣好,我門能夠出門。 If it is fine tomorrow, we may go out. 如果明天天氣好,我門可能出門。 If it is fine tomorrow, we might go out. 如果明天天氣好,我門可能出門。 If it is fine tomorrow, we should go out. 如果明天天氣好,我門宜於出門。 If it is fine tomorrow, we ought to go out. 如果明天天氣好,我門宜於出門。 If it is fine tomorrow, we must go out. 如果明天天氣好,我門必須出門。 If I should ..., Imperative Sentence. 結構︰If I+should ...+祈使語氣 41
  18. 18. 句型寶典 說明︰<If + should + V>代替<if + 現在式>,增加了條件的不確定性。本句型常用在想禮貌地 提出要求或建議,或者想圓通地告訴他人該做什麼事的場合。用 should 起始句子即可不用 if 而表示條件。這種用法比較正式,常用於諸如公函之中,而不用於日常會話。 If you should see him, please give him my regards. 如果你見到他,請代我向他致意。 Should you see him, please give him my regards. 如果你見到他,請代我向他致意。 If you should happen to see him, please give him my regards. 如果你萬一見到他,請代我向他致意。 Should you happen to see him, please give him my regards. 如果你萬一見到他,請代我向他致意。 If you should write to her, send her my love. 如果你給她寫信,請代我向她問候。 Should you not wish our agent to call, please let us know. 你若不希望我們的代理人去造訪,請告之。 Should you be interested in our offer, please contact us. 你若對我們的報價感興趣,請與我們聯繫。 If I should ..., I will ... 結構︰If…should…,…would(will)/should(shall)等+原形動詞 說明︰這是表示與未來事實相反的假設<句型>,if <子句>要用<助動詞> should,譯成“萬一”。 should 可置於<主詞>前,將 if 省略。 主要子句>的<助動詞>則視可能性做變化:若可能性低, < 則為過去式,若可能性高,則為現在式。should 可以提前,而將 if 省略。 If he should come, I would tell him the truth. 萬一他來,我會把真相告訴他。 If he should come, I will tell him the truth. 萬一他來,我一定會把真相告訴他。 Should the boy come again, I would throw him out. 要是那男孩在來,我就把他攆出去。 If it should rain, our plan would be spoiled. 萬一下雨,我們的計劃就泡湯了。 42
  19. 19. 句型寶典 Should that be true, the contract would be canceled. 假如那是真的,合約就該取消。 Should another world war break out, what would become of human beings? 萬一另一次世界大戰爆發,人類將會發生什麼事? If I were to ..., I ... 結構︰If…were to…,…would/should 等+原形動詞 說明︰這也是表示與未來狀況相反的假設<句型>,與“if ... should, ...”大致相同,但“if ... were to”所表示的可能性更低,通常用以表示“與真理相反”的<假設語氣>。 If the sun were to rise in the west, he would pass the exam. 要是太陽從西邊出來,他就會通過考試--他不可能通過考試。 If I were to be born again, I would like to be a bird. 我要是再活一次,我想當一隻鳥。 If the sun were to disappear, what would the earth be like? 萬一太陽消失了,地球會變成什麼樣子? Were I to die tomorrow, what would my children do? 萬一明天我死了,我的孩子們將怎麼辦呢? If I + V-ed, I would ... 結構︰If…+過去式動詞…,主詞+過去式助動詞(would/should 等)+原形動詞 說明︰這是與現在事實相反的假設句型。if <子句>中的<be><動詞>,不論<主詞>為第幾人稱, 一律用 were,were 可置於主詞前面,而省略 if。過去式<助動詞>除用 should(用於第一人 稱)、would(用於第二、三人稱)外,還可用不分人稱的 could,might 和 ought to,它們與< 動詞>原形結合起來構成<假設語氣>。 If I knew his address, I could write to him. 如果我知道他的住址,我會寫信給他。 If I were free now, I might call on him. 如果我有時間,我可能會去看他。 If you were in my shoes (=Were you in my shoes), what would you do? 如果你站在我的立場,你會怎麼做? 43
  20. 20. 句型寶典 Were I rich enough, I would buy a sports car. 如果我有足夠的錢,我就買一輛賽車了。 How happy I would be if I were a few inches taller! 要是我再高幾寸,我會好高興。 If I had a car, I could take her for a drive. 如果我有車, 我就帶她去兜風了。 If I had binoculars, I could see that comet clearly. 如果我有望遠鏡,我就可以清楚地看見那顆彗星。 It is time that ... 結構︰It is(high)time+(that)+主詞+過去式動詞 說明︰此句型意為“已經到了…的時間了”。過去式<動詞>處有時亦使用“should+<動詞>原形”。 that <子句>也能用 to <不定詞>來表示。 It is time he went to bed. 該是他睡覺的時間了。 It is time that you left for the duty. 該你當班了。 It is time that you reflected upon your mistakes. 該是你反省思過的時候了。 It is high time he should come to our house for dinner.已經到了他該上咱家吃晚飯的時候了。 It is time for somebody to teach you to behave yourself. 該是有人教你應對進退之禮儀的時候了。 If I had V-ed, I would have ... 結構︰If…had+過去分詞…,主詞+would/should 等+have+過去分詞 說明︰這是與過去事實相反的假設<句型>。 <子句>要用<過去完成式>,<主要子句>則要用 if 過去式<助動詞>(would,should,ought to,might,could)+have+過去<分詞>。if <子句> 中的 had 可置於<主詞>前面,而省略 If。 If I had seen him, I would have told him the truth. 如果我當時看見他,我會告訴他實情。 I could have finished the task if I had had more time. 如果當時我能有多一點時間,我就能完成這項任務。 If we had known of your departure, we would have seen you off at the airport. 44
  21. 21. 句型寶典 如果我們事先知道你要離開,我們會到機場送行。 I someone had been with him, he might not have been drowned. 如果有人在他旁邊,或許他就不會溺死。 I might have been incredulous had I not been accustomed to such responses. 若非我已經習慣了這樣的回答,我可能不敢輕易相信。 Had he not apologize to her, she would not have forgiven him. 她(那時)不會原諒他,若非他道了歉。 Had he not saved me, I might have been drowned. 我可能溺死了,若非他救了我。 Had I proposed to you, would you have married me? 我要是當年向你求婚,你會答應嫁給我嗎? Had you not helped us, we should have canceled this transaction. 假如沒有你的幫助,這筆生意早就告吹了。 If I had V-ed, I would ... 結構︰If…had+過去分詞…,主詞+would/should 等+原形動詞+now/today 說明︰這是<時態>不一致時的假設<句型>,亦稱混合假設條件句。即:if <子句>若與過去事 實相反,用<過去完成式>表示;而<主要子句>若與現在事實相反,則用過去式<助動詞>表 示。此類<主要子句>句尾通常有表現在的<時間副詞>,如 now,today 等。 If he had worked harder when young, he would be well off now. 如果他年輕時多努力一點,現在就能過得舒服些。 If I had been rich ten years ago, I could buy that house today. 如果十年前我有錢,今天我就能買下那棟房子了。 Had he told the truth, he wouldn’t be punished now.如果他當時肯說實話,現在就不會受罪了。 Had he followed the doctor’s advice, he might be alive now. 當時他要是聽了醫生的建議,現在可能還活著。 I wish ... + V-ed ... 結構︰I wish+(that)+主詞+動詞過去式/過去完成式(had+過去分詞)… 45
  22. 22. 句型寶典 說明︰I wish 之後以 that <子句>為<受詞>時,該<子句>的<動詞>一定要用<假設語氣>:若< 動詞>用過去式,表示與現在事實相反的願望;若用<過去完成式>,則表示與過去事實相反 的願望。I wish+that-<子句>”的<句型>也可用“I would rather+that-<子句>”取代。 I hope 之 “ 而 後以 that <子句>做<受詞>時,該<子句>用一般<時態>。 I wish there were meadows and lambs. 但願有草地與小羊。 I wish I were as tall as you. 但願我像你一樣高。 I wish he could tell us. 但願他能告訴我們。 I wish (=I would rather) he could come tomorrow. 但願他明天能來。 I wish you had not been caught in the rain yesterday. 但願昨天你們沒有淋到雨。 I wish you had not told the truth. 但願你沒有說實話。 I wish I had known you ten years ago. 真希望十年前就已經認識你。 If only + V-ed 結構︰If only+過去式/過去完成式 說明︰此句型意為“要是…就好了。”用過去式,表示與現在事實相反;若用<過去完成式>, 則表示與過去事實相反。 If only I had a rich father. 要是我有個有錢的爸爸就好了。 If only he had been here. 要是他當時在這兒就好了。 If only I had another chance. 要是我再有一次機會就好了。 ... as if/as though ... 結構︰…as if/as though…現在式/過去式/過去完成式 說明︰此句型意為“彷彿…;好像…一樣”。as if,as though 是<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子 句>。<子句>中,可用現在式,以表示事實;也可用過去式或<過去完成式>,分別表示與現 46
  23. 23. 句型寶典 在或過去事實相反的<假設語氣>。 He speaks like that as if he doesn’t want to attend the meeting.他那樣說話,似乎不想參加會議。 He walks as if he is drunk. 他走起路來好像他真的醉了。 He felt as if he almost wished to kill them. 他感覺彷彿幾乎要殺掉他們。 The baby opened the book as if he were able to read. 這個嬰兒打開書本彷彿他會念書。 The nurse attends on the patient as if he were her father. 這護士照顧這位病人彷彿在照顧她爸爸似的。 He ran into the room as if he had seen something terrible. 他跑進屋子,彷彿他看到什麼可怕的東西。 She looks as if nothing had happened to her. 她當時看起來好像什麼事都沒發生似的。 It seems/looks as if ... 結構︰It seems/looks as if… 說明︰此句型意為“似乎…”。本句型中的 as if <子句>可用以表示事實,或<假設語氣>。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 好像要下雨了。 It seems as if he knows everything. 他似乎是個萬事通。 It seems as if he knew everything, but in reality, he is as stupid as can be. 他似乎是個萬事通。其實他是再愚蠢不過了。 It looks as if she had just come back from outer space. 她看起來彷彿剛從外太空回來似的。 It seemed as if he had finished the work. 他似乎已經完成了這個工作。 It seemed as if he would never finish the work. 他似乎永遠完成不了這個工作。 If it were not for ... 結構︰if it were not for+名詞/子句,主詞+would/should 等+原形動詞… 說明︰此句型意為“若非(有)…”。此類句構專門用於表示與現在事實相反的<假設語氣>。亦 47
  24. 24. 句型寶典 可用“but for+<名詞>”或“without+<名詞>”代替。were 可以提前,省略 if,如例句 3。 If it were not for his presence, I would punish you. 要不是他在場,我會處罰你的。 But for your advice, I should have failed. 要不是你的忠告,我會失敗的。 But for music (=Were it not for music), life would be dull. 要不是音樂,人生會很無聊。 If it were not for oxygen and nitrogen in the air, no man could live on the earth. 大氣中如果沒有氧和氮,人就無法生存於地球了。 Without air, all living things would die. 若非空氣,所有的生物都會死亡。 Without newspaper, we would get behind the times. 要不是報紙,我們都趕不上時代了。 I should be lonely, were it not for the birds and the flowers. 我會寂寞,若非有鳥也有花。 Were it not for his help, I could not finish the work.若非有他的幫助,我就不能完成這件工作。 Were it not for science, we could not live a comfortable live. 若非科學,我們無法過著舒適的生活。 If it had not been for ... 結構︰if it had not been for+名詞/子句,主詞+would/should 等+原形動詞… 說明︰此句型意為“若非(有)…”。此類句構專門用於表示與過去事實相反的<假設語氣>。 If it had not been for his help, I should have failed. 如果沒有他的幫忙,我應該已經失敗。 Had it not been for your timely help, our company would have been on the verge of bankruptcy. 若非你及時伸出援助之手,本公司將會瀕臨破產的邊緣。 If it had not been for these experiments, the improvement of the machine would have been impossible. 要不是這些實驗,這部機器也許就不可能改良了。 Had it not been for the kind guide, I might have got lost in the mountains. 要不是這位好心的嚮導,我可能就在山中迷路了。 If it had not been that he was here, I would have punished you. 要不是他在場,我當時就會處罰你。 I demand/insist that ... 48
  25. 25. 句型寶典 結構︰主詞 1+意志動詞(demand/insist 等)+(that)+主詞 2+(should)+原形動詞 說明︰意志<動詞>有四類:建議(suggest,recommend,propose,advise,urge 等),要求 (desire, ask,demand,require,request,maintain,insist 等),命令(order,command 等),規定( rule,regulate,stipulate 等)。其後接 that-<子句>時,該<子句>裡的<動詞>要 用原形或“should+<動詞>”。美式英語通常省略 should。 The committee moved that the meeting (should) be adjourned. 委員提議休會。 His parents demanded that he (should) be back by ten. 他的父母要求他十點以前回家。 The employees demand that their salaries be raised. 員工們要求加薪。 They ruled that the law (should) not be imposed. 他們規定不應加重法律。 His father ordered that he (should) keep a diary in English. 他的父親規定他要用英文寫日記。 My mother encouraged me and insisted that I continue my education. 我媽媽鼓勵我,而且堅持我應該繼續我的教育。 He insisted that I (should) apologize to her. 他堅持我應該向她道歉。 Recently, many states have insisted that high schools teach students how to drive. 最近,許多州堅持中學應該教學生如何開車。 His father insisted that they (should) move to the country. 他爸爸堅持他們應該搬到鄉下。 It is proper ... that ... 結構︰It is+意志形容詞(important 等)+(that)+主詞+(should)+原形動詞 說明︰意志<形容詞>包括 important,necessary,imperative,essential,urgent,desirable, advisable,recommendable,proper 等。that-<子句>中只能用<助動詞> should,不可用 must, 而 should 往往予以省略。 It is necessary that he (should) sort out the information for my reference. 49
  26. 26. 句型寶典 他有必要整理些資料供我參考。 It is essential that he get up early. 他有必要早起。 It is urgent that food and clothing (should) be sent to the sufferers. 急需將食物和衣服送給災民。 It is desirable that we (should) provide for the poor at Christmas. 在聖誕節施捨窮人是可喜的事。 It is important that he be quiet. 他該保持安靜是有必要的。 It is important that he not do it. 他不該做那事是有必要的。 It is requested that all members be present at the party. 全體會員都被要求出席這次晚會。 It is proper that such a bad man be punished severely. 這麼壞的人受重罰是應該的。 Imperative Sentence + Conj. + Main Clause 結構︰祈使句+連接詞+主句 說明︰<祈使句>表示須具備的條件,主句表示可能的結果。 祈使句>代替 if 子句進行評說, < 提出要求,訂立協議,提供建議或威脅等。<祈使句>的用法比 if 子句表示的更為緊迫。 Provide the materials and we’ll do the job. 提供材料,我們就做這活。 Stop shouting or you’ll wake up the neighbors. 不要喊了,否則你會把鄰居吵醒的。 Put that down or else I’ll smack you. 把它放下,不然我就揍你。 Be there on time, otherwise you’ll create a bad impression. 要準時來,否則你會給人一個壞的印象。 Fail to pay and they’ll cut off the electricity. 你(如果)不付款,他們就要斷電。 Stop eating sweets, or you won’t get any dinner. 你如果不停止吃糖,你就不要吃飯。 Unless ... 結構︰Unless+子句,主要子句 50
  27. 27. 句型寶典 說明︰此句型意為“除非…”。unless 引導一個否定假設句,相當於 if ... not ...,有時可以互換 使用。總體上看,unless 的語氣強於 if ... not ...,而且有時較為常用,例如在最後通牒中。 Unless you change your mind (=If you don’t change you mind), I won’t be able to help you. 除非你改變你的想法,否則我不能幫助你。 Unless the management improves their offer, there’ll be a strike. 除非資方做出進一步的建議,否則將舉行罷工。 I couldn’t have got to the meeting on time - unless I had caught an earlier train. 我不可能及時趕到會場,除非我趕上了較找的一班火車。 Provided/Providing (that) .... 結構︰Provided/provided(that)+子句,S+V ... 說明︰此句型意為“如果…”。Provided/Providing (that) 引導假設條件句,其功能相當於 if。 Provided/Providing (that) you clear your desk by this evening, you can have tomorrow off. 如果你到今晚把手頭上的工作做完,你明天就可以休息。 As/So long as ... 結構︰As/So long as +子句,S+V ... 說明︰此句型意為“如果…,只要…”。As/So long as 引導一個條件假設句,其功能相當於 if。 So (As) long as you clear your desk by this evening, you can have tomorrow leave. 如果你到今晚把手頭上的工作做完,你明天就可以休息。 As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. 如果你開車小心,你就會很安全。 You may eat anything, so long as you don’t eat too much. 只要不吃得太多,你可以吃任何東西。 As long as live, I will help you. 只要我活著,我都會幫助你。 As long as you don’t betray me, I’ll do whatever you ask me to (do). 只要你不出賣我,要我做什麼我都願意。 We’ll ship the goods at an early time as long as there is a steamer.只要有船,我們就盡早裝貨。 51
  28. 28. 句型寶典 You will never be good students so long as you goof around. 如果你們成天游手好閒,就永遠也成不了好學生。 Suppose/Supposing (that) ... 結構︰Suppose/Supposing (that)+子句,S+V ... 說明︰此句型意為“如果…,假使…”。Suppose/Supposing (that) 引導假設條件句,其功能相當 於 if。 Suppose/Supposing (that) we miss the train, what shall we do? 如果我們誤了火車,我們將怎麼辦? What if/Say ... 結構︰What if/Say+子句,S+V ... 說明︰此句型意為“假設…”。What if 和 Say 用來引導一個假設條件句,其義相當於 Let us suppose(讓我們假設)。 What if/Say he goes home before us and can’t get in? What will he do then? 假設他在我們之前趕到家而又進不去呢?那他怎麼辦呢? What if/Say you were to run out of money? What would you do? 假設你的錢用完了呢?你將怎麼辦呢? With luck ... 結構︰With luck,+主要子句 說明︰With luck 為含蓄假設條件句(即不用 if 直接引導)。with luck 意為“如果幸運的話, 如果運氣好的話”。 With luck, we’ll be there by tomorrow.幸運的話,我們明天將到達那兒。(=If we are lucky) With luck, she will get the job. 如果幸運的話,她將得到那份工作。(=If she is lucky) Given time ... 結構︰Given time,+主要子句 說明︰此為含蓄假設條件句(即不用 if 直接引導)。Given time 意為“(如果)給以時間的話”。 52
  29. 29. 句型寶典 Given time, they will probably agree.給以時間的話,他們可能會同意。(=If they are given time/If we give them time) To hear him talk, ... 結構︰To hear him talk,+主要子句 說明︰此句型意為“聽某人談話(的口氣)…”。從形式上看,To hear him talk 似為不定式片語, 但實則為含蓄條件句(即不用 if 直接引導)。To hear him talk 相當於 If you could hear him talk。 To hear him talk, you’d think he was Prime Minister. 聽他談話(那口氣),你會以為他是首相呢。 To hear you talk, I’d think you were Prime Minister. 聽你談話(那口氣),我還以為你是首相呢。 Without ..., S + V ... 結構︰Without …,+主要子句 說明︰此句型意為“如果沒有…”,是導致主要子句結果發生的必要條件。Without ... 為含蓄假 設條件句,此用法在口語表達中最為常見。without 意為“(如果)沒有…的話”。Without 既可 以放在句首,也可以放在句尾,放在句首有強調作用。此外,如果主要子句用否定式,則和 without 構成雙重否定,表示特別強調 without 之後項為主要子句動作發生之必備條件。 Without your help, I couldn’t have done it. (如果)沒有你的幫助,我是不會做成的。(=If you hadn’t helped me) She can’t solve the problem without his help.如果)沒有他的幫助,她不可能解決這道題。 We can’t live without air or water.(如果)沒有空氣或水,我們就無法生存。 Fish cannot live without water.(如果)沒有水,魚兒就無法生存。 比較句型 as/so ... as ... 53
  30. 30. 句型寶典 結構︰as/so+形容詞或副詞原級+as… 說明︰此句型意為“…和…一樣…”。比較兩件東西,並表示它們的程度一樣。第一個 as 為<副 詞>,第二個 as 則為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾第一個 as。 as…as 中可插入 在 單數<可數名詞>,即:“as+<形容詞>+a/an+<名詞>+as”。若是複數<名詞>,可用“as many/few+複數 <名詞>+as”;若是<不可數名詞>,則用“as much/little+<不可數名詞>+ as”。as+原級(形、 “ 副)+as+原級(形、副)”這形式表示有關同一人(物)的兩種不同的性 質、狀態是一樣程度的,譯作“既有…且還有…”。 He is as handsome as his brother (is). 他和他哥哥一樣英俊。 Judy goes to the movies as often as Sara does. 朱迪像莎拉一樣時常去看電影。 Old John goes to sleep as easily as a baby does. 老約翰像嬰兒一樣容易入睡。 The girls are as busy with their work as bees. 這些女孩子就跟蜜蜂一樣忙著工作。 He is as nice a boy as Peter (is). 他和彼得一樣都是好男孩。 She has as many friends as Mary (does). 她和瑪麗一樣有許多朋友。 He has as much money as John (does). 他和約翰一樣有很多錢。 He is as clever as (he is) handsome. 他不但英俊而且聰明。 My teacher is as kind as (she is) intelligent. 我的老師不但善良而且聰慧。 as many/much ... 結構︰as many/much+名詞… 說明︰此句型意為“同數(量)的…;一樣多”。本<片語>旨在用以代替句中前面已提到的相 同數字,以避免該數字的重複。 He was tired enough to make ten errors in as many (=in ten) pages. 他疲倦得十頁中犯了十個錯誤。 54
  31. 31. 句型寶典 Mike read five books in as many (=in five) months. 麥克在五個月內看了五本書。 I didn’t expect that he should have committed three robberies in as many days. 沒想到(老實的)他居然在三天內犯了三次搶劫罪。 as many/much as ... 結構︰as many/much as+數字+複數名詞/不可數名詞 說明︰此句型意為“多達…”。不要與“as many/much+<名詞>”(同數量的…)混淆。同理,此 類<片語>還有:as long as+數字+<名詞>(長達…),as wide as+數字+<名詞>(寬達 …), as high as+數字+<名詞>(高達…),as early as+數字+<名詞>(早在…),as late as+數字+<名詞>(遲在…)等。 She has as many as seven sisters. 她的姊妹有七人之多。 As many as 100 people were killed in the air crash. 這次空難中多達一百人喪生。 I gave the beggar as much as 1,000 yen. 我給了這乞丐整整一千元。 Building costs ran up to as much as NT$ 20 million. 建築費用漲到高達新台幣兩千萬。 I have been learning English (for) as long as 15 years. 我學英文已有十五年之久。 He came home as late as two in the morning. 他遲至清晨兩點才回家。 I saw your brother as late as last week. 上個禮拜我還看到你哥哥。 The river is as wide as 100 meters. 這條河寬達一百公尺。 I mailed the letter as early as Friday. 我早在星期五就把信寄了。 A is as much + N + as B is 結構︰主詞+be+as+much+名詞+as+(be)+主詞 說明︰此句型意為“…和…同樣…”。“as much+<名詞>+as+(be)+<主詞>”的 be 通常省略 或放句末。 Comets are just as much members of the sun’s family as (are) the other planets. 55
  32. 32. 句型寶典 彗星和其他的行星同樣是太陽家族的成員。 To eat too much is as much a bad thing as to eat nothing.吃太多和什麼都不吃同樣是壞事。 He is as much a member of the orchestra as Tom. 他和湯姆同樣是管絃樂隊的成員。 not as/so + ADJ/ADV + as + N 結構︰not as/so+形容詞/副詞+as+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“不像…那樣…”。as…as 可用於肯定句或<否定句>,而 so…as 僅可用於<否 定句>構中。 It is not as (so) popular as other foods. 它不像其他食物那樣受歡迎。 He does not study as (so) hard as John. 他不像約翰那樣用功。 I am not as (so) careful as Tom. 我不像湯姆那樣細心。 as far as ... 結構︰as far as+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“到…之遠;到…的程度”。而“as far as+<主詞>+<動詞>”則表示“只要…, 在…範圍內的話…”。 Swallows from England go as far as South Africa. 英國來的燕子飛到南非那樣遠的地方。 We walked as far as the railroad station. 我們走到火車站那樣遠的地方。 We drove as far south as Kaohsiung. 我們往南開車一直到高雄。 He went as far as Yokohama to meet his friend from England. 他遠至橫濱去迎接由英國來的朋友。 I swam as far as I could. 我盡可能地游遠。 ... just as ... as ... 結構︰主詞+動詞+just as+形容詞/副詞+as+(代)名詞/動名詞 說明︰此句型意為“…就像…一樣…”。第一個 as 是“同樣的;一樣的”,第二個 as 是“像”之意。 56
  33. 33. 句型寶典 若<主詞>之後不是 be <動詞>,則 as 之後不用<形容詞>,而要用<副詞>。 Being a good pedestrian is just as important as being a good driver. 做一個好的行人就像做一個好的司機一樣重要。 Writing is just as important as reading. 寫作就像閱讀一樣重要。 He wrote just as carefully as Tom. 他就像湯姆一樣小心地寫。 ... as ... as one can 結構︰…as+形容詞/副詞/名詞+as one can 說明︰此句型意為“儘可能…”。 as ... as one can”相當於“as ... as possible”。 要隨<主詞>的人 “ one 稱而變化,而 can 要隨<時態>變化。 To speak English fluently, you had better read as many English articles as you can. 要想把英文講得很流利,你最好盡量多看英文文章。 Take as much exercise as you can. 盡可能多做運動。 Be as careful as you can. 盡可能小心。 Our teacher explained the lesson to us as clearly as he could. 我們的老師盡可能清楚地為我們解釋這一課。 She needed to soften her request to make it as polite and courteous as she could. 她需要使請求語氣柔婉,以便盡可能把它變成有禮貌與客氣。 You should be as careful as you can in making friends. 在交朋友方面,你應該盡可能小心。 We had better learn by heart as many sentence patterns as we can. 我們最好盡可能多背句型。 I looked down the road as far as I could. 我盡可能遙望這條路。 I will try to save as much as I can. 我會設法盡可能多儲蓄。 You should remain as quiet as you can. 你應盡可能地保持沈默。 ... as ... as ... can be 57
  34. 34. 句型寶典 結構︰主詞+be 動詞+as+形容詞+as+(形容詞)+can be 說明︰此句型意為“極…,不亞於任何人…”。 <句型>借重複同一個<形容詞>而成為強調此< 此 形容詞>的說法。常用的此類<片語>有:as plain as plain can be(再明白不過了),as wise as wise can be(再聰明不過了),as white as white can be(白得不能再白了),as wrong as wrong can be(錯得太離譜)等。 His failure is as plain as plain can be. 他的失敗是再明白不過了。 He is as handsome as (handsome) can be. 他瀟灑極了。 She is as kind as can be. 她極為和顏悅色。 Mary is as hardworking as can be. 瑪麗在班上之用功不輸任何人。 He may not be so clever as Peter, but he is as industrious as can be. 他也許不如彼得聰明,但卻用功極了。 as ... as ever 結構︰as+形容詞/副詞+as ever 說明︰此句型意為“與往常一樣…”。 He seems to be as busy as ever. 他似乎和往常一樣忙碌。 He works as hard as ever. 他和往常一樣努力工作。 She was as beautiful as ever after so many years. 過了那麼多年,她美麗如故。 ... times as ... as ... 結構︰倍數詞+as+形容詞/副詞+as… 說明︰此句型意為“是…的幾倍”。“兩倍”是 twice,而三倍以上的“倍”,通常用 times。 An ordinary subway train, approaching the station, can be twice as loud as the loudest jet. 平常的地下火車接近車站時,發出的聲音可能是最大聲的噴射機的兩倍。 This line is four times as long as that one. 這條線是那條線的四倍長。 58
  35. 35. 句型寶典 I am twice as old as he. 我的年紀是他的兩倍。 She studies three times as hard as I. 她用功的程度是我的三倍。 He earns twice as much as he used to. 他比往常多賺二倍的錢。 She spent half as much money as you. 她花掉的錢只有你花掉的一半。 ... times the/my N ... 結構︰…倍數詞+the(或所有格)+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“是…的幾倍”。 倍數詞>與<名詞>之間一定有 the 或<所有格>。 < 有時可改為“ <倍數詞>+as+<形容詞>”。三倍以上的“倍”,通常用“times”。而“more than+<倍數詞>+the (或<所有格>)+<名詞>”譯為“是…的幾倍還不止”。 It was over twice the distance of the earth from the sun. 那是地球到太陽的距離的兩倍多。 Line A is four times the length of line B. 線條 A 是線條 B 的四倍長。 I have five times the number of Tom’s books. 我有五倍於湯姆的書。 He has three times my money. 他的錢是我的三倍。 He has more than three times my money. 他的錢是我的三倍還不止。 The river is ten times the length of the Tamsui River. 這條河的長度是淡水河的十倍。 Holland has two-thirds the inhabitants of the state of New York, which is four times the size of Holland. 荷蘭的居民是紐約州的三分之二,而紐約州卻是荷蘭的四倍大。 more than ... as ... as 結構︰more than+倍數詞+as+形容詞/副詞+as 說明︰此句型意為“是…的幾倍還不止”。“兩倍”是 twice,而三倍以上的“倍”,通常用 times。 He is more than three times as rich as I. (=He is three times richer than I.) 他的財富是我的三倍還不止。 He studies more than three times as hard as I. 他用功的程度是我的三倍還不止。 59
  36. 36. 句型寶典 I am more than twice as old as he. 我的年齡是他的兩倍還不止。 He has collected more than three times as many stamps as I (have). 他搜集的郵票是我的三倍還不止。 ... times ...er than ... 結構︰倍數詞+形容詞或副詞比較級+than… 說明︰此句型意為“比…大幾倍”。“兩倍”是 twice,而三倍以上的“倍”,通常用 times。 We now know that X-ray waves are 2,000 to 10,000 times shorter than light waves. 我們現在知道X光波比光波短二千到一萬倍。 This street is four times shorter than that one. 這條街道比那條短四倍。 The mother elephant is one hundred times heavier than the baby elephant. 這隻母象比小象重一百倍。 It is ten times louder than another. 它比另外一個的聲音大十倍。 This street is three times wider than that one. 這條街比那條街寬三倍。 I am twice older than he. 我的年紀比他大兩倍。 not so adj. as adj. 結構︰not so+形容詞/副詞+as+形容詞/副詞 說明︰此句型意為“與其說是…倒不如說是…”。相當於“<形容詞>/<副詞>+rather than+<形 容詞>/<副詞>”。 She is not so beautiful as charming. (=She is charming rather than beautiful.) 與其說她美倒不如說她迷人。 He is not so clever as diligent. 與其說他聰明倒不如說他勤奮。 She is not so kind as simple. 與其說她善良不如說她單純。 not so much + N as + N 結構︰not so much+名詞+as+名詞 60
  37. 37. 句型寶典 說明︰此句型意為“與其說是…倒不如說是…”。相當於“<名詞>+rather than+<名詞>”。 He is not so much a writer as a scholar. 與其說他是作家倒不如說他是學者。 He is not so much a genius as a hard worker. 他的努力勝於天份。 The Apollo program was not so much a scientific achievement as a technical accomplishment. 阿波羅計劃與其說是一項科學成果,不如說是一項技術成就。 not so much ... as ... 結構︰not so much+介系詞片語/不定詞片語+as+介系詞片語/不定詞片語 說明︰此句型意為“與其說是…倒不如說是…”。相當於“<介系詞片語>/<不定詞片語>+rather than+ <介系詞片語>/<不定詞片語>”。 Happiness hinges not so much on wealth as on health. 快樂與其說在於財富倒不如說在於健康。 One’s greatness lies not so much in his wealth as in his character. 一個人的偉大與其說是由他的財富來判斷,倒不如說是由他的品德來判斷。 Success lies not so much as in luck as in hard work. 與其說成功在於運氣不如說是辛勤努力。 I lay down not so much to sleep as to think.我躺下來與其說是要睡覺,倒不如說是要思考。 It is not so helpful to give someone some bread as to teach him how to make a living. 與其說給人麵包很有幫助,倒不如說教導他如何謀生才重要。 Our success was attributed not so much to your help as to our cooperation. 我們的成功與其歸功於您的幫忙,不如歸功於我們的合作。 The great use of a school education is not so much to teach you things as to teach you the art of learning. 學校教育的最大用處,與其說是教你事物,不如說是教你學習的方法。 The oceans do not so much divide the world as unite it. (=The oceans do not divide the world so much as unite it.) 與其說是海洋分割這個世界,不如說是統一這個世界。 not so much as ... 結構︰not so much as ... 61
  38. 38. 句型寶典 說明︰此句型意為“甚至都不…”。相當於“not even ...”。 <片語>使用時,要置於<助動詞>之後, 本 即: cannot so much as+原形<動詞>(甚至…都不能),do not so much as+原形<動詞>(甚 至…都不),have not so much as+過去<分詞>(甚至…都沒有)。 He cannot so much as write his own name. (=He cannot even write his own name.) 他甚至連自己的名字都不會寫。 He did not so much as thank me. 他甚至都沒謝我。 He is so stupid that he can’t so much as eat. 他蠢得甚至連吃飯都不會。 When Mary walked in, she didn’t so much as take a glance at me, which angered me. 瑪麗進門時,連看我一眼都沒有,真令人生氣。 the more ..., the more ... 結構︰the+比較級…,the+比較級… 說明︰此句型意為“愈…,就愈…”。若句中的<主詞>為一般<名詞>,而非<代名詞> (he,it,you,they)或<專有名詞>(John,Mary),且後面的<動詞>為 be <動詞>時,該 be <動詞>可省略。 The more you soften a request, the more polite it becomes. 你愈使請求柔婉,請求就愈變為客氣。 The longer you stay here, the more you will like the place. 你在這裡待得愈久,你愈會喜歡這個地方。 The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you will make. 你愈小心,你犯錯就會愈少。 The more I learn, the less I feel I know. 學而後知不足。 The closer you stay to nature, the more you will appreciate her beauty. 你愈接近大自然,就愈能了解它的美。 The more leisure he has, the less he stays at home. 愈是有空,他愈不肯待在家裡。 62
  39. 39. 句型寶典 The better the boy (is), the more I like him. 這男孩愈好我愈喜歡他。 The colder the weather (is), the more comfortable my life (will be). 天氣愈冷,我的生活就愈舒服。 The bigger the house (is), the more money it will cost. 房子愈大愈值錢。 The more haste, the less speed. 欲速則不達。 The more noble the more humble. 結實愈豐者,其穗愈低。 More profit and less honor. 捨名逐利。 The sooner the better. 事不宜遲。 The more you have, the more you want. 擁有愈多,慾望愈高。 The more you beat iron the harder it grows. 鐵不煉不成鋼,玉不琢不成器。 more and more ... 結構︰比較級+and+比較級 說明︰此句型意為“愈來愈…”。 The noise of traffic grows louder and louder. 交通的噪音變得愈來愈大。 It is getting hotter and hotter. 天氣愈來愈熱。 You should study harder and harder. 你應該更用功念書。 The girl became more and more beautiful. 這女孩變得愈來愈漂亮了。 With the rapid economical development, China’s position on the international stage is getting more and more important.隨著經濟迅速發展,中國在國際舞台上的地位變得愈來愈重要了。 ... more ... than ... 結構︰主詞+be 動詞+more…than… 說明︰此句型意為“…是…而不是…”。在“…”的位置,可以用<名詞>,<形容詞>,或帶有形容 詞性的<分詞>。 63
  40. 40. 句型寶典 You may also find that reading has become more fun than work!  你或許也會發現閱讀已經變成是有趣的事,而不是工作。 It is more a made-up story than a real occurrence.那是杜撰的故事,而不是真實發生的事情。 I was more disappointed than discouraged. 我是失望,而不是洩氣。 He seems more like a military officer than a business executive.  他似乎比較像一個軍官,而不像一個商業行政主管。 He is more a sprinter than a swimmer. 他是短跑健將,而不是游泳選手。 I am more frightened than hurt. 我嚇壞了而沒有受傷。 Sue is more beautiful than Jane. 蘇比珍較美。 The computer is more expensive than the typewriter. 這部電腦比這部打字機更貴。 People in the country are happier than people in the city.鄉下的人們比城市的人們更快樂。 N1 more ... than N2 結構︰名詞 1+比較級+than+名詞 2 說明︰此句型意為“比…更為…的…”。 People have to live on something more nourishing than hope. 人們必須依賴比希望更滋養的東西來過活。 I have never seen a girl more beautiful than Mary. 我從未見過比瑪麗更為美麗的女孩子。 I want some persons more experienced than Tom. 我要一些比湯姆更有經驗的人。 more N than + ADJ/V-ed 結構︰比較級+名詞+than+(be 動詞)+形容詞/過去分詞 說明︰此句型意為“比…來得更多的…”。be <動詞>通常省略。 Some people give higher priced gifts than necessary for the situation.  有些人給了比情況所必要來得更高價的禮物。 I did more work than required. 我做了比所被要求的來得更多的工作。 64
  41. 41. 句型寶典 We were given more money than necessary for the project.  我們被給了比計劃所要求來得更多的錢。 It is better to V1 than V2 結構︰It is+比較級+to+原形動詞 1…than+(to)+原形動詞 2… 說明︰此句型意為“…比…更…”。than 之後的 to 可以省略。 It is better to laugh than (to) weep. 笑比哭好。 It is more comfortable to lie on a lawn than (to) sit in the office. 躺在草坪上比坐在辦公室裡舒服。 It is harder to teach than (to) study. 教書比讀書辛苦。 make ... more ... of ... 結構︰主詞+make+受詞+more+形容詞+of… 說明︰此句型意為“…使…更加…”。根據不同的情況,句子可以有不同<時態>。 Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight. 黑暗會使他更加珍惜視力。 Their sudden attack made us more aware of the danger around us. 他們突然的攻擊使我們更加注意我們周圍的危險。 Your encouragement made me more confident of my future. 你的鼓勵使我對我的未來更加有信心。 all the more for ... 結構︰all the+比較級+for+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“即使…卻更加…;因為…反而更加…”。for 為<介系詞>,之後接<名詞>為 其<受詞>。也可寫成“all the+比較級+because-子句”。because 為<副詞><連接詞>,之後接<主 詞>+<動詞>,引導<副詞子句>。 You will enjoy stories all the more for having understood the characters in them. 你會因為已經瞭解小說中的角色,而更加喜歡小說。 I love her all the better for her poverty (=because she is poor). 因為她窮,我反而更喜歡她。 65
  42. 42. 句型寶典 I like the book all the more for its beautiful illustrations. 我因為精美的插圖而更加喜歡這本書。 He studied all the harder because he had failed (=for his failure). 因為他失敗了,他反而更用功念書了。 She is all the more beautiful for her shabby clothing (=because her clothing is shabby). 即使她衣衫襤褸,卻顯得更美麗了。 I respect him all the more because he has faults. 因為他有缺點,我反而更尊敬他。 I like Kyoto all the better for its many narrow streets. 正因為小道多,我反而更喜歡京都。 none the ...er for ... 結構︰none the+比較級+for+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“即使…卻一點也不…”。相當於“none the+比較級+because-子句”。for 為< 介系詞>,之後接<名詞>為其<受詞>;because 則為<副詞><連接詞>,之後接<主詞>+<動 詞>,引導<副詞子句>。 His health is none the better for his exercise (=because he takes exercise).  即使他運動,他的健康狀況卻一點也不好。 She is none the more beautiful because she wears a fancy dress.  即使她身穿時髦洋裝,卻一點也不漂亮。 He is none the happier for his great wealth. 即使他有錢,卻一點也不快樂。 He is none the wiser because he has read many books. 他雖然讀了不少書,可是並未因此而聰明些。 none the less ... for ... 結構︰none the less+形容詞/副詞+for+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“即使…卻仍然”。相當於“none the less+形容詞/副詞+because-子句”。none the less 為<副詞>,譯成“仍然”,可修飾<動詞>,<形容詞>或<副詞>;修飾<動詞>時,置於 該<動詞>之後;修飾<形容詞>時,置於該<形容詞>之前;修飾<副詞>時,置於該<副詞>之 66
  43. 43. 句型寶典 前。 I love him none the less because he is poor. 即使他窮,我還是愛他。 She is none the less beautiful for her shabby clothing. 即使她衣衫襤褸,卻仍然美麗。 He studied none the less hard because he had failed. 即使他失敗了,卻仍然用功念書。 ... no more ... than ... 結構︰A+動詞+no more+B+than+C+動詞+D 說明︰此句型意為“A 不是 B 正如 C 不是 D”。“no more ... than”等於“not ... any more than”。若 than 之後的詞類與前面的詞類相同,可以省略;若不同,則不可省略。 A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. 鯨魚不是魚正如馬不是魚一樣。 A home without love is no more a home than a body without a soul is a man.  沒有愛的家不是家,就如同沒有靈魂的身體不是人一樣。 He is no more able to speak English than I am (able to speak English).  和我不會說英語一樣,他也不會說英語。 He is no more considerate of others than his brother is. 他不體諒別人,就跟他弟弟一樣。 He can no more sing than I can dance. 他不會唱歌正如我不會跳舞一樣。 We can no more live without sleep than (we can) without water.  我們沒有睡眠不能活,正如我們沒有水就不能活一樣。 I am no more out of my mind than you are (out of your mind). 你我兩人都沒有瘋狂。 Tom was no more surprised than (he was) disappointed at this news.  湯姆聽見那消息既不驚訝也不失望。 He is no better (no more good) at English than I am. 他的英文不好,就像我一樣。 ... no less ... than ... 結構︰A+動詞+no less+B+than+C+動詞+D 說明︰此句型意為“A 是 B 和 C 是 D 一樣”。“no less ... than”等於“as ... as”,no less 之後可置< 67
  44. 44. 句型寶典 副詞>或 <形容詞>修飾。 A whale is no less a mammal than a horse is. 鯨魚和馬一樣都是哺乳動物。 He is no less clever than his elder brother. 他和他的大哥一樣聰明。 She is no less good at swimming than Mary. 她和瑪麗一樣擅長游泳。 His parents are no less happy over his engagement than he is (happy over his engagement).   他的雙親對他訂婚的高興並不亞於他自己。 He studies no less hard than John. 他和約翰一樣用功。 Associating with good friends is no less important to us than choosing good books.  交益友與選擇好書對我們同樣重要。 A good shirt is no less expensive than a jacket.一件好襯衫的昂貴程度並不比一件夾克衫差。 Sports wears, no less than suits, are very much saleable.運動服和西服套一樣,非常暢銷。 not more ... than ... 結構︰not more…than… 說明︰此句型意為“沒有比…更多;最多只是和…一樣”。等於“at best as ... as”。 She is not more beautiful than Mary. 她不比瑪麗美麗--頂多只是和瑪麗一樣美。 I was not more surprised than he (was). 我不像他那樣驚訝。 He is not more handsome than I. 他不比我瀟灑--頂多跟我一樣瀟灑。 not less ... than 結構︰not less ... than 說明︰此句型意為“沒有比…更少;至少與…一樣”。等於“at least as ... as”。 She is not less beautiful than Mary. 她至少和瑪麗一樣美麗。 He is not less interested in composing music than Jane. 他至少跟珍一樣對譜曲很感興趣。 He is not less handsome than I. 他至少跟我一樣瀟灑。 68
  45. 45. 句型寶典 no more than ... 結構︰no more than+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“僅僅…”。等於“only+<名詞>”,強調稀少。 It will take no more than five days to read the book. 不到五天,我就會把這本書讀完。 It is no more than ten minutes’ walk from the station. 由車站走到這裡只有十分鐘的路程。 I had no more than 2 or 3 mistakes on my English assignment.  我的英文作業中只有兩三處錯誤。 no less than ... 結構︰no less than+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“多達…;足足有…之多”。等於“as many/much as ...”,強調多。 I received no less than ten thousand yen for my work. 我的工資多達一萬元。 The audience was no less than five thousand. 聽眾有五千人之多。 That hotel probably costs no less than 20 dollars a night. 那間旅館的住宿費大約要 20 元一晚呢。 No less than ten students flunked the exam. 整整有十位學生在這次考試中不及格。 not more than ... 結構︰not more than+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“最多不超過…”。等於“at most+<數詞>+<名詞>”。 It is not more than ten minutes’ walk from the station. 由車站走到這裡最多十分鐘的路程。 I’ll stay here not more than three days. 我將待在這裡最多不超過三天。 For safety’s sake, don’t drive more than 30 kilometers per hour in the city.  為了安全起見,在市內開車時速不要超過三十公里。 not less than ... 結構︰not less than+名詞 69
  46. 46. 句型寶典 說明︰此句型意為“至少…”。等於“at least+<數詞>+<名詞>”。 The audience was not less than five thousand. 聽眾至少也有五千人。 I’ll stay here not less than three days. 我將待在這裡至少三天。 Though they think it takes no more than three days to fulfill the mission, I believe it takes not less than six days. 雖然他們認為完成這任務只需三天,但我卻認為至少需要六天。 at best + N 結構︰at best+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“充其量…;只不過是…”。等於“nothing but ...”。 Don’t expect much of him; he is at best a student. 不要對他期望過高;他只不過是個學生。 She is at best a second-rate singer. 她充其量是個二流歌手。 Don’t scold him too much; he is at best a child. 不要太責罵他;他只不過是個孩子。 much more /much less ... 結構︰much more/much less… 說明︰此句型意為“更不用說…”。“much more ...”等於“let alone ...”或“still more ...”,只用於肯 定句;“much less ...”等於“still less ...”,只用於<否定句>。 She can speak English, much more/let alone/still more write it. 她會說英語,更不用說寫英文了。 She cannot speak English, much less/still less write it. 她不會說英語,更不用說寫英文了。 You have a right to your property, much more to your ideas. 你有處理自己財產的權利,更有支配自己思想的權利。 I enjoy singing, much more listening to music. 我喜歡唱歌,更不用說聽音樂了。 She cannot buy daily necessities, much less luxuries. 她連生活必需品都不能買,更不用說奢侈品。 He can hardly run a mile, much less the marathon. 他連一哩都跑不了,更不用說馬拉松了。 70
  47. 47. 句型寶典 That father can’t discipline himself, much less set a good example for his children to follow. 那位父親不能以身作則,更不用說做孩子的榜樣了。 ... more than any other N 結構︰比較級+than+any other+單數名詞 說明︰此句型意為“比其他任何…都還…”。這是用<比較級>來表示<最高級>的同範圍比較<句 型>。也可用“<比較級>+than+all the other+複數<名詞>”來表示。 John is more diligent than any other student in his class. 約翰比班上其他的同學用功。 John is more diligent than all the other students in his class. 約翰比班上其他的同學用功。 Baseball is more popular than any other sport in Japan. 在日本,棒球比其他任何運動都受人歡迎。 Autumn is better for reading than any other season. 秋天比任何季節都適合讀書。 Mt. Jade is higher than any other mountain in Taiwan. 玉山要比台灣的任何山都高。 ... more than anyone else 結構︰比較級+than+anyone else/anything else 說明︰此句型意為“比其他任何…都還…”。這是用<比較級>來表示<最高級>的同範圍比較<句 型>。anyone else 指人;anything else 指物。 John is more diligent than anyone else in his class. 約翰比班上其他的同學用功。 Time is more precious than anything else in the world. 時間比世上任何東西都寶貴。 Mary is more beautiful than anyone else in her company. 瑪麗在公司裡比其他人都漂亮。 We pay less attention to time than to anything else.我們對時間的不重視超過其他任何事物。 nothing is ...er than ... 結構︰nothing(或 no+名詞)+動詞+比較級+than… 說明︰此句型意為“沒有如此…者”。這是用<比較級>來表示<最高級>的<句型>。 71
  48. 48. 句型寶典 Nothing is more valuable than time, but nothing is less valued. 沒有比時間更貴重的東西,但也沒有比它更受輕視的東西。 No place is better than one’s home. 沒有任何地方比得上自己的家。 Nothing is more pleasant than staying home listening to music. 沒有一件事比待在家裡聽音樂更愉快的了。 Nothing gives him more pleasure than helping someone in trouble. 沒有一件事要比幫助陷入困境的人帶給他更大的快樂。 There is nothing to which we pay less attention than time and air. 我們對時間和空氣的不重視超過其他任何事物。 ... nothing more than N 結構︰主詞+動詞+nothing more than+名詞 說明︰此句型意為“…只不過…”。“nothing more than”等於“nothing but”。 Others are dismissed as nothing more than entertainment. 有些只不過是被當做娛樂而不予考慮。 It is nothing more than a made-up story. 它只不過是杜撰的故事而已。 She wishes to be treated as nothing more than a common girl. 她希望被對待得只不過像一般的女孩子。 ...er than ever 結構︰…+比較級+than ever 說明︰此句型意為“比以前更…”。than ever 等於 than ever before,意為“比以前任何時候…”。 There it was, ticking away, louder than ever. 它就在那裡,滴答地走著,比以前更大聲。 You should be more careful than ever. 你應該比以前更小心。 Does she spend more money than ever? 她比以前花更多的錢嗎? better ... than ... 結構︰better+…+than+被比對象 72
  49. 49. 句型寶典 說明︰此句型意為“寧可…;最好還是…”。better 之後可接<形容詞>,<副詞>,<名詞>,<動 詞>等。 Please try to attend the meeting. Better late than absent.請您盡量參加會議。遲來也比不來強。 Better to postpone the shipment than to cancel the contract. 與其撤約還不如延期裝運。 Better reduce the price than allow a discount. 與其給折扣,不如減價。 with no N is it ...er than 結構︰... and with no+名詞 1+is it+比較級+than+with+名詞 2 說明︰此句型意為“…這種情形沒有一種…比…更為…”。此種結構,由於有 no,所以用 is it 的倒裝句型。 It is unreasonable to regard any language as the possession of a particular nation, and with no language is it more unreasonable than with English. 把某一種語言視為某一特定的國家所擁有 是不合理的,而這種情形沒有一種語言比英語更為不合理。 It is bad to get ill, and with no disease is it worse than with cancer. 生病是糟糕的,而這種情形沒有一種疾病比癌症更為糟糕。 It is pleasant to chat with friends, and with no chat is it more pleasant than with close friends. 和朋友聊天是愉快的,而這種情形沒有比和知己的朋友聊天更為愉快。 Who is the most ... 結構︰Who is the+最高級…? 說明︰此句型意為“誰最…?”。此句型中若將 who 改為 which,即用來詢問一組事物中最具某 種特色的,如例句 4。 Who is the oldest of them? 他們之中誰的年紀最大? Who is the most beautiful in their family? 誰是他們家裡最美麗的人? Who is the youngest here? 這裡誰是最年輕的? 73
  50. 50. 句型寶典 Which is the most interesting subject for you? 哪個科目對你來說最有趣? the ...est ... not ... 結構︰最高級+…not… 說明︰<最高級>詞類與 not 並用時,有“甚至…都不…”的意味。 The most foolish man knows his own name. 再笨的人都知道自己的名字。 The loveliest flower cannot beat her beauty. 再漂亮的花也比不上她的美麗。 The greatest scholar cannot solve this difficult problem. 再偉大的學者也沒有辦法解答這個難題吧。 The richest man in the world cannot buy everything. 即使是世上最富有的人,也無法買到一切。 There is not the smallest chance of his escape. 他一點逃走的機會也沒有。 Not even the thickest jacket was enough to keep out the cold. 就連最厚的夾克也不足以禦寒。 The strongest man (that) you can think of cannot tear the log apart with bare hands. 就連你所能想到的最壯的人也不能光用手就將木頭撕裂。 the ...est ... that V-ed 結構︰the+最高級…+(that)+完成式 說明︰此句型意為“最…”。that 是<關係代名詞>;<完成式>中習慣使用<副詞> ever 強調。 That’s the best book that I have ever read. 那是我讀過的最好的書。 That’s the nicest thing that has ever happened to me. 那是我遇到的最美好的事。 He is the most diligent student that I have ever known. 他是我所知道的最用功的學生。 That’s the worst performance (that) I have ever seen. 那是我所看過的最糟的一次表演。 of all the N, the ...est 結構︰of+the three/the four/all the+複數名詞,+最高級子句 74
  51. 51. 句型寶典 說明︰此句型意為“在…中,…最…”。但須注意:“of the two+複數<名詞>+<比較級><子句> ”,表示“兩者中…較…”,如例句 7。<最高級><子句>也可置於句首。 Of the three students, he is the best. 三個學生中,他是最好的。 Jane is the best of all the students in her class. 珍是班中最好的學生。 Jane is the best of the three (students). 珍是三個學生中最好的一個。 Of all the high mountains, Mt. Jade is the highest. 在所有高山當中,玉山為最高。 Of all the four seasons, summer is the hottest. 在所有四季當中,夏天最熱。 Of all the girls, she is the most beautiful. 在所有這些女孩子當中,她最美。 Of the two girls, Mary is more beautiful. 這兩個女孩中,瑪麗較漂亮。 A is the ...est among ... 結構︰主詞+be 動詞+最高級+(名詞)+among… 說明︰此句型意為“…是…之中最…”。<最高級>後的<名詞>通常省略。 The Chuo-shui River is the longest one among them. 濁水溪是其中最長的一條。 Which river is the shortest among them? 哪一條河流是它們之中最短的? Paris is the most beautiful among the cities. 巴黎是這些城市中最美的。 A is the ...est N in ... 結構︰A+be 動詞+the+最高級+名詞+in+場所。 說明︰此句型意為“A 是…裡面最…”。the 不能漏掉。 Jane is the best student in her class. 珍是她班上最好的學生。 Mr. Jones is the busiest man in the office. 瓊斯先生是辦公室裡最忙的人。 The baseball game on Tuesday is the most important game this year. 星期二的棒球賽是今年最重要的棒球賽。 A is the ...est of N 75
  52. 52. 句型寶典 結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the+最高級+of+複數名詞 說明︰此句型意為“…是最…的…”。 <句型>的意思等於“<主詞>+be <動詞>+the+<最高級 本 >+單數<名詞>”。 Robert Frost was the most American of American poets. 羅伯‧佛洛斯特是最具美國風格的美國詩人。 He is the strictest of teachers in our school. 他是我們學校最嚴格的老師。 It is the most popular of movies. 這是最受歡迎的電影。 English is the most international of languages. 英語是最國際化的語言。 It is the most difficult of examinations. 那是最難的考試。 You must make the most of your opportunities. 你必須盡量利用機會。 A is the ...est of all. 結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the+最高級+of all 說明︰此句型意為“…是最為…”。“<最高級>+of all”的<語氣>比“<最高級>”強。 These frozen foods are the most convenient of all. 這些冷凍食品是最為方便。 It is the most important of all. 那是最為重要的。 They are the most dependable of all. 他們是最為可靠的。 A is most ... 結構︰主詞+be 動詞+沒有 the 的最高級… 說明︰在以下幾種場合裡的<最高級>之前沒有 the:被用來代替“very+原級”或“very”以加強 <語氣>時前面沒有 the;most 的含義是“多數”時前面沒有 the;用作<最高級><副詞>時前面 沒有 the;帶有<所有格>的<最高級><形容詞>之前沒有 the。 I think he is a most learned man. 我認為他是個很有學問的人。 76
  53. 53. 句型寶典 A most beautiful girl came to see him yesterday. 昨天有一個很漂亮的女孩來看他。 Such a most talented person as he shouldn’t be satisfied with what he is. 像他這麼有才華的人不應滿足於現狀。 A comet is at perihelion when it is closest (=very close) to the sun. 彗星最接近太陽時,它就是在近日點。 A person is most disappointed when he is in despair. 一個人在絕望時最失望。 He is calmest (=very calm) when he is all by himself. 他一人獨處時極為平靜。 The sentence of six months imprisonment was most unjust. 六個月監禁的判決極其不公。 Most people need six to eight hours of sleep every day.多數人每天需要六至八小時的睡眠。 Most learned men are modest. 大部分有學問的人都很謙虛。 I like apples best of all fruits. 所有水果中我最喜歡蘋果。 Bill runs quickly, Jack runs more quickly than Bill, and Bob runs most quickly of all. 比爾跑得快,傑克跑得比比爾快,鮑伯在三者中跑得最快。 Jane’s worst fault is her quick temper. 珍最大的毛病是她的急性子。 She is my youngest sister. 她是我最小的妹妹。 A is the last to ... 結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the last+(名詞)+to-不定詞/子句 說明︰此句型意為“…是最不可能…”。 last 表示“最不可能…;絕不至於…”,它的後面有時 the 有 <名詞>。 I would be the last to attempt to answer the question. 我是最不可能去嘗試回答這個問題。 He is the last person (that) I want to see. 他是我最不想要看到的人。 This is the last attempt (that) he would make. 這是他最不可能做的嘗試。 The author should be the last man to talk about his work. 77

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