h

Hooked



@nireyal

k
Products	
  can	
  profoundly	
  


CHANGE	
  OUR	
  BEHAVIORS.
100’s	
  of	
  millions	
  of	
  
users…

…and	
  100’s	
  of	
  	
  
millions	
  of	
  dollars.
?
NS
T
AT

P

R
E
Vitamins OR
Pain Killers?
PAIN	
  KILLERS	
  address	
  a	
  
burning	
  need.
VITAMINS	
  are	
  	
  
“nice	
  to	
  have.”
Vitamins OR
Pain Killers?
With	
  habit-­‐forming	
  technology

PLEASURE	
  SEEKING
behavior

becomes

PAIN	
  ALLEVIATING
behavior
What	
  do	
  we	
  mean	
  by	
  PAIN?	
  
Close	
  your	
  eyes.
HOW DID
YOU FEEL?
The	
  SOLUTION	
  TO	
  


OUR	
  DISCOMFORT	
  

is	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  product’s	
  use.
We	
  are	
  not	
  designing	
  for	
  addiction	
  
Do	
  not	
  design	
  bor	
  agddiction.
f e	
  in	
   raphic	
  
N...
hab·it

A	
  BEHAVIOR	
  DONE	
  WITH

LITTLE	
  OR	
  NO	
  

CONSCIOUS	
  
THOUGHT
Habits	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  for	
  good.
Harnessing	
  

HABITS	
  
can	
  be	
  

VERY	
  GOOD
FOR	
  BUSINESS.
If	
  your	
  business	
  requires	
  	
  
“unprompted	
  user	
  engagement,”
A	
  design	
  pattern	
  to	
  help

FORM	
  BETTER	
  PRODUCT	
  
HYPOTHESES.
BUILDING	
  IS
EXPENSIVE	
  	
  	
  
INCREASE	
  YOUR	
  ODDS	
  OF	
  SUCCESS.
h

k

The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$
connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
h

with%enough%%

FREQUENCY%%

to%%

FORM+A+HABIT.+

k
k

h
A"Hook"has"4"parts:"
A	
  -­‐	
  A	
  hook	
  has	
  4	
  parts:	
  
T	
   -­‐	
  Trigger	
  
A	
  -­‐	
  Action	
  
R	
   -­‐	
  Reward	
  
I ...
h

k
HABITS	
  ARE	
  

BUILT	
  UPON	
  

like	
  the	
  layers	
  of	
  a	
  
pearl.
Triggers	
  come	
  in	
  two	
  flavors:


EXTERNAL	
  &	
  

INTERNAL
EXTERNAL	
  TRIGGERS


The	
  information	
  for	
  what	
  to	
  do	
  next	
  	
  
is	
  within	
  the	
  trigger.

Bill...
INTERNAL	
  TRIGGERS


The	
  information	
  for	
  what	
  to	
  do	
  next	
  is	
  informed	
  

through	
  an	
  assoc...
Negative	
  emotions	
  are	
  POWERFUL	
  INTERNAL	
  TRIGGERS.

lonesome
indecisive powerless
tense
dissatisfied
confuse...
People	
  who	
  are	
  DEPRESSED	
  CHECK	
  EMAIL	
  MORE	
  OFTEN.
	
  	
  Source:  Kotikalapudi  et  al  2012
When	
  we	
  feel	
  LONELY	
  we	
  use
When	
  we	
  feel	
  UNSURE	
  we	
  	
  use	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	...
When	
  we	
  are	
  BORED	
  we	
  use	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
Do you know your customer’s
INTERNAL TRIGGER?
What	
  triggers	
  make	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
...
 external	
  triggers
solves	
  the	
  pain
of	
  losing	
  the	
  moment.
But	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  is	
  
also	
  a	
  soc...
h

k
The

SIMPLEST	
  ACTION
in	
  anticipation	
  of	
  a	
  reward.
Scroll
Search
Play
m

According	
  to	
  BJ	
  Fogg,	
  for	
  any	
  behavior	
  to	
  occur,	
  we	
  
need	
  MOTIVATION,	
  ABILITY,	
  a...
mo·ti·
va·tio
n

“THE	
  ENERGY	
  FOR	
  ACTION”

-­‐Edward  Deci
THERE	
  ARE	
  SIX	
  FACTORS	
  
THAT	
  CAN	
  INCREASE	
  
MOTIVATION.
Seeking Pleasure

Avoiding Pain

Seeking Hope

...
Seeking	
  HOPE
Seeking	
  PLEASURE


Seeking	
  ACCEPTANCE
Avoiding	
  FEAR
ABILITY

the capacity to do
a particular action
Time%

$
Money%

Physical%effort%
%

Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability.
Brain%cycles%

Social%deviance%

Non8rou...
NOVELTY	
  IS	
  A	
  LIABILITY.
Level	
  of	
  of	
  motivation	
  and	
  ability	
  
determines	
  if	
  action	
  will	
  occur.

MOTIV
ATION

TRIGGER	
...
Simplicity
is a
function
of your
scarcest
resource
at that
-­‐BJ  Fogg
through	
  the	
  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
through	
  the	
  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
through	
  the	
  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
h

k
 	
  Source:	
  Olds	
  and	
  Milner,	
  1945

It	
  all	
  starts	
  with	
  the

NUCLEUS	
  
ACCUMBENS
studied	
  by	
 ...
The	
  nucleus	
  accumbens	
  

is	
  activated	
  when	
  

we	
  crave.
Were
Olds & Milner
stimulatin
g
pleasure?

Not
exactly.
They	
  were	
  stimulating	
  the	
  

STRESS	
  OF	
  DESIRE.
Our	
  reward	
  system	
  activates	
  

with	
  anticipation

Source:	
  Knutson	
  et	
  al	
  2001	
  	
  
…	
  and	
  calms	
  when	
  

we	
  get	
  what	
  we	
  want.

Source:	
  Knutson	
  et	
  al	
  2001
That’s	
  the	
  ITCH
we	
  seek	
  to	
  SCRATCH.
There	
  is	
  a	
  way	
  to	
  supercharge	
  the	
  stress	
  of	
  desire.
THE	
  UNKNOWN
IS	
  FASCINATING.

Variability	
  causes	
  us	
  to	
  	
  
focus	
  and	
  engagement
…and	
  increases	
  behavior.
The	
  nucleus	
  accumbens	
  is	
  
stimulated	
  by	
  variability.
3	
  types	
  of	
  VARIABLE	
  REWARDS

TRIBE

HUNT

SELF

Habit-­‐forming	
  tech	
  uses	
  1	
  OR	
  MORE
SEARCH	
  FOR
SOCIAL	
  REWARDS
TRI
empath partner compet
We	
  Like	
  social	
  rewards.
We	
  value	
  recognition	
  and	
  cooperation
SEARCH	
  FOR
RESOURCES
HU
Stems	
  from	
  the	
  hunt	
  for	
  food	
  and	
  resources
Hunt	
  for	
  variable	
  material	
  rewards
Hunt	
  

for	
  variable	
  
information	
  

rewards.
Hunters	
  on

scroll	
  pages.
SEARCH	
  FOR
SELF-­‐ACHIEVEMENT
SEL
Leveling-­‐up	
  reflects	
  MASTERY	
  and	
  COMPETENCY.
Inbox	
  or	
  task	
  management	
  reflects	
  


CONSISTENCY	
  and	
  COMPLETION.
WARNING

Variable	
  rewards	
  are	
  not	
  a	
  free	
  pass.	
  

Your	
  product	
  still	
  must	
  address	
  the	
...
h

k
Users	
  “invest”	
  for	
  future	
  benefits.
Emotional
Personal 
Commitme
Data
nt
Social
Effort
Capital
Time

Money
Investments increase the
likelihood of the next pass
through the Hook in 


TWO

ways.
INVESTMENTS	
  
LOAD	
  THE	
  
NEXT	
  TRIGGER	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  OF	
  THE	
  HOOK.

1.
Each	
  new	
  message	
  posted	
  on
is	
  an	
  open	
  
invitation	
  for	
  an	
  
external	
  trigger	
  to	
  
be	
  returned.
Investing	
  in	
  Refresh,	
  loads	
  the	
  next	
  trigger
Loading	
  the	
  next	
  trigger	
  with	
  Pin	
  It	
  button	
  
2.

INVESTMENTS	
  STORE	
  VALUE,	
  

erecting	
  barriers	
  to	
  exit.
CONTENT
DATA
FOLLOWERS
REPUTATION

30
!
INVESTMENTS!
CREATES !
PREFERENCE.
h

k

The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$
connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
h

With%enough%frequency,%

A"HABIT"IS"FORMED."

k
A	
  -­‐	
  A	
  hook	
  has	
  4	
  parts:	
  
T	
   -­‐	
  Trigger	
  
A	
  -­‐	
  Action	
  
R	
   -­‐	
  Reward	
  
I ...
The	
  HOOK	
  Canvas

1.	
  What	
  internal	
  trigger	
  is	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
the	
  product	
  addressing?	
...
THE	
  MORALITY
OF	
  MANIPULATION
Designing	
  

habit-­‐forming	
  	
  
products	
  is	
  a	
  form	
  
of	
  manipulation.
What	
  
RESPONSIBILITY	
  
do	
  we	
  have	
  when	
  
changing	
  user	
  behavior?
THE	
  WORLD	
  IS	
  FULL	
  OF	
  PROBLEMS	
  TO	
  FIX.

Help	
  others	
  find	
  meaning.	
  Engage	
  them	
  in	
  ...
Build	
  the	
  

CHANGEin
you	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  
THE	
  WORLD.
h

1.	
  Take	
  the	
  survey.	
  

k

www.OpinionTo.Us	
  
!

2.	
  Get	
  the	
  slides.

@nireyal	
  
www.nirandfar.co...
Nir Eyal, Designing for Habit-Formation, WarmGun 2013
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The Importance of User Behavior & Design Psychology

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Nir Eyal, Designing for Habit-Formation, WarmGun 2013

  1. 1. h Hooked
 
 @nireyal k
  2. 2. Products  can  profoundly  
 CHANGE  OUR  BEHAVIORS.
  3. 3. 100’s  of  millions  of   users… …and  100’s  of     millions  of  dollars.
  4. 4. ? NS T AT P R E
  5. 5. Vitamins OR Pain Killers?
  6. 6. PAIN  KILLERS  address  a   burning  need.
  7. 7. VITAMINS  are     “nice  to  have.”
  8. 8. Vitamins OR Pain Killers?
  9. 9. With  habit-­‐forming  technology PLEASURE  SEEKING behavior becomes PAIN  ALLEVIATING behavior
  10. 10. What  do  we  mean  by  PAIN?  
  11. 11. Close  your  eyes.
  12. 12. HOW DID YOU FEEL?
  13. 13. The  SOLUTION  TO  
 OUR  DISCOMFORT  
 is  found  in  the  product’s  use.
  14. 14. We  are  not  designing  for  addiction   Do  not  design  bor  agddiction. f e  in   raphic   NOT  must  
  15. 15. hab·it A  BEHAVIOR  DONE  WITH LITTLE  OR  NO  
 CONSCIOUS   THOUGHT
  16. 16. Habits  can  be  used  for  good.
  17. 17. Harnessing   HABITS   can  be   VERY  GOOD FOR  BUSINESS.
  18. 18. If  your  business  requires     “unprompted  user  engagement,”
  19. 19. A  design  pattern  to  help
 FORM  BETTER  PRODUCT   HYPOTHESES.
  20. 20. BUILDING  IS EXPENSIVE      
  21. 21. INCREASE  YOUR  ODDS  OF  SUCCESS.
  22. 22. h k The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
  23. 23. h with%enough%% FREQUENCY%% to%% FORM+A+HABIT.+ k
  24. 24. k h A"Hook"has"4"parts:"
  25. 25. A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:   T   -­‐  Trigger   A  -­‐  Action   R   -­‐  Reward   I -­‐  Investment
  26. 26. h k
  27. 27. HABITS  ARE  
 BUILT  UPON  
 like  the  layers  of  a   pearl.
  28. 28. Triggers  come  in  two  flavors:
 EXTERNAL  &  
 INTERNAL
  29. 29. EXTERNAL  TRIGGERS
 The  information  for  what  to  do  next     is  within  the  trigger. Billboards SO DA
  30. 30. INTERNAL  TRIGGERS
 The  information  for  what  to  do  next  is  informed  
 through  an  association  in  the  user’s  memory.
  31. 31. Negative  emotions  are  POWERFUL  INTERNAL  TRIGGERS. lonesome indecisive powerless tense dissatisfied confused inferior fatigued discouraged fear  of  loss bored lost
  32. 32. People  who  are  DEPRESSED  CHECK  EMAIL  MORE  OFTEN.    Source:  Kotikalapudi  et  al  2012
  33. 33. When  we  feel  LONELY  we  use
  34. 34. When  we  feel  UNSURE  we    use                                                
  35. 35. When  we  are  BORED  we  use                                      
  36. 36. Do you know your customer’s INTERNAL TRIGGER?
  37. 37. What  triggers  make                                                  so  habit-­‐forming?
  38. 38.  external  triggers
  39. 39. solves  the  pain of  losing  the  moment.
  40. 40. But                                                is   also  a  social  network. Lonely Stresse d Urge to preserve Curious Insecurity Bored
  41. 41. h k
  42. 42. The SIMPLEST  ACTION in  anticipation  of  a  reward.
  43. 43. Scroll
  44. 44. Search
  45. 45. Play
  46. 46. m According  to  BJ  Fogg,  for  any  behavior  to  occur,  we   need  MOTIVATION,  ABILITY,  and  a  TRIGGER
  47. 47. mo·ti· va·tio n “THE  ENERGY  FOR  ACTION” -­‐Edward  Deci
  48. 48. THERE  ARE  SIX  FACTORS   THAT  CAN  INCREASE   MOTIVATION. Seeking Pleasure
 Avoiding Pain
 Seeking Hope
 Avoiding Fear
 Seeking Acceptance
 Avoiding Rejection Source:  Dr.  BJ  Fogg,  Stanford  University    
  49. 49. Seeking  HOPE
  50. 50. Seeking  PLEASURE
  51. 51. 
 Seeking  ACCEPTANCE
  52. 52. Avoiding  FEAR
  53. 53. ABILITY the capacity to do a particular action
  54. 54. Time% $ Money% Physical%effort% % Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability. Brain%cycles% Social%deviance% Non8rou:ne% Source:%Dr.%BJ%Fogg,%Stanford%University%
  55. 55. NOVELTY  IS  A  LIABILITY.
  56. 56. Level  of  of  motivation  and  ability   determines  if  action  will  occur. MOTIV ATION TRIGGER   SUCCEEDS TRIGGER   FAILS Fogg  Behavior  Model ABILIT Source:  Dr.  BJ  Fogg,  Stanford  University
  57. 57. Simplicity is a function of your scarcest resource at that -­‐BJ  Fogg
  58. 58. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  59. 59. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  60. 60. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  61. 61. h k
  62. 62.    Source:  Olds  and  Milner,  1945 It  all  starts  with  the NUCLEUS   ACCUMBENS studied  by  Olds  &  Milner.
  63. 63. The  nucleus  accumbens  
 is  activated  when  
 we  crave.
  64. 64. Were Olds & Milner stimulatin g pleasure? Not exactly.
  65. 65. They  were  stimulating  the  
 STRESS  OF  DESIRE.
  66. 66. Our  reward  system  activates  
 with  anticipation Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001    
  67. 67. …  and  calms  when  
 we  get  what  we  want. Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001
  68. 68. That’s  the  ITCH we  seek  to  SCRATCH.
  69. 69. There  is  a  way  to  supercharge  the  stress  of  desire.
  70. 70. THE  UNKNOWN IS  FASCINATING. Variability  causes  us  to     focus  and  engagement
  71. 71. …and  increases  behavior.
  72. 72. The  nucleus  accumbens  is   stimulated  by  variability.
  73. 73. 3  types  of  VARIABLE  REWARDS TRIBE HUNT SELF Habit-­‐forming  tech  uses  1  OR  MORE
  74. 74. SEARCH  FOR SOCIAL  REWARDS TRI
  75. 75. empath partner compet
  76. 76. We  Like  social  rewards.
  77. 77. We  value  recognition  and  cooperation
  78. 78. SEARCH  FOR RESOURCES HU
  79. 79. Stems  from  the  hunt  for  food  and  resources
  80. 80. Hunt  for  variable  material  rewards
  81. 81. Hunt  
 for  variable   information  
 rewards.
  82. 82. Hunters  on scroll  pages.
  83. 83. SEARCH  FOR SELF-­‐ACHIEVEMENT SEL
  84. 84. Leveling-­‐up  reflects  MASTERY  and  COMPETENCY.
  85. 85. Inbox  or  task  management  reflects  
 CONSISTENCY  and  COMPLETION.
  86. 86. WARNING Variable  rewards  are  not  a  free  pass.  
 Your  product  still  must  address  the  itch.
  87. 87. h k
  88. 88. Users  “invest”  for  future  benefits. Emotional Personal Commitme Data nt Social Effort Capital Time Money
  89. 89. Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in 
 TWO
 ways.
  90. 90. INVESTMENTS   LOAD  THE   NEXT  TRIGGER                OF  THE  HOOK. 1.
  91. 91. Each  new  message  posted  on
  92. 92. is  an  open   invitation  for  an   external  trigger  to   be  returned.
  93. 93. Investing  in  Refresh,  loads  the  next  trigger
  94. 94. Loading  the  next  trigger  with  Pin  It  button  
  95. 95. 2. INVESTMENTS  STORE  VALUE,  
 erecting  barriers  to  exit.
  96. 96. CONTENT
  97. 97. DATA
  98. 98. FOLLOWERS
  99. 99. REPUTATION 30
  100. 100. ! INVESTMENTS! CREATES ! PREFERENCE.
  101. 101. h k The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
  102. 102. h With%enough%frequency,% A"HABIT"IS"FORMED." k
  103. 103. A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:   T   -­‐  Trigger   A  -­‐  Action   R   -­‐  Reward   I -­‐  Investment
  104. 104. The  HOOK  Canvas 1.  What  internal  trigger  is               the  product  addressing?   2.  What  external  trigger                 gets  the  user  to  the  product? 4.  Is  the  reward   fulfilling,  yet  leaves  the   user  wanting  more? 5.  What  “bit  of  work”  is  done   to  increase  the  likelihood  of   returning? 3.  What  is  the  simplest   behavior  in  anticipation   of  reward?
  105. 105. THE  MORALITY OF  MANIPULATION
  106. 106. Designing  
 habit-­‐forming     products  is  a  form   of  manipulation.
  107. 107. What   RESPONSIBILITY   do  we  have  when   changing  user  behavior?
  108. 108. THE  WORLD  IS  FULL  OF  PROBLEMS  TO  FIX. Help  others  find  meaning.  Engage  them  in   something  important.
  109. 109. Build  the   CHANGEin you  want  to  see   THE  WORLD.
  110. 110. h 1.  Take  the  survey.   k www.OpinionTo.Us   ! 2.  Get  the  slides. @nireyal   www.nirandfar.com
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