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Nir Eyal, Designing for Habit-Formation, WarmGun 2013

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The Importance of User Behavior & Design Psychology …

The Importance of User Behavior & Design Psychology

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  • 1. h Hooked
 
 @nireyal k
  • 2. Products  can  profoundly  
 CHANGE  OUR  BEHAVIORS.
  • 3. 100’s  of  millions  of   users… …and  100’s  of     millions  of  dollars.
  • 4. ? NS T AT P R E
  • 5. Vitamins OR Pain Killers?
  • 6. PAIN  KILLERS  address  a   burning  need.
  • 7. VITAMINS  are     “nice  to  have.”
  • 8. Vitamins OR Pain Killers?
  • 9. With  habit-­‐forming  technology PLEASURE  SEEKING behavior becomes PAIN  ALLEVIATING behavior
  • 10. What  do  we  mean  by  PAIN?  
  • 11. Close  your  eyes.
  • 12. HOW DID YOU FEEL?
  • 13. The  SOLUTION  TO  
 OUR  DISCOMFORT  
 is  found  in  the  product’s  use.
  • 14. We  are  not  designing  for  addiction   Do  not  design  bor  agddiction. f e  in   raphic   NOT  must  
  • 15. hab·it A  BEHAVIOR  DONE  WITH LITTLE  OR  NO  
 CONSCIOUS   THOUGHT
  • 16. Habits  can  be  used  for  good.
  • 17. Harnessing   HABITS   can  be   VERY  GOOD FOR  BUSINESS.
  • 18. If  your  business  requires     “unprompted  user  engagement,”
  • 19. A  design  pattern  to  help
 FORM  BETTER  PRODUCT   HYPOTHESES.
  • 20. BUILDING  IS EXPENSIVE      
  • 21. INCREASE  YOUR  ODDS  OF  SUCCESS.
  • 22. h k The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
  • 23. h with%enough%% FREQUENCY%% to%% FORM+A+HABIT.+ k
  • 24. k h A"Hook"has"4"parts:"
  • 25. A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:   T   -­‐  Trigger   A  -­‐  Action   R   -­‐  Reward   I -­‐  Investment
  • 26. h k
  • 27. HABITS  ARE  
 BUILT  UPON  
 like  the  layers  of  a   pearl.
  • 28. Triggers  come  in  two  flavors:
 EXTERNAL  &  
 INTERNAL
  • 29. EXTERNAL  TRIGGERS
 The  information  for  what  to  do  next     is  within  the  trigger. Billboards SO DA
  • 30. INTERNAL  TRIGGERS
 The  information  for  what  to  do  next  is  informed  
 through  an  association  in  the  user’s  memory.
  • 31. Negative  emotions  are  POWERFUL  INTERNAL  TRIGGERS. lonesome indecisive powerless tense dissatisfied confused inferior fatigued discouraged fear  of  loss bored lost
  • 32. People  who  are  DEPRESSED  CHECK  EMAIL  MORE  OFTEN.    Source:  Kotikalapudi  et  al  2012
  • 33. When  we  feel  LONELY  we  use
  • 34. When  we  feel  UNSURE  we    use                                                
  • 35. When  we  are  BORED  we  use                                      
  • 36. Do you know your customer’s INTERNAL TRIGGER?
  • 37. What  triggers  make                                                  so  habit-­‐forming?
  • 38.  external  triggers
  • 39. solves  the  pain of  losing  the  moment.
  • 40. But                                                is   also  a  social  network. Lonely Stresse d Urge to preserve Curious Insecurity Bored
  • 41. h k
  • 42. The SIMPLEST  ACTION in  anticipation  of  a  reward.
  • 43. Scroll
  • 44. Search
  • 45. Play
  • 46. m According  to  BJ  Fogg,  for  any  behavior  to  occur,  we   need  MOTIVATION,  ABILITY,  and  a  TRIGGER
  • 47. mo·ti· va·tio n “THE  ENERGY  FOR  ACTION” -­‐Edward  Deci
  • 48. THERE  ARE  SIX  FACTORS   THAT  CAN  INCREASE   MOTIVATION. Seeking Pleasure
 Avoiding Pain
 Seeking Hope
 Avoiding Fear
 Seeking Acceptance
 Avoiding Rejection Source:  Dr.  BJ  Fogg,  Stanford  University    
  • 49. Seeking  HOPE
  • 50. Seeking  PLEASURE
  • 51. 
 Seeking  ACCEPTANCE
  • 52. Avoiding  FEAR
  • 53. ABILITY the capacity to do a particular action
  • 54. Time% $ Money% Physical%effort% % Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability. Brain%cycles% Social%deviance% Non8rou:ne% Source:%Dr.%BJ%Fogg,%Stanford%University%
  • 55. NOVELTY  IS  A  LIABILITY.
  • 56. Level  of  of  motivation  and  ability   determines  if  action  will  occur. MOTIV ATION TRIGGER   SUCCEEDS TRIGGER   FAILS Fogg  Behavior  Model ABILIT Source:  Dr.  BJ  Fogg,  Stanford  University
  • 57. Simplicity is a function of your scarcest resource at that -­‐BJ  Fogg
  • 58. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  • 59. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  • 60. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  • 61. h k
  • 62.    Source:  Olds  and  Milner,  1945 It  all  starts  with  the NUCLEUS   ACCUMBENS studied  by  Olds  &  Milner.
  • 63. The  nucleus  accumbens  
 is  activated  when  
 we  crave.
  • 64. Were Olds & Milner stimulatin g pleasure? Not exactly.
  • 65. They  were  stimulating  the  
 STRESS  OF  DESIRE.
  • 66. Our  reward  system  activates  
 with  anticipation Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001    
  • 67. …  and  calms  when  
 we  get  what  we  want. Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001
  • 68. That’s  the  ITCH we  seek  to  SCRATCH.
  • 69. There  is  a  way  to  supercharge  the  stress  of  desire.
  • 70. THE  UNKNOWN IS  FASCINATING. Variability  causes  us  to     focus  and  engagement
  • 71. …and  increases  behavior.
  • 72. The  nucleus  accumbens  is   stimulated  by  variability.
  • 73. 3  types  of  VARIABLE  REWARDS TRIBE HUNT SELF Habit-­‐forming  tech  uses  1  OR  MORE
  • 74. SEARCH  FOR SOCIAL  REWARDS TRI
  • 75. empath partner compet
  • 76. We  Like  social  rewards.
  • 77. We  value  recognition  and  cooperation
  • 78. SEARCH  FOR RESOURCES HU
  • 79. Stems  from  the  hunt  for  food  and  resources
  • 80. Hunt  for  variable  material  rewards
  • 81. Hunt  
 for  variable   information  
 rewards.
  • 82. Hunters  on scroll  pages.
  • 83. SEARCH  FOR SELF-­‐ACHIEVEMENT SEL
  • 84. Leveling-­‐up  reflects  MASTERY  and  COMPETENCY.
  • 85. Inbox  or  task  management  reflects  
 CONSISTENCY  and  COMPLETION.
  • 86. WARNING Variable  rewards  are  not  a  free  pass.  
 Your  product  still  must  address  the  itch.
  • 87. h k
  • 88. Users  “invest”  for  future  benefits. Emotional Personal Commitme Data nt Social Effort Capital Time Money
  • 89. Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in 
 TWO
 ways.
  • 90. INVESTMENTS   LOAD  THE   NEXT  TRIGGER                OF  THE  HOOK. 1.
  • 91. Each  new  message  posted  on
  • 92. is  an  open   invitation  for  an   external  trigger  to   be  returned.
  • 93. Investing  in  Refresh,  loads  the  next  trigger
  • 94. Loading  the  next  trigger  with  Pin  It  button  
  • 95. 2. INVESTMENTS  STORE  VALUE,  
 erecting  barriers  to  exit.
  • 96. CONTENT
  • 97. DATA
  • 98. FOLLOWERS
  • 99. REPUTATION 30
  • 100. ! INVESTMENTS! CREATES ! PREFERENCE.
  • 101. h k The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
  • 102. h With%enough%frequency,% A"HABIT"IS"FORMED." k
  • 103. A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:   T   -­‐  Trigger   A  -­‐  Action   R   -­‐  Reward   I -­‐  Investment
  • 104. The  HOOK  Canvas 1.  What  internal  trigger  is               the  product  addressing?   2.  What  external  trigger                 gets  the  user  to  the  product? 4.  Is  the  reward   fulfilling,  yet  leaves  the   user  wanting  more? 5.  What  “bit  of  work”  is  done   to  increase  the  likelihood  of   returning? 3.  What  is  the  simplest   behavior  in  anticipation   of  reward?
  • 105. THE  MORALITY OF  MANIPULATION
  • 106. Designing  
 habit-­‐forming     products  is  a  form   of  manipulation.
  • 107. What   RESPONSIBILITY   do  we  have  when   changing  user  behavior?
  • 108. THE  WORLD  IS  FULL  OF  PROBLEMS  TO  FIX. Help  others  find  meaning.  Engage  them  in   something  important.
  • 109. Build  the   CHANGEin you  want  to  see   THE  WORLD.
  • 110. h 1.  Take  the  survey.   k www.OpinionTo.Us   ! 2.  Get  the  slides. @nireyal   www.nirandfar.com