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SPED 478 Chapter One

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Power point ch1

  1. 1. What is Behavior Management?<br />Models<br />Best Practice<br />Important Terms<br />Students’ Rights<br />Ethical Considerations<br />Chapter 1: Behavior Management Models<br />
  2. 2. What is Discipline?<br />Teaching others right from wrong<br />Discipline is not punishment, although punishment can be discipline<br />What is Behavior Management?<br />Methods to prevent or respond to behavior problems so they do not occur in the future<br />Behavior Management<br />
  3. 3. Lack of training<br />Flavor of the month treatment<br />Cannot appropriately analyze programs<br />Lack of skill<br />Escalated issues in inner city schools<br />Lack of understanding<br />No unified theory of behavior management<br />Lack of resources<br />Schools do not have established approach or allocations for behavior management<br />Teacher’s Difficulties with Behavior Management<br />
  4. 4. Assertive Discipline<br />Logical Consequences<br />Reality Therapy<br />Love and Logic<br />Ginott Mode<br />Kounin Model<br />Jones Model<br />Character Education<br />Behavior Model<br />Models of Behavior Management<br />
  5. 5. Overview<br />Revised model: shift to positive discipline and conferencing to teach students how to behave appropriately<br />Assertive Discipline<br />
  6. 6. Steps<br />Acknowledge that teachers can and do affect behavior<br />Display assertive response style<br />Create discipline plan that contains effective rules and “consequences”<br />Provide instruction on discipline plan<br />Instruct students to behave responsibly<br />Components<br />Develop rules<br />Develop positive consequences for abiding by rules<br />Develop negative consequences for not abiding by rules<br />Implement model<br />Assertive Discipline<br />
  7. 7. Difficult Students<br />1:1 conference to provide guidance<br />Build relationship with student<br />Create an individualized behavior plan <br /> <br />Strengths:<br />Behavior is a result of what teachers do in classroom<br />Teaching rules and expectations<br />Weaknesses:<br />Reliance on threats, warnings, and discipline hierarchy<br />Misuse of “consequence”<br />Assertive Discipline<br />
  8. 8. Overview<br />We learn through our interactions with the environment<br />3 Types of Consequences:<br />Natural<br />Arbitrary<br />Logical<br />Logical Consequences<br />
  9. 9. Natural Consequences<br />Normally occur<br />Arbitrary Consequences<br />Not aligned with offense<br />Logical Consequences<br />Connected to the offense<br />When given a choice between arbitrary and logical consequences, logical consequences should always be used<br />Logical Consequences<br />
  10. 10. Strengths:<br />Allowing students choice<br />Helping students to understand their motives<br />Weaknesses:<br />Inferences made regarding motivation<br />Focus on student-centered behavior<br />No guarantee that appropriate behavior will follow logical consequence(s)<br />Both arbitrary and logical consequences are contextual, and may overlap<br />Misuse of the “punishment”<br />Logical Consequences<br />
  11. 11. Overview<br />Students choose how they behave<br />Motivated by 5 needs<br />Survival, belonging and love, freedom, fun and power<br />Teachers should aid in facilitating better choices<br />Classroom management<br />Class meetings<br />Mutual respect between students and staff<br />Reality Therapy<br />
  12. 12. Strengths:<br />Behavior is affected by teachers<br />Students involved in developing classroom procedures<br />Curriculum is fun and exciting<br />Avoidance of coercion<br />Weaknesses:<br />Difficult to substantiate motivation<br />Reliance on and manipulation of intrinsic motivators<br />Reality Therapy<br />
  13. 13. Overview<br />If students feel loved and are provided with choices, they will become more responsible<br />3 Style of Teaching<br />Helicopter, drill sergeant, consultant <br />Difficult Children<br />Catch student doing something good<br />Offer specific praise<br />Ignore behavior<br />Isolate student<br />Anticipatory consequences<br />Love and Logic<br />
  14. 14. Strengths:<br />Concern with students’ feelings<br />Decreasing punishment<br />Lead students through problem-solving process<br />Providing choices<br />Avoidance of threats and warnings<br />Holding students accountable<br />Catching behavior early<br />Weaknesses:<br />Reliance on intrinsic motivation<br />Lack of prevention and response guidelines<br />“Talking it over”<br />Love and Logic<br />
  15. 15. Overview<br />Teachers are essential element in classroom management<br />Students learn from teacher’s response to problems<br />Teachers should exhibit self-discipline<br />Teachers should respect students<br />Teachers should create effective alternatives to punishment<br />Ginott Model<br />
  16. 16. Strengths:<br />Use of cooperation<br />Concern with feelings<br />Respect for students<br />Positive disciplinary methods<br />Making environment more pleasant<br />Weaknesses:<br />Increased self-concept may lead to more disruptive behavior<br />Praise needs to be specific<br />No mechanism built in for students who continue to misbehave<br />Incorrect definition of punishment<br />Ginott Model<br />
  17. 17. Overview<br />Effective classroom management is based on 10 key concepts<br />Ripple effect<br />Withitness<br />Momentum<br />Smoothness of lesson<br />Group alerting<br />Student accountability<br />Overlapping<br />Satiation<br />Valence and challenge arousal<br />Seatwork variety and challenge<br />Kounin Model<br />
  18. 18. Strengths:<br />Use of desists<br />Use of withitness<br />Research supported components<br />Weaknesses:<br />Incomplete<br />Only useful for low-level misbehavior<br />Kounin Model<br />
  19. 19. Overview<br />Teacher-centered<br />Behavior management should be approached in a calm and controlled fashion<br />Jones Model<br />
  20. 20. Body Language<br />90% of effective discipline<br />Group-Based Genuine Incentive Systems<br />Grandma’s Rule<br />Preferred Activity Time (PAT<br />Difficult Children<br />Use warnings<br />“Pull a card”<br />“Letter home on desk technique”<br />Jones Model<br />
  21. 21. Strengths:<br />Awareness and use of body language<br />Remaining calm<br />Preventative measures<br />Effective use of incentives<br />Weaknesses:<br />PAT system <br />punishment-based taken economy system<br />Reliance on threats and warnings<br />Jones Model<br />
  22. 22. A philosophical approach to improving classroom management<br />School-wide<br />New = Paucity of Research<br />Only 2 programs have sufficient data<br />Positive Action<br />Caring School Community<br />Character Education<br />
  23. 23. Positive Action<br />Prevent negative behavioral problems and develop positive behaviors<br />Focus on development of attributions and positive actions<br />Caring School Community<br />School becomes caring community of learners <br />4 parts: <br />Class-meeting lessons<br />Cross-age buddies programs <br />Homeside activities <br />Schoolwide community building <br />Character Education<br />
  24. 24. Strengths:<br />Learning to interact with others in a positive manner<br />Prevention based<br />Implemented across grade levels<br />Focus on both behavior and academic performance<br />Weaknesses:<br />Based on constructivist philosophy<br />Does not target difficult students<br />Solid research is scarce<br />Character Education<br />
  25. 25. WWC recommendations rated moderate or strong:<br />Teachers should identify the specifics of the problem behavior in order to tailor strategies to individual’s needs<br />Teachers should modify the environment to decrease problem behaviors<br />Teachers should actively teach and reinforce social and behavioral skills to replace unwanted behaviors and preserve positive classroom climate<br />Parents and other personnel should be included for additional support and guidance in behavior management<br />A school-wide approach should be adopted to prevent and respond to student misbehavior and increase positive social interactions<br />Best Practices in Behavior Management<br />
  26. 26. The environment causes many of our behaviors<br />7 Characteristics of ABA<br />Applied<br />Behavioral<br />Analytic<br />Technological<br />conceptually systematic<br />Effective<br />Generality<br />Behavioral Model<br />
  27. 27. Rewards<br />Extrinsic<br />Things given to a student (e.g., praise, tokens, or candy)<br />Appropriate as long as they’re reinforcing<br />3 ways to deliver:<br />Task contingent<br />Performance contingent<br />Success contingent<br />Intrinsic<br />Things that occur inside the individual (e.g., pride, interest, or self-esteem)<br /> <br />Important Terms<br />
  28. 28. Reinforcers<br />Naturally Occurring<br />Reinforcer typically found/used in the environment<br />Contrived<br />Reinforcer not typically used in the environment (e.g., paying a student for completing assignments instead of offering praise)<br />Important Terms<br />
  29. 29. Right to Effective Behavioral Treatment<br />The Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) outlines 6 rights individuals have when exposed to behavioral interventions<br />A therapeutic physical and social environment<br />Services whose overriding goal is personal welfare<br />Treatment by a competent behavior analyst<br />Programs that teach functional skills<br />Behavior assessment and ongoing evaluation<br />The most effective treatment procedures available<br /> <br />Student Rights<br />
  30. 30. Right to Effective Education<br />ABAI outlines 6 rights students have when receiving educational services<br />Appropriate overall educational context<br />Appropriate curriculum and instructional objectives<br />Appropriate assessment and student placement<br />Appropriate instructional methods<br />Ongoing measurement and summative evaluation of individual achievement<br />Guidelines for success<br />Student Rights<br />
  31. 31. Issues of Control<br />Rationalization<br />Everything in life is under some form of control<br /> <br />Two Fundamental Questions<br />Was the behavior management program the right thing to do under the circumstances?<br />Did the behavior management program result in behavior change that was socially significant and cost effective?<br />Ethical Considerations<br />

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