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SPED 478 Chapter One

SPED 478 Chapter One

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  • 1. What is Behavior Management?
    Models
    Best Practice
    Important Terms
    Students’ Rights
    Ethical Considerations
    Chapter 1: Behavior Management Models
  • 2. What is Discipline?
    Teaching others right from wrong
    Discipline is not punishment, although punishment can be discipline
    What is Behavior Management?
    Methods to prevent or respond to behavior problems so they do not occur in the future
    Behavior Management
  • 3. Lack of training
    Flavor of the month treatment
    Cannot appropriately analyze programs
    Lack of skill
    Escalated issues in inner city schools
    Lack of understanding
    No unified theory of behavior management
    Lack of resources
    Schools do not have established approach or allocations for behavior management
    Teacher’s Difficulties with Behavior Management
  • 4. Assertive Discipline
    Logical Consequences
    Reality Therapy
    Love and Logic
    Ginott Mode
    Kounin Model
    Jones Model
    Character Education
    Behavior Model
    Models of Behavior Management
  • 5. Overview
    Revised model: shift to positive discipline and conferencing to teach students how to behave appropriately
    Assertive Discipline
  • 6. Steps
    Acknowledge that teachers can and do affect behavior
    Display assertive response style
    Create discipline plan that contains effective rules and “consequences”
    Provide instruction on discipline plan
    Instruct students to behave responsibly
    Components
    Develop rules
    Develop positive consequences for abiding by rules
    Develop negative consequences for not abiding by rules
    Implement model
    Assertive Discipline
  • 7. Difficult Students
    1:1 conference to provide guidance
    Build relationship with student
    Create an individualized behavior plan
     
    Strengths:
    Behavior is a result of what teachers do in classroom
    Teaching rules and expectations
    Weaknesses:
    Reliance on threats, warnings, and discipline hierarchy
    Misuse of “consequence”
    Assertive Discipline
  • 8. Overview
    We learn through our interactions with the environment
    3 Types of Consequences:
    Natural
    Arbitrary
    Logical
    Logical Consequences
  • 9. Natural Consequences
    Normally occur
    Arbitrary Consequences
    Not aligned with offense
    Logical Consequences
    Connected to the offense
    When given a choice between arbitrary and logical consequences, logical consequences should always be used
    Logical Consequences
  • 10. Strengths:
    Allowing students choice
    Helping students to understand their motives
    Weaknesses:
    Inferences made regarding motivation
    Focus on student-centered behavior
    No guarantee that appropriate behavior will follow logical consequence(s)
    Both arbitrary and logical consequences are contextual, and may overlap
    Misuse of the “punishment”
    Logical Consequences
  • 11. Overview
    Students choose how they behave
    Motivated by 5 needs
    Survival, belonging and love, freedom, fun and power
    Teachers should aid in facilitating better choices
    Classroom management
    Class meetings
    Mutual respect between students and staff
    Reality Therapy
  • 12. Strengths:
    Behavior is affected by teachers
    Students involved in developing classroom procedures
    Curriculum is fun and exciting
    Avoidance of coercion
    Weaknesses:
    Difficult to substantiate motivation
    Reliance on and manipulation of intrinsic motivators
    Reality Therapy
  • 13. Overview
    If students feel loved and are provided with choices, they will become more responsible
    3 Style of Teaching
    Helicopter, drill sergeant, consultant
    Difficult Children
    Catch student doing something good
    Offer specific praise
    Ignore behavior
    Isolate student
    Anticipatory consequences
    Love and Logic
  • 14. Strengths:
    Concern with students’ feelings
    Decreasing punishment
    Lead students through problem-solving process
    Providing choices
    Avoidance of threats and warnings
    Holding students accountable
    Catching behavior early
    Weaknesses:
    Reliance on intrinsic motivation
    Lack of prevention and response guidelines
    “Talking it over”
    Love and Logic
  • 15. Overview
    Teachers are essential element in classroom management
    Students learn from teacher’s response to problems
    Teachers should exhibit self-discipline
    Teachers should respect students
    Teachers should create effective alternatives to punishment
    Ginott Model
  • 16. Strengths:
    Use of cooperation
    Concern with feelings
    Respect for students
    Positive disciplinary methods
    Making environment more pleasant
    Weaknesses:
    Increased self-concept may lead to more disruptive behavior
    Praise needs to be specific
    No mechanism built in for students who continue to misbehave
    Incorrect definition of punishment
    Ginott Model
  • 17. Overview
    Effective classroom management is based on 10 key concepts
    Ripple effect
    Withitness
    Momentum
    Smoothness of lesson
    Group alerting
    Student accountability
    Overlapping
    Satiation
    Valence and challenge arousal
    Seatwork variety and challenge
    Kounin Model
  • 18. Strengths:
    Use of desists
    Use of withitness
    Research supported components
    Weaknesses:
    Incomplete
    Only useful for low-level misbehavior
    Kounin Model
  • 19. Overview
    Teacher-centered
    Behavior management should be approached in a calm and controlled fashion
    Jones Model
  • 20. Body Language
    90% of effective discipline
    Group-Based Genuine Incentive Systems
    Grandma’s Rule
    Preferred Activity Time (PAT
    Difficult Children
    Use warnings
    “Pull a card”
    “Letter home on desk technique”
    Jones Model
  • 21. Strengths:
    Awareness and use of body language
    Remaining calm
    Preventative measures
    Effective use of incentives
    Weaknesses:
    PAT system
    punishment-based taken economy system
    Reliance on threats and warnings
    Jones Model
  • 22. A philosophical approach to improving classroom management
    School-wide
    New = Paucity of Research
    Only 2 programs have sufficient data
    Positive Action
    Caring School Community
    Character Education
  • 23. Positive Action
    Prevent negative behavioral problems and develop positive behaviors
    Focus on development of attributions and positive actions
    Caring School Community
    School becomes caring community of learners
    4 parts:
    Class-meeting lessons
    Cross-age buddies programs
    Homeside activities
    Schoolwide community building
    Character Education
  • 24. Strengths:
    Learning to interact with others in a positive manner
    Prevention based
    Implemented across grade levels
    Focus on both behavior and academic performance
    Weaknesses:
    Based on constructivist philosophy
    Does not target difficult students
    Solid research is scarce
    Character Education
  • 25. WWC recommendations rated moderate or strong:
    Teachers should identify the specifics of the problem behavior in order to tailor strategies to individual’s needs
    Teachers should modify the environment to decrease problem behaviors
    Teachers should actively teach and reinforce social and behavioral skills to replace unwanted behaviors and preserve positive classroom climate
    Parents and other personnel should be included for additional support and guidance in behavior management
    A school-wide approach should be adopted to prevent and respond to student misbehavior and increase positive social interactions
    Best Practices in Behavior Management
  • 26. The environment causes many of our behaviors
    7 Characteristics of ABA
    Applied
    Behavioral
    Analytic
    Technological
    conceptually systematic
    Effective
    Generality
    Behavioral Model
  • 27. Rewards
    Extrinsic
    Things given to a student (e.g., praise, tokens, or candy)
    Appropriate as long as they’re reinforcing
    3 ways to deliver:
    Task contingent
    Performance contingent
    Success contingent
    Intrinsic
    Things that occur inside the individual (e.g., pride, interest, or self-esteem)
     
    Important Terms
  • 28. Reinforcers
    Naturally Occurring
    Reinforcer typically found/used in the environment
    Contrived
    Reinforcer not typically used in the environment (e.g., paying a student for completing assignments instead of offering praise)
    Important Terms
  • 29. Right to Effective Behavioral Treatment
    The Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) outlines 6 rights individuals have when exposed to behavioral interventions
    A therapeutic physical and social environment
    Services whose overriding goal is personal welfare
    Treatment by a competent behavior analyst
    Programs that teach functional skills
    Behavior assessment and ongoing evaluation
    The most effective treatment procedures available
     
    Student Rights
  • 30. Right to Effective Education
    ABAI outlines 6 rights students have when receiving educational services
    Appropriate overall educational context
    Appropriate curriculum and instructional objectives
    Appropriate assessment and student placement
    Appropriate instructional methods
    Ongoing measurement and summative evaluation of individual achievement
    Guidelines for success
    Student Rights
  • 31. Issues of Control
    Rationalization
    Everything in life is under some form of control
     
    Two Fundamental Questions
    Was the behavior management program the right thing to do under the circumstances?
    Did the behavior management program result in behavior change that was socially significant and cost effective?
    Ethical Considerations