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EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
EoP Plants & People-2
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EoP Plants & People-2

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  • 1. Elements of Permaculture<br />Plants &amp; People<br />Ben Kessler &amp; Meredith Hartwell Laughing Crow Permaculture<br />
  • 2. 2<br />Analysis of Elements<br />List the Yields, Needs, and intrinsic characteristics of each<br />Element.<br />Lists are made to try to supply (by some other Element in<br />the system) the Needs of any particular Element.<br />Experiment on paper, connecting and combining Elements<br />to achieve no Pollution and minimize Work.<br />Close the Loops!<br />
  • 3. 3<br />Guilds<br /> A Guild is made up of a close association of species clustered around a central element, usually a plant or an animal. This assembly acts in relation to the element to assist its health, aid in management, boost yields, or buffer adverse environmental effects.<br />Corn, Beans, Squash &amp; Mullet<br />Mullet remains dug into soil at planting to boost nutrients. Corn provides structural support for the Bean vines. Beans provide Nitrogen for the Corn and Squash. Squash acts as a living mulch for the Corn and Beans. Food waste fed to Mullet.<br />
  • 4. Ecological Equivalents<br /> Ecological Equivalents are organisms that fit similar niches in an ecosystem, or fulfill similar Functions in a design. Often the result of convergent evolution.<br />Dusky Hopping Mouse Kangaroo Rat Small Five-Toed Jerboa<br />Notomys fuscus Dipodomys sp. Allacteaga elater<br /> Australia North America Arabia<br /> Small, Seed-Eating, Hopping, Burrowing, Desert-Dwelling Mammals<br />
  • 5. 5<br />Environmental Equivalents<br />Bison<br />Prairie Chicken<br />Tallgrass Prairie<br />Water Buffalo<br />Cattle Egret<br />Savanna<br />Cow<br />Chicken<br />Pasture<br />
  • 6. 6<br />Needs &amp; Yields<br />Tomato/Tomatl Solanum lycopersicum<br />NeedsYields<br />Full Sunlight, Water, NPK, Micronutrients, Warm Soil, Protection from Herbivores, Mycorrhizal Partners, Slightly Acidic Soil pH, Well-drained Soil, Structural Support, Love<br />Delicious Fruit, Spatial Demarcation, Mulch,Dense Verdant Foliage,Pest Protection for Brassicas and Gooseberries, Companionship for Basil and Nettles, Compost<br />
  • 7. 7<br />Needs &amp; Yields: The Permaculture Chicken<br />Illustration credit: Bill Mollison<br />What does each element need in order to live or be maintained?<br />What products or services does it naturally provide?<br />
  • 8. 8<br />Needs, in a High Altitude Garden<br />What’s different at 7,000 feet?<br /><ul><li> Short growing season (90-110 days) &amp; short day length,
  • 9. Day/night temperature fluctuations ,
  • 10. Low soil organic matter &amp; alkaline pH,
  • 11. Appropriate selection of vegetable and fruit varieties.
  • 12. Ideally, link garden elements together so that the needs of one element can be met by the outputs of another.</li></ul>8<br />
  • 13. 9<br />High Altitude Garden Needs: Temperature Regulation Strategies<br /><ul><li>Garden bed placement:
  • 14. ~ Evaluate sun/shade/wind sectors and create warmer or cooler microclimates depending on vegetable type</li></ul>Structures &amp; thermal mass:<br /> ~ Raised beds &amp; black pots<br /> ~ Frost cloth &amp; plastic “mulch”<br /> ~ Cold frames &amp; hoop houses<br /> ~ Greenhouses<br />9<br />
  • 15. Garden Inputs<br />Soil Amendments to raise pH, organic content &amp; nutrient values:<br />~ Compost, leaves, animal manures, organic fertilizers, earth worm castings, beneficial soil mycorrhizae, nitrogen fixing plants (green ‘manures’), straw or hay mulches<br />Water:<br /> ~ Capture on landscape, <br />drip systems, water in evening<br />10<br />
  • 16. Yields: Food!<br />General guidelines for <br />growing high elevation crops:<br />~ Emphasize cool season veggies in your garden: Cole/cruciferous crops, greens of all kinds (from arugula to spinach to lettuces), root crops, certain grains (quinoa, millet, amaranth, spring wheat<br />~ Select short-season &amp; short day varieties: less than 90 days to fruition is ideal<br />~ Start warm-season crops inside, esp. nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, chilis) &amp; plant them in a WARM microclimate<br />~ Include mid-story native berry shrubs<br />~ Plant late-blooming fruits (Best: apple trees with 800-1000 ‘chill hours’ before blooming; cherries, plums, grapes, &amp; certain varieties of apricots &amp; peaches)<br />~ Companion plant fruits, veggies, flowers &amp; trees wisely for beneficial relationships<br />11<br />
  • 17. Other Yields:<br />~ Compost<br />~ Improved soil structure<br />~ Beauty<br />~ Sense and/or knowledge of place<br />~ Personal experience &amp; knowledge of your garden<br />~ Seed<br />~ Localism: contributing to <br /> bioregionalism by growing and <br /> eating locally<br />~ (Perhaps) Increased community <br /> involvement involving food<br />12<br />Photo by Jennifer Temkin<br />Photo by Meredith Hartwell<br />
  • 18. 13<br />Groundcover<br />Living Mulch, Walking Surface<br />Helianthus<br />Helianthus sp.<br />Pussytoes<br />Antennaria parviflora<br />Wild Sage<br />Artemisia ludoviciana<br />Photos courtesy of Jennifer Temkin<br />
  • 19. 14<br />Dynamic Accumulators<br />Soil Aeration, Nutrient Accumulation, Shade Sequestration of Environmental Toxins<br />Comfrey Symphytum officinale<br />Kale Brassica oleraacea<br />Stinging NettleUrtica dioica<br />
  • 20. 15<br />Nitrogen Fixers<br />Nitrogen Fixation<br />Root Nodules on Soybean (Glycine max) roots<br />Alder Aldus sp.<br />CloverTrifolium sp.<br />LupinesLupinus sp.<br />
  • 21. 16<br />Insectaries<br />Pollinator Attraction, Aesthetic Prettification<br />Photo by Jennifer Temkin<br />Calendula Calendula sp.<br />Fennel Foeniculum vulgare<br />Borage Borago sp.<br />
  • 22. 17<br />Cover Crops<br />Soil Building, Animal Forage, Fallow Cover<br />Especially for the Southwest:<br />Annual Rye<br />Oats<br />Field Peas<br />Hairy Vetch<br />Winter Wheat<br />Winter Rye<br />Wildflower Mix<br />Western Wheat<br />Sideoats Grama<br />Smooth Brome<br />Buffalo Grass<br />Indian Rice Grass<br />Ephram Crested Wheat<br />Sanfoin<br />Clovers<br />Borage<br />Buckwheat<br />Fagopyrum esculentum<br />Blue Grama<br />Bouteloua gracilis<br />
  • 23. 18<br />Polyculture Design<br />Food<br />Tea/<br />Medicine/<br />Insectary<br />Ground<br /> Cover/<br />Nitrogen<br /> Fixer<br />Food/Medicine/<br />Insectarycourtesy of Connor Stedman<br />
  • 24. 19<br />Polyculture Design<br />Food/<br />Aromatic<br />Pest <br />Confuser<br />Food/<br />Medicine/<br />Insectary<br />Ground<br />Cover/<br />Medicine/<br />Fertilizer/<br />Insectary/<br />Beneficial<br />Habitat<br />Food/Insectary<br />Food <br /> courtesy of Connor Stedman<br />
  • 25. 20<br />SSLUG &amp; Bonito St. Gardens<br />
  • 26. 21<br />SSLUG 2010<br />
  • 27. 22<br />CSA Garden<br />
  • 28. 23<br />Composting at SSLUG<br />Photos courtesy of Ian Dixon-McDonald<br />
  • 29. Accelerate Succession<br />Stack functions in time and space<br />To enable a cultivated system to evolve toward a long-term stable state, we can construct a system, carefully planning the succession of plants and animals so that we can receive short, medium, and long-term benefits.<br />“Place is a verb.” – Jeanette Armstrong<br />Introduction to Permaculture (2004) Bill Mollison &amp; Reny Mia Slay<br />
  • 30. Rampant &amp; Invasive Species<br />“Is it better to build systems that include exotics or should reforestation aim only to replace what has been taken away?<br />Is a rampant exotic a weed, or nature’s most effective first aid treatment?” <br /> – Permaculture International Journal<br />Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) on a CA hillside<br />What are the differences between invasive species and changing ecosystems?<br />
  • 31. Local Rampants<br />Salt Cedar Tamarix sp.<br />Benefits: Willow Flycatcher habitat, basketry material, erosion control, butterfly food<br />Detriments: Soil salinization, willow &amp; cottonwood exclusion, flooding, water table draining<br />Russian Olive Eleagnus angustifolia<br />Benefits: Bird habitat &amp; food, erosion control, N fixation, windbreak, mulch, shade<br />Detriments: Willow &amp; cottonwood exclusion, meadow encroachment<br />“All rampant or weedy and invasive plants are gonna be everywhere eventually-why not just speed things up?” – Bill Mollison<br />
  • 32. Appendices<br />
  • 33. 28<br />Plants in the Landscape<br />Forest Garden Hedgerow<br /> Silvopasture Coppice &amp; Standard Alley Cropping<br />
  • 34. 29<br />Plants in the Landscape<br />Companion Planting<br />Keyhole Garden Intercropping Herb Spiral<br />
  • 35. Integrated Pest Management<br />“Mulch your cat. It’s eating all the frogs and lizards that control insects.” – Bill Mollison<br />Integrated Pest Management is a crop management approach designed to address ecological dilemmas in agriculture.<br />1. Acceptable pest levels<br />2. Preventative cultural practices<br />3. Monitoring<br />4. Mechanical controls<br />5. Biological controls<br />6. Chemical controls<br />USDA IPM Principles:<br />http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm<br />“[Industrial pest management] is like pokin’ a gopher with a rope- you can’t do that!” – Gordon Tooley<br />
  • 36. Convergent Evolution<br /> Ecological Equivalents are organisms that fit similar niches in an ecosystem, or fulfill similar Functions in a design. Often the result of convergent evolution.<br /> Lesser HedghogTenrec European Hedgehog Short Beaked Echidna<br />EchinopstelfairiErinaceuseuropaeusTachyglossusaculeatus<br />Adorable, inedible, insectivorous, little mammals<br />
  • 37. 32<br />Resources<br /><ul><li>High Altitude Gardening websites: http://gardening.coloradohighaltitude.com/VegetableGardening/index.php
  • 38. http://flagstafflandscape.com/?p=520
  • 39. Coconino County Master Gardener Association: http://coconinomgassociation.blogspot.com/
  • 40. Flagstaff Planting Guide, by Julie Lancaster: http://www.facebook.com/pages/for-anyone-who-grows-anything-in-Flagstaff-AZ/Flagstaff-Planting-Guide-Gardening-Community/332493936810?filter=3
  • 41. Gaia’s Garden, by Toby Hemenway
  • 42. Four-Season Harvest, by Eliot Coleman
  • 43. The Winter Harvest Handbook, by Eliot Coleman
  • 44. The New Organic Grower, by Eliot Coleman
  • 45. Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains, by Lisa Rayner
  • 46. J. Howard Garrett’s Organic Manual, 2nd Edition
  • 47. Successful Small Food Gardens, by Louise Riotte
  • 48. Carrots Love Tomatoes, by Louise Riotte
  • 49. Start with the Soil, by Grace Gershuny
  • 50. A People’s Ecology, by Gregory Cajete</li></ul>32<br />
  • 51. 33<br />Thanks to<br />The Internet<br />for words and pictures<br />and<br />Joanna Hale, Jennifer Temkin, DeJa Walker &amp; Ian Dixon-McDonald for photographs<br />Contact Information<br />bkessler@gm.slc.edu<br />laughingcrowpermaculture.wordpress.com<br />

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