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EoP Plants & People-2
 

EoP Plants & People-2

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    EoP Plants & People-2 EoP Plants & People-2 Presentation Transcript

    • Elements of Permaculture
      Plants & People
      Ben Kessler & Meredith Hartwell Laughing Crow Permaculture
    • 2
      Analysis of Elements
      List the Yields, Needs, and intrinsic characteristics of each
      Element.
      Lists are made to try to supply (by some other Element in
      the system) the Needs of any particular Element.
      Experiment on paper, connecting and combining Elements
      to achieve no Pollution and minimize Work.
      Close the Loops!
    • 3
      Guilds
      A Guild is made up of a close association of species clustered around a central element, usually a plant or an animal. This assembly acts in relation to the element to assist its health, aid in management, boost yields, or buffer adverse environmental effects.
      Corn, Beans, Squash & Mullet
      Mullet remains dug into soil at planting to boost nutrients. Corn provides structural support for the Bean vines. Beans provide Nitrogen for the Corn and Squash. Squash acts as a living mulch for the Corn and Beans. Food waste fed to Mullet.
    • Ecological Equivalents
      Ecological Equivalents are organisms that fit similar niches in an ecosystem, or fulfill similar Functions in a design. Often the result of convergent evolution.
      Dusky Hopping Mouse Kangaroo Rat Small Five-Toed Jerboa
      Notomys fuscus Dipodomys sp. Allacteaga elater
      Australia North America Arabia
      Small, Seed-Eating, Hopping, Burrowing, Desert-Dwelling Mammals
    • 5
      Environmental Equivalents
      Bison
      Prairie Chicken
      Tallgrass Prairie
      Water Buffalo
      Cattle Egret
      Savanna
      Cow
      Chicken
      Pasture
    • 6
      Needs & Yields
      Tomato/Tomatl Solanum lycopersicum
      NeedsYields
      Full Sunlight, Water, NPK, Micronutrients, Warm Soil, Protection from Herbivores, Mycorrhizal Partners, Slightly Acidic Soil pH, Well-drained Soil, Structural Support, Love
      Delicious Fruit, Spatial Demarcation, Mulch,Dense Verdant Foliage,Pest Protection for Brassicas and Gooseberries, Companionship for Basil and Nettles, Compost
    • 7
      Needs & Yields: The Permaculture Chicken
      Illustration credit: Bill Mollison
      What does each element need in order to live or be maintained?
      What products or services does it naturally provide?
    • 8
      Needs, in a High Altitude Garden
      What’s different at 7,000 feet?
      • Short growing season (90-110 days) & short day length,
      • Day/night temperature fluctuations ,
      • Low soil organic matter & alkaline pH,
      • Appropriate selection of vegetable and fruit varieties.
      • Ideally, link garden elements together so that the needs of one element can be met by the outputs of another.
      8
    • 9
      High Altitude Garden Needs: Temperature Regulation Strategies
      • Garden bed placement:
      • ~ Evaluate sun/shade/wind sectors and create warmer or cooler microclimates depending on vegetable type
      Structures & thermal mass:
      ~ Raised beds & black pots
      ~ Frost cloth & plastic “mulch”
      ~ Cold frames & hoop houses
      ~ Greenhouses
      9
    • Garden Inputs
      Soil Amendments to raise pH, organic content & nutrient values:
      ~ Compost, leaves, animal manures, organic fertilizers, earth worm castings, beneficial soil mycorrhizae, nitrogen fixing plants (green ‘manures’), straw or hay mulches
      Water:
      ~ Capture on landscape,
      drip systems, water in evening
      10
    • Yields: Food!
      General guidelines for
      growing high elevation crops:
      ~ Emphasize cool season veggies in your garden: Cole/cruciferous crops, greens of all kinds (from arugula to spinach to lettuces), root crops, certain grains (quinoa, millet, amaranth, spring wheat
      ~ Select short-season & short day varieties: less than 90 days to fruition is ideal
      ~ Start warm-season crops inside, esp. nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, chilis) & plant them in a WARM microclimate
      ~ Include mid-story native berry shrubs
      ~ Plant late-blooming fruits (Best: apple trees with 800-1000 ‘chill hours’ before blooming; cherries, plums, grapes, & certain varieties of apricots & peaches)
      ~ Companion plant fruits, veggies, flowers & trees wisely for beneficial relationships
      11
    • Other Yields:
      ~ Compost
      ~ Improved soil structure
      ~ Beauty
      ~ Sense and/or knowledge of place
      ~ Personal experience & knowledge of your garden
      ~ Seed
      ~ Localism: contributing to
      bioregionalism by growing and
      eating locally
      ~ (Perhaps) Increased community
      involvement involving food
      12
      Photo by Jennifer Temkin
      Photo by Meredith Hartwell
    • 13
      Groundcover
      Living Mulch, Walking Surface
      Helianthus
      Helianthus sp.
      Pussytoes
      Antennaria parviflora
      Wild Sage
      Artemisia ludoviciana
      Photos courtesy of Jennifer Temkin
    • 14
      Dynamic Accumulators
      Soil Aeration, Nutrient Accumulation, Shade Sequestration of Environmental Toxins
      Comfrey Symphytum officinale
      Kale Brassica oleraacea
      Stinging NettleUrtica dioica
    • 15
      Nitrogen Fixers
      Nitrogen Fixation
      Root Nodules on Soybean (Glycine max) roots
      Alder Aldus sp.
      CloverTrifolium sp.
      LupinesLupinus sp.
    • 16
      Insectaries
      Pollinator Attraction, Aesthetic Prettification
      Photo by Jennifer Temkin
      Calendula Calendula sp.
      Fennel Foeniculum vulgare
      Borage Borago sp.
    • 17
      Cover Crops
      Soil Building, Animal Forage, Fallow Cover
      Especially for the Southwest:
      Annual Rye
      Oats
      Field Peas
      Hairy Vetch
      Winter Wheat
      Winter Rye
      Wildflower Mix
      Western Wheat
      Sideoats Grama
      Smooth Brome
      Buffalo Grass
      Indian Rice Grass
      Ephram Crested Wheat
      Sanfoin
      Clovers
      Borage
      Buckwheat
      Fagopyrum esculentum
      Blue Grama
      Bouteloua gracilis
    • 18
      Polyculture Design
      Food
      Tea/
      Medicine/
      Insectary
      Ground
      Cover/
      Nitrogen
      Fixer
      Food/Medicine/
      Insectarycourtesy of Connor Stedman
    • 19
      Polyculture Design
      Food/
      Aromatic
      Pest
      Confuser
      Food/
      Medicine/
      Insectary
      Ground
      Cover/
      Medicine/
      Fertilizer/
      Insectary/
      Beneficial
      Habitat
      Food/Insectary
      Food
      courtesy of Connor Stedman
    • 20
      SSLUG & Bonito St. Gardens
    • 21
      SSLUG 2010
    • 22
      CSA Garden
    • 23
      Composting at SSLUG
      Photos courtesy of Ian Dixon-McDonald
    • Accelerate Succession
      Stack functions in time and space
      To enable a cultivated system to evolve toward a long-term stable state, we can construct a system, carefully planning the succession of plants and animals so that we can receive short, medium, and long-term benefits.
      “Place is a verb.” – Jeanette Armstrong
      Introduction to Permaculture (2004) Bill Mollison & Reny Mia Slay
    • Rampant & Invasive Species
      “Is it better to build systems that include exotics or should reforestation aim only to replace what has been taken away?
      Is a rampant exotic a weed, or nature’s most effective first aid treatment?”
      – Permaculture International Journal
      Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) on a CA hillside
      What are the differences between invasive species and changing ecosystems?
    • Local Rampants
      Salt Cedar Tamarix sp.
      Benefits: Willow Flycatcher habitat, basketry material, erosion control, butterfly food
      Detriments: Soil salinization, willow & cottonwood exclusion, flooding, water table draining
      Russian Olive Eleagnus angustifolia
      Benefits: Bird habitat & food, erosion control, N fixation, windbreak, mulch, shade
      Detriments: Willow & cottonwood exclusion, meadow encroachment
      “All rampant or weedy and invasive plants are gonna be everywhere eventually-why not just speed things up?” – Bill Mollison
    • Appendices
    • 28
      Plants in the Landscape
      Forest Garden Hedgerow
      Silvopasture Coppice & Standard Alley Cropping
    • 29
      Plants in the Landscape
      Companion Planting
      Keyhole Garden Intercropping Herb Spiral
    • Integrated Pest Management
      “Mulch your cat. It’s eating all the frogs and lizards that control insects.” – Bill Mollison
      Integrated Pest Management is a crop management approach designed to address ecological dilemmas in agriculture.
      1. Acceptable pest levels
      2. Preventative cultural practices
      3. Monitoring
      4. Mechanical controls
      5. Biological controls
      6. Chemical controls
      USDA IPM Principles:
      http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm
      “[Industrial pest management] is like pokin’ a gopher with a rope- you can’t do that!” – Gordon Tooley
    • Convergent Evolution
      Ecological Equivalents are organisms that fit similar niches in an ecosystem, or fulfill similar Functions in a design. Often the result of convergent evolution.
      Lesser HedghogTenrec European Hedgehog Short Beaked Echidna
      EchinopstelfairiErinaceuseuropaeusTachyglossusaculeatus
      Adorable, inedible, insectivorous, little mammals
    • 32
      Resources
      • High Altitude Gardening websites: http://gardening.coloradohighaltitude.com/VegetableGardening/index.php
      • http://flagstafflandscape.com/?p=520
      • Coconino County Master Gardener Association: http://coconinomgassociation.blogspot.com/
      • Flagstaff Planting Guide, by Julie Lancaster: http://www.facebook.com/pages/for-anyone-who-grows-anything-in-Flagstaff-AZ/Flagstaff-Planting-Guide-Gardening-Community/332493936810?filter=3
      • Gaia’s Garden, by Toby Hemenway
      • Four-Season Harvest, by Eliot Coleman
      • The Winter Harvest Handbook, by Eliot Coleman
      • The New Organic Grower, by Eliot Coleman
      • Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains, by Lisa Rayner
      • J. Howard Garrett’s Organic Manual, 2nd Edition
      • Successful Small Food Gardens, by Louise Riotte
      • Carrots Love Tomatoes, by Louise Riotte
      • Start with the Soil, by Grace Gershuny
      • A People’s Ecology, by Gregory Cajete
      32
    • 33
      Thanks to
      The Internet
      for words and pictures
      and
      Joanna Hale, Jennifer Temkin, DeJa Walker & Ian Dixon-McDonald for photographs
      Contact Information
      bkessler@gm.slc.edu
      laughingcrowpermaculture.wordpress.com