EoP Plants & People-2

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  • 1. Elements of Permaculture
    Plants & People
    Ben Kessler & Meredith Hartwell Laughing Crow Permaculture
  • 2. 2
    Analysis of Elements
    List the Yields, Needs, and intrinsic characteristics of each
    Element.
    Lists are made to try to supply (by some other Element in
    the system) the Needs of any particular Element.
    Experiment on paper, connecting and combining Elements
    to achieve no Pollution and minimize Work.
    Close the Loops!
  • 3. 3
    Guilds
    A Guild is made up of a close association of species clustered around a central element, usually a plant or an animal. This assembly acts in relation to the element to assist its health, aid in management, boost yields, or buffer adverse environmental effects.
    Corn, Beans, Squash & Mullet
    Mullet remains dug into soil at planting to boost nutrients. Corn provides structural support for the Bean vines. Beans provide Nitrogen for the Corn and Squash. Squash acts as a living mulch for the Corn and Beans. Food waste fed to Mullet.
  • 4. Ecological Equivalents
    Ecological Equivalents are organisms that fit similar niches in an ecosystem, or fulfill similar Functions in a design. Often the result of convergent evolution.
    Dusky Hopping Mouse Kangaroo Rat Small Five-Toed Jerboa
    Notomys fuscus Dipodomys sp. Allacteaga elater
    Australia North America Arabia
    Small, Seed-Eating, Hopping, Burrowing, Desert-Dwelling Mammals
  • 5. 5
    Environmental Equivalents
    Bison
    Prairie Chicken
    Tallgrass Prairie
    Water Buffalo
    Cattle Egret
    Savanna
    Cow
    Chicken
    Pasture
  • 6. 6
    Needs & Yields
    Tomato/Tomatl Solanum lycopersicum
    NeedsYields
    Full Sunlight, Water, NPK, Micronutrients, Warm Soil, Protection from Herbivores, Mycorrhizal Partners, Slightly Acidic Soil pH, Well-drained Soil, Structural Support, Love
    Delicious Fruit, Spatial Demarcation, Mulch,Dense Verdant Foliage,Pest Protection for Brassicas and Gooseberries, Companionship for Basil and Nettles, Compost
  • 7. 7
    Needs & Yields: The Permaculture Chicken
    Illustration credit: Bill Mollison
    What does each element need in order to live or be maintained?
    What products or services does it naturally provide?
  • 8. 8
    Needs, in a High Altitude Garden
    What’s different at 7,000 feet?
    • Short growing season (90-110 days) & short day length,
    • 9. Day/night temperature fluctuations ,
    • 10. Low soil organic matter & alkaline pH,
    • 11. Appropriate selection of vegetable and fruit varieties.
    • 12. Ideally, link garden elements together so that the needs of one element can be met by the outputs of another.
    8
  • 13. 9
    High Altitude Garden Needs: Temperature Regulation Strategies
    • Garden bed placement:
    • 14. ~ Evaluate sun/shade/wind sectors and create warmer or cooler microclimates depending on vegetable type
    Structures & thermal mass:
    ~ Raised beds & black pots
    ~ Frost cloth & plastic “mulch”
    ~ Cold frames & hoop houses
    ~ Greenhouses
    9
  • 15. Garden Inputs
    Soil Amendments to raise pH, organic content & nutrient values:
    ~ Compost, leaves, animal manures, organic fertilizers, earth worm castings, beneficial soil mycorrhizae, nitrogen fixing plants (green ‘manures’), straw or hay mulches
    Water:
    ~ Capture on landscape,
    drip systems, water in evening
    10
  • 16. Yields: Food!
    General guidelines for
    growing high elevation crops:
    ~ Emphasize cool season veggies in your garden: Cole/cruciferous crops, greens of all kinds (from arugula to spinach to lettuces), root crops, certain grains (quinoa, millet, amaranth, spring wheat
    ~ Select short-season & short day varieties: less than 90 days to fruition is ideal
    ~ Start warm-season crops inside, esp. nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, chilis) & plant them in a WARM microclimate
    ~ Include mid-story native berry shrubs
    ~ Plant late-blooming fruits (Best: apple trees with 800-1000 ‘chill hours’ before blooming; cherries, plums, grapes, & certain varieties of apricots & peaches)
    ~ Companion plant fruits, veggies, flowers & trees wisely for beneficial relationships
    11
  • 17. Other Yields:
    ~ Compost
    ~ Improved soil structure
    ~ Beauty
    ~ Sense and/or knowledge of place
    ~ Personal experience & knowledge of your garden
    ~ Seed
    ~ Localism: contributing to
    bioregionalism by growing and
    eating locally
    ~ (Perhaps) Increased community
    involvement involving food
    12
    Photo by Jennifer Temkin
    Photo by Meredith Hartwell
  • 18. 13
    Groundcover
    Living Mulch, Walking Surface
    Helianthus
    Helianthus sp.
    Pussytoes
    Antennaria parviflora
    Wild Sage
    Artemisia ludoviciana
    Photos courtesy of Jennifer Temkin
  • 19. 14
    Dynamic Accumulators
    Soil Aeration, Nutrient Accumulation, Shade Sequestration of Environmental Toxins
    Comfrey Symphytum officinale
    Kale Brassica oleraacea
    Stinging NettleUrtica dioica
  • 20. 15
    Nitrogen Fixers
    Nitrogen Fixation
    Root Nodules on Soybean (Glycine max) roots
    Alder Aldus sp.
    CloverTrifolium sp.
    LupinesLupinus sp.
  • 21. 16
    Insectaries
    Pollinator Attraction, Aesthetic Prettification
    Photo by Jennifer Temkin
    Calendula Calendula sp.
    Fennel Foeniculum vulgare
    Borage Borago sp.
  • 22. 17
    Cover Crops
    Soil Building, Animal Forage, Fallow Cover
    Especially for the Southwest:
    Annual Rye
    Oats
    Field Peas
    Hairy Vetch
    Winter Wheat
    Winter Rye
    Wildflower Mix
    Western Wheat
    Sideoats Grama
    Smooth Brome
    Buffalo Grass
    Indian Rice Grass
    Ephram Crested Wheat
    Sanfoin
    Clovers
    Borage
    Buckwheat
    Fagopyrum esculentum
    Blue Grama
    Bouteloua gracilis
  • 23. 18
    Polyculture Design
    Food
    Tea/
    Medicine/
    Insectary
    Ground
    Cover/
    Nitrogen
    Fixer
    Food/Medicine/
    Insectarycourtesy of Connor Stedman
  • 24. 19
    Polyculture Design
    Food/
    Aromatic
    Pest
    Confuser
    Food/
    Medicine/
    Insectary
    Ground
    Cover/
    Medicine/
    Fertilizer/
    Insectary/
    Beneficial
    Habitat
    Food/Insectary
    Food
    courtesy of Connor Stedman
  • 25. 20
    SSLUG & Bonito St. Gardens
  • 26. 21
    SSLUG 2010
  • 27. 22
    CSA Garden
  • 28. 23
    Composting at SSLUG
    Photos courtesy of Ian Dixon-McDonald
  • 29. Accelerate Succession
    Stack functions in time and space
    To enable a cultivated system to evolve toward a long-term stable state, we can construct a system, carefully planning the succession of plants and animals so that we can receive short, medium, and long-term benefits.
    “Place is a verb.” – Jeanette Armstrong
    Introduction to Permaculture (2004) Bill Mollison & Reny Mia Slay
  • 30. Rampant & Invasive Species
    “Is it better to build systems that include exotics or should reforestation aim only to replace what has been taken away?
    Is a rampant exotic a weed, or nature’s most effective first aid treatment?”
    – Permaculture International Journal
    Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) on a CA hillside
    What are the differences between invasive species and changing ecosystems?
  • 31. Local Rampants
    Salt Cedar Tamarix sp.
    Benefits: Willow Flycatcher habitat, basketry material, erosion control, butterfly food
    Detriments: Soil salinization, willow & cottonwood exclusion, flooding, water table draining
    Russian Olive Eleagnus angustifolia
    Benefits: Bird habitat & food, erosion control, N fixation, windbreak, mulch, shade
    Detriments: Willow & cottonwood exclusion, meadow encroachment
    “All rampant or weedy and invasive plants are gonna be everywhere eventually-why not just speed things up?” – Bill Mollison
  • 32. Appendices
  • 33. 28
    Plants in the Landscape
    Forest Garden Hedgerow
    Silvopasture Coppice & Standard Alley Cropping
  • 34. 29
    Plants in the Landscape
    Companion Planting
    Keyhole Garden Intercropping Herb Spiral
  • 35. Integrated Pest Management
    “Mulch your cat. It’s eating all the frogs and lizards that control insects.” – Bill Mollison
    Integrated Pest Management is a crop management approach designed to address ecological dilemmas in agriculture.
    1. Acceptable pest levels
    2. Preventative cultural practices
    3. Monitoring
    4. Mechanical controls
    5. Biological controls
    6. Chemical controls
    USDA IPM Principles:
    http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm
    “[Industrial pest management] is like pokin’ a gopher with a rope- you can’t do that!” – Gordon Tooley
  • 36. Convergent Evolution
    Ecological Equivalents are organisms that fit similar niches in an ecosystem, or fulfill similar Functions in a design. Often the result of convergent evolution.
    Lesser HedghogTenrec European Hedgehog Short Beaked Echidna
    EchinopstelfairiErinaceuseuropaeusTachyglossusaculeatus
    Adorable, inedible, insectivorous, little mammals
  • 37. 32
    Resources
    • High Altitude Gardening websites: http://gardening.coloradohighaltitude.com/VegetableGardening/index.php
    • 38. http://flagstafflandscape.com/?p=520
    • 39. Coconino County Master Gardener Association: http://coconinomgassociation.blogspot.com/
    • 40. Flagstaff Planting Guide, by Julie Lancaster: http://www.facebook.com/pages/for-anyone-who-grows-anything-in-Flagstaff-AZ/Flagstaff-Planting-Guide-Gardening-Community/332493936810?filter=3
    • 41. Gaia’s Garden, by Toby Hemenway
    • 42. Four-Season Harvest, by Eliot Coleman
    • 43. The Winter Harvest Handbook, by Eliot Coleman
    • 44. The New Organic Grower, by Eliot Coleman
    • 45. Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains, by Lisa Rayner
    • 46. J. Howard Garrett’s Organic Manual, 2nd Edition
    • 47. Successful Small Food Gardens, by Louise Riotte
    • 48. Carrots Love Tomatoes, by Louise Riotte
    • 49. Start with the Soil, by Grace Gershuny
    • 50. A People’s Ecology, by Gregory Cajete
    32
  • 51. 33
    Thanks to
    The Internet
    for words and pictures
    and
    Joanna Hale, Jennifer Temkin, DeJa Walker & Ian Dixon-McDonald for photographs
    Contact Information
    bkessler@gm.slc.edu
    laughingcrowpermaculture.wordpress.com