Youth Development has been defined as an ongoing process through which young people attempt to meet their needs and develop the competencies they perceive as necessary for survivaland transition into adulthood. In 4-H, we create opportunities, environments, and supports to meet youths’ needs and build life skills.
And build life skills within these developmental need areas
Belonging: May be the single most powerful positive ingredient we can add to the lives of children and youth. Youth are cared about and accepted by others. Experience a sense of physical and emotional safety and to feel a sense of connections with others.Generosity: Youth need opportunities to connect to their communities and learn how to give back to others; lives have meaning and purpose. Also includes the development of values such as compassion and tolerance for diversity.
Independence: Youth need to know they have influence with people and events through decision-making and action; refers to an adolescent’s growing ability to think, feel, make decisions and act on her or his own. Mastery: Settings that promote self-efficacy and mastery encourage youth to take risks, seek out challenges and focus on self-improvement rather than comparing themselves to peers. Includes the development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes and corresponding competent demonstration of learned skills and knowledge.
Iowa 4-H Clover Kids:Positive Child Development
PYD Principles and Best Practices Review Topics• Child/Youth Development Principles/Framework• Children and Youths’ Four Developmental Needs• Eight Essential Elements of a Positive Child/Youth Development Experience• Iowa 4-H Equation
Positive Child Development Positive child development is development that is positive and productive for both kids and theirparents/care provider. It occurs from an intentional process that promotes positive outcomes for young people by providing opportunities, choices, relationships, and support.
Iowa 4-H Youth Development Program’s Mission To empower children and youth to reach their full potential working and learning (in long-term) partnerships with caring adults
Child Development Framework• The child development approach considers the whole young person; views children as resources to be developed rather than as problems to be managed• Child development is designed to focus on the positive outcomes we desire for children• Children seen as central actors in their own development; learn by doing
Child Development Framework (continued)• Children have the potential for ongoing change in their development; development is influenced by environmental factors and available opportunities• Child development is dependent on family and community development as it occurs in the context of the family, community, and society• Acknowledges that every child is unique and matures in unique ways.
Transformational Child Development Experiences High Level Content Opportunities(Educational experiences we provide children through research-based curricula) + High Level Context Environments (Young people engage in long-term interactions with caring adults) = Meet Youths’ Developmental Needs (Belonging, mastery, independence, generosity)
Four Developmental Needs of ChildrenStudies indicate childrenwhose needs are met inpositive ways are likely todevelop into active citizensand contributing members oftheir families andcommunities.
Four Developmental Needs of Children• Belonging • Generosity – cared about – meaning in life – connected – purpose in life – give back to – accepted others – feeling safe – appreciate what one has
Four Developmental Needs of Children• Independence • Mastery – self-discipline – feeling capable – self-sufficiency – successful – better – self-confident understanding – make positive life of self choices – learn new skills & use in different ways – fine-tune existing skills
Characteristics of Children Whose Needs are Met in Positive Ways Belonging Mastery Loving Achieving Attached Successful Friendly Creative Intimate Problem Solving Social Motivated Cooperative Persistent Trusting Competent Independence Generosity Autonomous Altruistic Confident Caring Assertive Sharing Responsible Loyal Self Controlled Empathic Self Disciplined Pro-social Leadership Supportive
Characteristics of Children Whose Needs are Met in Negative Ways Belonging Mastery Gang Loyalty Overachiever Craves Affection Arrogant Craves Acceptance Risk Seeker Promiscuous Cheater Clinging Workaholic Cult Vulnerable Perseverative Overly Dependent Delinquent Skill Independence Generosity Dictatorial Noblesse Oblige Reckless/Macho Over-involved Bullies Others Plays Martyr Sexual Prowess Co-Dependency Manipulative Over-involvement Rebellious Servitude Defies Authority Bondage
Characteristics of Children Whose Needs are Unmet Belonging Mastery Guarded Non-achiever Unattached Failure Oriented Rejected Avoids Risks Lonely Fears Challenges Aloof Unmotivated Isolated Gives Up Easily Distrustful Inadequate Independence Generosity Submissive Selfish Lacks Confidence Affectionless Inferiority Narcissistic Irresponsible Disloyal Helplessness Hardened Undisciplined Anti-social Easily Led Exploitative
Eight Essential Elements of a Positive YouthDevelopment ExperienceIn 1999, a team of evaluators from theNational 4-H Impact DesignImplementation Team was given thecharge of determining the “criticalelements in a positive child/youthdevelopment experience.”
8 Elements Distilled to 4 Basic Needs of Youth Belonging Mastery Positive relationship with a Engagement in learning caring adult Opportunity for mastery An inclusive environment A safe environment Independence Generosity Opportunity to see oneself as Opportunity to value and an active participant in the practice service for others future Opportunity for self- determination
Developmentally Appropriate Clover Kids Life Skill Areas• Self understanding• Social interaction• Decision making• Learning to learn• Mastering physical skills
PowerPoint Sources• Brendtro, L., Brokenleg, M, & Van Bockern, S. 1990. Reclaiming Youth at Risk: Our Hope for the Future. Bloomington, IN. National Education Service.• Iowa 4-H Program’s Clover Kids Toolbox http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/Clover/toolbox1.htm• Kress, C. Essential Elements of Youth Development. Retrieved January 30, 2007 from http://www.national4-hheadquarters.gov/about/4h_elements.htm• Lerner, R. et al. (2009). Waves of the Future: The first five years of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Tufts University, Institute of Applied Research in Youth Development.• McKinley, S. 2007. Essential Elements of Youth Development Lesson Plan. Purdue University Cooperative Extension.
Iowa 4-H Clover Kids:Positive Child Development Created By: Keli Tallman, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, 4-H Youth Program Specialist, January 2011. Revised By: Brenda Welch, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, 4-H Youth Program Specialist, July 2012.