Exploiting Vulnerabilities in Multifunction Printers

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403 Labs Consultant Pete Arzamendi discuss the possibilities of exploiting vulnerabilities in multifunction printers.

403 Labs Consultant Pete Arzamendi discuss the possibilities of exploiting vulnerabilities in multifunction printers.

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  • 1. Exploiting vulnerabilities in Multifunction Printers
    Pete Arzamendi
    Consultant, 403 Labs, LLC
  • 2. Introduction
    Pete Arzamendi
    • Consultant at 403 Labs
    • 3. Both a Qualified Security Assessor (QSA) and a Payment Application Qualified Security Assessor (PA-QSA) for the Payment Card Industry (PCI)
    • 4. Former packet monkey, with over 10 years of experience in the Information Technology field
    • 5. Worked with small, medium businesses, local and state authorities on computer forensic cases and security assessments
    • 6. Hobbies include malware analysis and vulnerably research
    • 7. Member of the foofus.net team
  • Introduction
    403 Labs, LLC
    • Full-service information security and compliance consulting firm headquartered in Milwaukee with additional offices in Chicago and San Francisco
    • 8. Experts in the Payment Card Industry (PCI)
    • 9. Qualified Security Assessor (QSA)
    • 10. Payment Application Qualified Security Assessor (PA-QSA)
    • 11. Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV)
    • 12. PCI Forensics Investigator (PFI) (just approved, expect to be listed shortly)
    • 13. Penetration testing, including web applications
    • 14. Experienced in handling computer forensic investigations
  • Agenda
    • History of printers
    • 15. MFP functions and features
    • 16. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    • 17. Leveraging MFP during penetration testing
    • 18. Development of an automated harvesting tool ‘PRAEDA’
    • 19. Q/A
  • Terms and jargon
    • LDAP: The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is an application protocol for reading and editing directories , A directory in this sense is an organized set of records: for example, a telephone directory is an alphabetical list of persons and organizations with an address and phone number in each "record".
    • 20. SMB: Server Message Block (SMB), mainly used to provide shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.
    • 21. SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission .
    • 22. AD: Active Directory (AD) is a directory service created by Microsoft. Active Directory allows administrators to assign policies, deploy and update software. Active Directory networks can vary from a small installation with a few computers, users and printers to tens of thousands of users, many different network domains and large server farms spanning many geographical locations.
  • History of Multifunction Printers
    • Gary Starkweather is credited with inventing the Laser Printer at Xerox in 1969
    • 23. The first multifunction printer/copier, the "Xerox Printer 100," 1987
    • 24. March 1991 – The HP LaserJet IIISi, the world’s first networked printer
    • 25. The first true multifunction printer/fax/copier were introduced in the early 1990s
    In 2011 you really can’t buy just a printer
  • 26. MFP functions and features
  • 27. MFP functions and features
    • Looking for features and functions that can be leveraged to gain information that could be leveraged in attacking other systems
    • 28. Email
    • 29. Server settings
    • 30. Address books
    • 31. Faxing
    • 32. Contact info
    • 33. User name
    • 34. Address books
  • MFP functions and features
  • Toshiba functions and features
  • 44. Toshiba functions and features
  • 45. Toshiba functions and features
    Password
    Network Path
    Username
  • 46. Canon functions and features
  • 47. Canon functions and features
  • 48. Canon functions and features
  • 49. Canon functions and features
  • 50. HP functions and features
  • 51. HP functions and features
    HP M4345, 9250, CM6040
  • 52. HP functions and features
  • 53. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
  • 54. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    Security Bypass
    • Various brands and models suffer from a vulnerability allowing bypass of security authentication
    Example: Toshiba e-STUDIO /TopAccess/Administrator/Setup/ScanToFile/List.htm
  • 55. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    /TopAccess//Administrator/Setup/ScanToFile/List.htm
    An extra slash / and full access is allowed
  • 56. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    Security Bypass
    Example: Home/Office HP Officejet
    /index.htm?cat=info&page=faxAddrBook1
  • 57. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    Security Bypass
    /index.htm?cat=info&page=faxAddrBook1
    An extra page=and full access is allowed
    /index.htm?cat=info&page=page=faxAddrBook1
  • 58. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    Forceful Browsing
    • Gain access to web pages and files by just knowing the correct URL path
    • 59. Typically find that a number of devices, printers and network appliances correctly secure cgi, htm and html extension files, but allow unauthenticated access to other file types
  • MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    Forceful Browsing
    Canon imageRUNNER
    Export address books
    http//target:8080/abook.ldif?AID=1&ACLS=1
    • AID= can be incremented to download different address books
    • 60. ACLS=1 on imageRUNNER 3000 series
    • 61. ACLS=2 on imageRUNNER 4000 & 5000 series
    • 62. Extract user names
    • 63. Could also contain password
    • 64. Accessible host
  • MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    Forceful Browsing
    • Canon imageRUNNER
    • 65. Export additional functions http://target:8080/usermode.umd
    • 66. Usermode.umdis a data file containing printer configuration data in plain text
  • MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    • Information leak - A look at a few examples
    • 67. Toshiba e-STUDIO
    • 68. Canon imageRUNNER
    • 69. HP MFP
  • MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    Toshiba Information Leak
    Just because the web form shows ●●●●●●●●
    doesn’t mean it’s truly hidden
    Not uncommon to find data viewable within
    the web source as plain text
  • 70. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    CanonInformation Leak
    Want to bet this is also viewable in the source?
    Although not directly found in the Password: value field,
    it was still found within a hidden input tag
  • 71. MFP flaws and vulnerabilities
    HP Information Leak
    value=“ayz123”
    Once again just need to examine the property
    of the password field
  • 72. What thebad guys are doing…
    Leveraging MFP vulnerabilities
  • 73. Leveraging MFP during
    penetration testing
    • HP to domain admin access
    • 74. HP Color LaserJet CP4025
    • 75. Extract users’ names from color job log
    • 76. User with weak password
    • 77. Access to workstations
    • 78. Domain admin token
  • Leveraging MFP during
    penetration testing
    • Toshiba to payroll
    • 79. Toshiba e-STUDIO
    • 80. Extract password from scan-to-file function
    • 81. Gain access to AD domain
    • 82. Gain access to a number of folders/files/shares
    • 83. Access to one special file share “Payroll backup”
  • Leveraging MFP during
    penetration testing
    • Canon to domain controller
    • 84. Canon imageRUNNER
    • 85. Extract LDAP settings
    • 86. Enumerate domain user info
    • 87. Remote Desktop access to all servers
  • Leveraging MFP during
    penetration testing
    • Fax to pwned
    • 88. OfficeBridge – Fax system
    • 89. First device we found credentials stored on – This is what got this project started
    • 90. Extract password from LDAP settings
    • 91. Account was domain admin account
  • 01/27/11
  • 92. Automating the process
  • 93. Automated harvesting Praeda
    What is Praeda?
    • Latin for robber, plunderer
    • 94. A tool for the purpose of gathering information from network appliances through their web management interfaces
    • 95. Printers
    • 96. Network appliances
    • 97. Beta version written in perl
    • 98. Goal was to create a simplistic tool that was modular
  • Automated harvesting Praeda
  • 99. Automated harvesting Praeda
    DataFile Structure
    P000005|HP Color LaserJet CP3525 Printers|HP-ChaiSOE/1.0|MP0002
    P000006|HP Color LaserJet CP3505 Printers|HP-ChaiSOE/1.0|MP0002|
    P000007||Canon Http Server 2.10|MP0003|MP0004|MP0005
    P000008||Canon Http Server 2.11|MP0003|MP0004|MP0005
    P000009|Home - Phaser 7750GX|Allegro-Software-RomPager/4.10|MP0006
    P000010|Unauthorized|Spyglass_MicroServer/2.01FC1|MP0006
    P000011|Principal|Spyglass_MicroServer/2.01FC1|MP0006
    P000012|Home|Spyglass_MicroServer/2.01FC1|MP0006
    P000013|Home - Phaser 6360DT|Allegro-Software-RomPager/4.34|MP0006
    P000014|TopAccess|TOSHIBA TEC CORPORATION|MP0007
  • 100. Automated harvesting Praeda
    • We presently enumerate data from a dozen or more different printer types/versions
    • 101. Plan is to grow this to cover as many printers as we can find
    • 102. Looking for other simple methods for identifying printer types, present process involves querying web interface for:
    • 103. Title page
    • 104. Server type
    • 105. Researching encryption methods used by some vendors for backup and clone process outputs
    • 106. HP
    • 107. Xerox
    • 108. Looking into migrating code to Ruby – early stages of conversion started
  • Questions about Praeda
    Pete Arzamendi
    bokojan@foofus.net
    DeralHeiland
    percX@foofus.net
    Beta version of Praeda available at
    www.foofus.net
  • 109. Contact Information
    Pete Arzamendi
    Consultant
    403 Labs, LLC
    parzamendi@403labs.com
    877.403.LABS
    www.403labs.com