Analysis of films: Horror/Slasher-and Research Saw, Scream, Misery, Halloween, Creep and Texas chainsaw Massacre
Meaning of Horror and Slasher films A slasher film is a sub-genre of the horror film genre typically involving a psychopathic killer stalking and killing a sequence of victims in a graphically violent manner, often with a cutting tool such as a chainsaw. Although the term "slasher" may be used as a generic term for any horror movie involving graphic acts of murder, the slasher as a genre has its own set of characteristics which set it apart from related genres like the splatter film. An Example of a slasher film are the Saw series of films and also Halloween. Horror films are movies that strive to elicit the emotions of fear, horror and terror from viewers. Their plots frequently involve themes of death, the supernatural or mental illness. Many horror movies also include a central villain. An example of this are the Scream series of films and also Creep. The 18 certificate was created in 1982 as the successor of the previous X certificate, which in turn was the successor of the H certificate (with H standing for "horror"). See History of British Film Certificates for more details. Typical reasons for restricting films to the 18 certificate category have included scenes of hard drug use, supernatural horror, explicit sex, sadistic violence and sexual violence — the last two of which have in the past led to a certificate not being issued at all, effectively banning the film in the UK. It was only recently that the censors passed films with explicit ('hardcore') sexual acts despite the 18 certificate existing for many years.
Guideline stating certificates for 12/As 12 rated movies can only be watched in a cinema or in an arts of entertainment location by people who are 12 and above. 12A rated movies can only be watched in a cinema or in an arts of entertainment location by anyone from the age of 3 but if the person is under the age of 12 the person would have to be accompanied by an adult. This is done so if the adult fells the categories of the film may upset children under 12 or contain material which many parents will find unsuitable for them. The criteria on how the director states the age certificate, relevant to horror and slasher film: Horror- Moderate physical and psychological threat may be permitted, provided disturbing sequences are not frequent or sustained. Imitable behaviour- Dangerous behaviour (for example, hanging, suicide and self-harming) should not dwell on detail which could be copied, or appear pain or harm free. Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorised. Language- Moderate language is allowed. The use of strong language (for example, ‘fuck’) must be infrequent. Nudity- Nudity is allowed, but in a sexual context must be brief and discreet. Theme- Mature themes are acceptable, but their treatment must be suitable for young teenagers. Violence- Moderate violence is allowed but should not dwell on detail. There should be no emphasis on injuries or blood, but occasional gory moments may be permitted if justified by the context. Sexual violence may only be implied or briefly and discreetly indicated, and must have a strong contextual justification.
Guidelines stating certificates for 15s 15 rated movies can only be watched in a cinema or in an art of entertainment location by people who are 15 and above. The criteria on how the director states the age certificate, relevant to horror and slasher film: Discrimination- overall must not endorse discriminatory language or behaviour. Horror- Strong threat and menace are permitted unless brutal or sexualised. Imitable behaviour- Dangerous behaviour (for example, hanging, suicide and self-harming) should not dwell on detail which could be copied. Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorised. Language- There may be frequent use of strong language (for example, ‘fuck’). The strongest terms (for example, ‘cunt’) may be acceptable if justified by the context. Aggressive or repeated use of the strongest language is unlikely to be acceptable. Nudity- Nudity may be allowed in a sexual context but without strong detail. There are no constraints on nudity in a non-sexual or educational context. Theme- No theme is prohibited, provided the treatment is appropriate for 15 year olds. Violence- Violence may be strong but should not dwell on the infliction of pain or injury. The strongest gory images are unlikely to be acceptable. Strong sadistic or sexualised violence is also unlikely to be acceptable. There may be detailed verbal references to sexual violence but any portrayal of sexual violence must be discreet and have a strong contextual justification
Guidelines stating certificates for 18s 18 rated movies can only be watched in a cinema or in an art of entertainment location by people who are 18 and above. The criteria on how the director states the age certificate, relevant to horror and slasher film: • Material which may encourage illegal activity material which is obscene or otherwise illegal material created by means of the commission of a criminal offence portrayals of children in a sexualised or abusive context sexual violence or sexualised violence which endorses or eroticises the behaviour of brutal violence or torture which invites the viewer to identify with the perpetrator in a way which raises a risk of harm explicit images of real injury, violence or death presented in a scandalous or shocking manner which risks harm by encouraging cold-hearted or brutal attitudes sex works which contain material listed as unacceptable at ‘R18’. When the issue relates to the circumstances of filming (for example, in relation to animal cruelty or public indecency) the submitting company will normally be given an opportunity to present evidence before a final decision is reached.
Titling Titling was shown before the film started only in Scream and Halloween, the tilting of Scream was shown in red, white and bold on a black background with also diegetic sound of screaming. Where as Halloween was shown in white in bold on a black background. Also both do not show credits apart from the film studio who have made the film and whose presents the film e.g. Dimension. Titling in Creep and Misery appears after setting the scene, in Creep after the first 2 minutes where as in Misery titling appears after 8 minutes. Creep’s titling is coloured yellow/orange in contrast to the on-screen images this fluorescent colour suggests danger because of how strong the colours are where its very difficult to look at it directly. This has been done to connote the film, portraying to the audience that it is an horror film in which when people may die the audience may get scared and look away the same way they look away from this strong fluorescent light. Also, it is placed on a black background. However the credits of the key actors in Creep are on a black background but the names of the production and co-production where shown over the on-screen images maybe showing the importance of there role, in terms of taking part in the film. Misery titling appears in the centre of the scream, in red and bold on a background of the scenery- snow on road/cliff, where the red titling connoting danger and blood where at this stage if the audience did not know already, they will get the impression that Misery is definitely a slasher and maybe a horror. The appears to be no credit within the starting of the film Misery apart from who presents the film.
Titling sequence Scream Title goes from big to small in bold on a black background, twice once in the colour red then in the colour white. This suggest that the word scream has great significance within the film suggesting that there will be a lot of screaming going on from the characters but also from the audience. Also the colour of which it is being displayed in also connotes bad atmospheres where red can be seen to connate danger and white can be seen to connate ghosts. Within the opening of Scream it is only the films name which is shown which may express how low there budget was in terms of not having a company presenting the film. However it could express how quickly they want to get straight to the action. Saw Shows the companies film name LGF (Lion gate films) on a black background within the centre of the screen suggesting the companies importance and value. Then the companies name who presents the pictures is shown, its dominant within the middle of the screen expressing this companies importance . Also this suggest that they had a decent amount of budget to get film and picture presenters. Then who the production people are, was shown next again on a black background. Next who's film it is shown in bold and in white. Then the films title name (Saw) was shown in a fluorescent light colour (blue/silver). However it is shown small in comparison to the black background but it still effective because it shown to be in a metal material and then it fades outwards which makes the title shown effectively. Misery Shows the trade mark lion roaring, which suggest that they had a decent budget to get companies to take part in there film. Then shows who pictures they are using (Columba pictures), this is dominant on the screen and suggests this companies importance. Lastly they show the entertainment company (Castle rock). These are the only titling which are shown within the opening of the film suggesting that there was not any popular actors within the within the film for them to show there name at the start which the audience may know. Also it may also suggest that there budget was not large.
Continued – Titling sequence Halloween Shows who presents the film (Dimension films) which is dominant on the black background expressing the value of this company and their importance on how they promote the film. It is also show twice once in bold blue on a black background and then again in white on a black background. Then the production persons name ( Malck Akkad) was shown suggesting that he had a big part to play in the film and that he has a high status. Then the title name is shown in bold white on a black background Texas chainsaw Massacre Showed ‘news line cinema‘ this is expresses where it’s being shown and at what level for example at the cinema or if the film went straight to DVD. Showed who the presents the film Next entertainment this was bold and dominant on the screen and was displayed on a bright fluorescent light. Showing titling on a black back ground is most common within these films, this expresses the names shown importance, within or outside the film because some just help promote the film. Also on this background the audience can clearly see the titling. However in Creep they also show some of the titling ( the casting- Vas Blackwood and Jeremy Sheffield, who it’s written by, co- producers and producers) blending in with the background which within this film is a fluorescent light colour. As well as this they display these titling ( Hair and make up designer, costume designer) at the edge of the screen again suggesting that these people are less significant but they show the important people names on a black background. Creep also have a lot of titling suggesting that they had a decent budget compared to the other films which did not have many titling. Also the titling were shown in rhythm to the sound which were being used the films.
Camera Angles/Shots Extreme/close ups, medium close ups, tracking shots and zooming in/out of images were most commonly used in these films and in some used in different ways. Within Scream, Halloween and Misery there were tracking shots produced for various reasons in Misery to convey to the audience that something bad was going to happen and so the audience can anticipate the danger and the incident, this was produced when the main and only character throughout the first few minutes was driving in dangerous conditions (snow) at a fast speed and driving signs were shown within this to suggest that an incident was going to occur. Where as in Scream it was used to build momentum and intensity for the on screen moment and to allow the audience to get into the frame of mind of the character. This was done when tracking the main character where she is hiding from the suspected villain in which she is portraying emotion shown from facial expressions and actions. Then in Halloween this shot was used to create momentum of the movement and to express the characters aggression, shown by the movement. Also this shot linked to the sound in terms of what mood it was used in (images in the bottom right hand corner) Panning shot used in Screamto allow the audience to see what the character is viewing but also in this case builds intensity because we see what the villain is viewing but the audience still doesn’t know who the suspected villain is. (the images in the bottom left hand corner). Extreme close ups and close ups were used throughout all these films the extreme close ups where used to show detail and the importance of it for example in Misery the audience experience a extreme close up of red match which has a connation of danger and also of the character writing ‘the end’ which may suggest the end of someone's life maybe. Close ups were used to portray facial expressions and to introduce the characters so the audience can get a sense of their personality from the off, if they might be the villain or the victim in Scream the audience get the feeling that the main character is a goody and is going to be a victim. This links to Propp’s narrative theory because a close ups enables you to see facial expressions which then allows the audience to tell by the expressions if the character is a villain or victim. Zooming shots in and out, were used to get the audience into the moment and when zooming into the image it stresses the importance of the image. This was used frequently in Scream and Texas chainsaw Massacre. Also the pace of the zooming is either slow which suggest that something is going to happen at that moment where as, fast zooming which loud non diegetic sounds brings a moment to where the audience may get scared and jump.
Lightings The main sources of lighting used throughout these films were darkness and bright but sharp lighting. However daylight was used within two of the films, Halloween and Misery suggesting that these films started like any other day for these characters allowing the film seem realistic and that the characters live normal life's. This links to Tzvetan Todorov narrative theory, where disruption of equilibrium may occur by an event. Darkness was used in Saw, Creep and Texas Chainsaw Massacre, this captures the fact that these will be scary/horror films with a connotation of darkness which is danger and evil. The dark mise en scene immediately alerts the audience to the genre of the film, which is important to get across in the opening minutes. Also, what allows the darkness to be effective in Saw is that there are two people in a claustrophobic room with no way out and the characters just wake up there not knowing where they are and also cuffed to a pipe pole. This is effective because the audience are placed in this frame of mind because it suggest that it could happen to anyone makes the scene more realistic. Harsh fluorescent light was used in Creep and slightly in Saw. In Creep it was used in a point of view shot with jagged shots which makes the lighting more effective. Also it allows the audience to ponder on why is the character viewing these disturbing images of bloody knives and bodies where it appears that someone is attempting to murder another. But also most importantly it sets the scene in terms of how scary the film is going to be and what it contains in terms of weapons.
Costumes The use of ordinary clothing in terms of what people may wear daily in this case polo-neck and trousers was used in Scream to portray innocence within the character, this was also used in Misery but as well as that their was connation of red used where the character was wearing a red shirt. This all suggest that ordinary clothing portrays the thought that the characters are innocent but it is the innocent people that find that trouble or bad things comes there way. Rough and dirty clothing was used in Saw portraying the thought of there social class and how less important the two characters are in terms of status, because they have been left in a abandon room with barely nothing. In Creep your unable to see costume within the first few minutes because the images are being shown from a point of view angle. Which portrays that the audience have not got a sense of what type of person this character is because your able to tell a lot from what people wear for example wealth and their culture. In Halloween there was a rat on screen which stereotypically nobody likes which makes the image need scarier and nastier. Also the use a mask shows that the character is hiding his face and maybe suggest that he could be a potential villain. In Scream the look of wealth in terms of the material of the clothing suggesting that the victim is portrayed to be better in term of money and class and stereotypically its the upper class who do not seem to cause trouble but however trouble seems to find them.
Characters Scream there is 1 character on screen another via the phone this actor having a distorted voice portraying that suspected villain doesn’t use his natural voice instead uses a reformed voice making it seem more mysterious and forces the audience to ponder on who it maybe and why but also most importantly how far this actor may go to torturing the character. The character on screen was a white woman seemed to be in her late teens like eighteen or nineteen. This actor seemed to be chosen to connect with the films targeted audience where this film is aimed at the age of 18 to 25s. Saw has 2 main characters, looking mentally unstable, they are men looking like they are in their late 20s. They were scared, panicking, shouting, started with blooded faces these various of emotions are all used together at the start to set the scene and to show what affect the location has on them from the start and the location has done to them mentally. In contrast to this, Halloween have a family as there main characters and seem like a disfunctional family including a middle age man and women and also a female teenager and male child. But also overall within these films there is only on average 2-3 characters at the start these usually being the most important characters throughout the film. Also straight away within the first few minutes the audience can get a sense of the characters’ personality and the mood they’re inby there clothing which can tell a lot about a person such as there wealthiest where in the top left hand corner you get the impression that the way he is dressed that he is not the wealthiest of people also added by him with a beard looking rough.
Characters positioning and movement Within all of the films the movement seems to be quick and timely expect in Saw where the 2 characters are in fixed positions because they are cuffed to a pipe pole but however in this fixed position they are panicky and shaky in a sense they want to get out of where they are. The actor in Scream starts to get hesitant in her movement after receiving treats though the phone. This type of movement from the characters expresses the film is a horror slasher because the characters are trying to get away from somebody suggesting quick pace of movement can have a good effect on the genre of the film and fulfil the potential high momentum which comes with that for the audience. The positioning of the character in Misery seems to be slender because firstly he starts in a position seating down and then he stood up and then next the viewers see him outside so the audience do not see at what pace the character is going at because within first few minutes he is always in a stationary position. Which suggest at the start of the film it may not be a horror slasher, but however with the character shown constantly in a stationary position and the movement of the characters arms is at a steady pace, suggest that the character is calm person so it shows what kind of person the character is. Also the positioning and movement of the character may suggest calmness because the character could end up being the villain because sometimes it is the innocent ones which are the bad ones.
Locations In Texas chainsaw massacre its set in a farm yard where they are using axes to chop and kill animals, the axes portraying how violent and dangerous can get throughout the film so is used from the start. Saw is set in a limited surrounding no sight of doors or window all suggest a feeling of claustrophobia and that is the main location because mainly the audience would be pondering on how the characters are going to escape. Scream is set in a house starting in the kitchen, in the middle of nowhere surrounded by big trees and nearby a field showing that within these horror slasher film they are staged within an area where the surroundings are bare and less people are there to witness the potential violence and torture which happens to this character. Also the location of Misery is similar to Scream because u do not see any other houses within sight from where its set location which in this film may suggest that this character is only and keeps himself to himself. As well as this Halloween starts by setting the film in a messy kitchen suggesting that the characters are any normal family and the film starts off as an equilibrium. Also both Scream and Halloween are set in the kitchen, this being the place in the house where sharp and useable weapons are kept such as knives, where in Scream Knives are shown in the centre of the kitchen. Within the first few minutes of Creep it is not clear to see where it is set but however it does not look like a good environment .
Editing In Saw fading out was used to flashback in time. Change in colour, fast editing, fast forwarding, cut away shot. These all types of editing added to the effectiveness of the images but also with the fading effects on how the film is shown because flashbacks normally within horror slashes consists with a twist at the end of the film such as in Saw where the villain all along in the film was the character lying apparently dead on the middle of the floor in the claustrophobic room. Reaction shots was used on the victim to allow the audience to get into the narrative and the frame mind for when the irresistible outcome happens. Where in Scream a reaction cut was used when the character heard a comment which scared the character which then the intent reaction for the character was to run where the editing was fast and the facial expression, where her eyes widened and her mouth was left hanging expressed how scared the character was. Also cut away shots where used for the momentum of the scene. A matched shot was used in Misery and Halloween when an incident occurred which allows the incident to have more of an effect and shows the reality of the incident happening. An motivation cuts where used when diegetic sounds were used to enable a reaction from the characters more effective such as in Creep. This is a matched cut below This is a reaction shot below
Sounds The most commonly used type of sound was silence overall which adds intensity and builds up momentum that something is going to happen this was used in all of the films apart from Creep. Also non-diegetic sounds were used, for example a piece of music which always matched with the on- screen movement or atmosphere. This allows audience to get more in tuned into the moment and movement. Also with the use of spooky non- diegetic sound, it gets the audience slightly scared also it enables the audience to anticipate that something may suddenly happen. Diegetic sounds for example from a bird were used Creep to then produce a reaction shot from character. As well as this it was used Saw where a character screamed to get the audience scared from the start and to express from the start that the film is a horror. Sounds of metal was also used in Saw and Creep from the start to suggests what weapons may be used in the film but also it adds to make film more scarier and also to express that the films are slashers because of this use of sound as well as this, the sound suggests the involvement of weapons which it is used to connate the genre too. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Opz1kxZSk10 Saw clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=peggLQ1fLg8 Creep clip
Colour The use of the colour red has been used strongly within all these films but especially in Creep and Misery where its use to connate danger by the use of red clothing (gloves) in Creep and Misery use typography as well clothing and mise en scene to connate danger and blood. Overall within these films the use of red was shown by blood from where violence or an accident has occurred. Black which connotes to darkness, evil, suffering and at times danger was used strongly in these films apart from Misery and Halloween for different uses. Saw and Texas chainsaw massacre use the colour mainly to frighten the characters more because in this case these characters where already suffering and scared, where in Saw the characters where kept and tortured in a claustrophobic and abandoned location so with darkness it makes the situation more effective too. So also the colour influences the location of scenery and the type of atmosphere it holds. White/ Cream clothing was used in Scream to suggest innocence because white can be seen to connate to holiness. But as well as this ghosts where in Scream the mask used is white and is stereotypical looking of a ghost. Also the look of wealth (in terms of the material) suggesting that the victim is portrayed to be better in term of money and class and stereotypically its the upper class who do not seem to cause trouble but however trouble seems to find them.
Mise en scene In Saw, Halloween and Texas chainsaw Massacre the background looks rough and dirty. In Saw the walls look jagged and filthy a dead body on the fall covered in blood. Rough and old looking scenery, dirty, messy, looked abandoned, makes audience to ponder on the thought how these characters get there and why are they there. Halloween first set in the kitchen on looks dirty and uncared for because the room is in a mess. But on the other hand it may suggest that this room is looked after like a typical family and that they have family problems within the household. From the mise en scene you can gather a great deal of people’s culture and wealth. Texas chainsaw Massacre had images of smoke which suggests thoughts of danger and fire which again are conventions of horror films because these are things which people are afraid of, also fire is something which the audience can imagine and know fire and smoke is bad. Within Scream and Misery the mise en scene looks tidy and neat and that the characters in these 2 films are normal and wealthy and adds to the sense that they are innocent and are just living a normal life. However in Misery there is connation of red where the character uses a red matchstick. Also in Scream Knives placed in the centre of room as a prop and then used as a weapon, placed in the centre to add to connate the genre, in which horrors involve weapons/arms but also most importantly that it may be used.
Evaluation of films Overall I have realise that each convention links to another strongly for example lighting and the location. Also they all have many common similarities in terms of what colours are used and what they connote to and what they suggest. The conventions of titling are strong in a sense that they either relate to the on screen action for example Creep and Saw the colour they in connotes a subject which is significant. Also all titling have a meaning towards the films in terms of how strongly they represent the film. There are numerous camera angles/shots used within these 6 films, but what they have in common are that they all used significant angles/shot from the start so the audience are able to get feel what sort characters are or to allow the audience to get sense of the scenery or the on-screen movement. Close ups, tracking shots and medium shot are few shots used to portray this. Lighting is used in opposites ways, to convey feelings and to set the atmosphere but however in Saw two different types of lighting are used convey the same feeling. The most commonly used lighting which were used within 4 of these films was darkness mainly because within these films they start by getting straight to the action where as Halloween and Misery they start as an equilibrium so daylight lighting is used to show the on screen atmosphere. Costumes vary within these films, where dirty and rough clothing were used to show that the on- screen atmosphere is not at an balance where as in Scream smart clothing were used to show the on- screen atmosphere is stable but however these conventions suggest to the audience that the horridness that happens to these characters can happen to anyone which makes the film that extra scary. The average amount of characters used within these films from the first few minutes are 2 characters . The use of amount of characters within the opening of the film portrays the expression on those characters importance within the film and the significance of them. Also the positioning and movement of the characters allows the audience to get into the mind of the characters and also expresses how the characters are feeling. For example fast movement would suggest that there scared and are panicking trying to escape from something or someone. Also where as a strong positioning of a character such as them standing up tall looking dominant would suggest there importance and the dominant figure they have within the film. The location overall are either in a claustrophobic room or set in an countryside/village where there is a smaller population their. The effectiveness of these locations is that in a claustrophobic room it scares the on-screen character but also leaves the audience with questions. Where as on a countryside/village with a small population their, there is a smaller chance that if there was a murder that the murderer would more likely get away with it because of a less chance of witnesses. The use of editing is important within the opening of films because it has a big part on how the film is set and also expresses what genre the film is such as sharp reaction and motivation shots which causes reactions from the characters but most importantly the audience. Editing is strongly linked to sound in terms of the diegetic/non- diegetic sound or silence makes the editing cuts more effective. Most common type sound which was used was silence in which its used where are audience can anticipate something is going to happen and creates moments of intensity. As well as this diegetic and non- diegetic sound was used to make the on-screen movement and the editing more effective and to build momentum. Black, red, white were common colours used within these films because of what they connote so they have a strong impact on expressing the genre. As well as this fluorescent colours where used to express the genre and to harm the characters because you cannot look at fluorescent light directly. Mis en scene is strongly linked to the location of scenery. Within these films the mis en scene was either rough or dirty looking to show what type of enviroment they are in or what social class the characters are in. But as well as this it expresses on what the genre of the film is, where in Scream and Texas chainsaw massacre they have knives in the background suggest that there is going to be violence within the film.
Saw- The Narrative Theory Who is the hero and who is the villain? How do you know? The villain is not known from watching the first few minutes, the characters image has been distorted with a mask and also the characters voice has been distorted so the victims but also the audience have no idea on who the villain is. There are no hero's within this film there are only to victims. Where is the story set? What does this tell you about the genre of the film? This film is set in a claustrophobic room with no sign of any doors portraying no way out. This suggests right from the start that it is a horror because when in a claustrophobic area it makes people feel that they are in danger zone and scared but most importantly makes them and the audience ponder on the thought how are they going to escape. How many principal characters? There are two characters which are visually seen on-screen and another known to be within the film through a speaker and also the allocation is hidden of the character. Also there is a dead suppose dead body in the middle of the room. How is the story told? The story is some what told chronologically but also has flashbacks within the film showing why the victims are placed in this predicament. The effect this has is that it gives the audience a greater understanding on what is happening in the film and why. What questions are you left with? The main question the audience is left with is who is the villain? Also how are these victims going to get out the claustrophobic room? This film also relates to Propp’s narrative theory slightly in which there is a villain but from the first few minutes the audience do not get a sense to if there is hero or princess involved. Also Rolande Barthes’s narrative theory also links to this film in a way that the audience are left with question that they want answering which encourages and engages the audience to want watch more of the film. Typically you could apply Claude Levi Strauss’ theory of narrative structure and binary oppositions in a horror film. However, in the opening to Saw connotations of light and dark, light equalling good and dark equalling bad do not apply. Darkness is used to highlight the suffering of the victim at the hands of the killer, which is what we would expect but, light (albeit a very harsh, fluorescent light) is also used to highlight the suffering of the victim at the hands of the killer – thereby emphasising only the bad, and not the good. This film has not got Todorov narrative theory because the film gets straight to the action, the effect of this is that it allows the audience to get sucked into the film from the off.
Scream- The Narrative Theory Who is the hero and who is the villain? How do you know? There is an unknown villain in terms that the character is not on screen but the audience are allowed to hear a distorted voice of the villain character through a telephone call with the potential victim. Within the first few minutes the audience do not get a hint to if there is a hero. Where is the story set? What does this tell you about the genre of the film? In a house where there appears to be just a field and trees surrounding the house. This suggests that because it set in a place where not many people appear to be or go that the film may build up moments of spookiness and that the film is going to be a horror slasher because of the location. Where if the villain attempted murder the on screen character its easily possible the villain could easily get away. Also the location of the film suggest that there might be killings involved because killings are normally done where there are less people there to witnesses the incident. How many principle characters? 2 main characters at the start the villain and the first potential victim. How is the story told? The story is told chronologically. Within this film the effect that is having is that it provides good flow for the sequence of events which happen. Also produces better momentum and tension for when they happen. What questions are you left with? Who is the villain and why is it that these characters are being targeted? Also how far will the villain go to attempt to torture this character? These questions which the audience are left with link to Rolande Barthes narrative theory. Propp’s narrative theory is used vaguely in terms of there is a villain within the opening of film however is not shown on- screen this done so not everything shown and told within the opening but still keeps the audience engaged for the rest of the film so there are still things to find out and to be shocked about for the audience. Todorov narrative theory is not used in this film because the film gets straight to the plot and action. This enables the audience to get into the film from the off and be engaged.
Misery- The Narrative Theory Who is the hero and who is the villain? How do you know? There is no hero or villain throughout the start of this film because is starts as at a equilibrium which relates to Todorov’s narrative theory so we the audience do not get a glimpse of a hero or villain. This is gathered by the actions of the character and how the opening is at an equilibrium. Where is the story set? What does this tell you about the genre of the film? On the countryside with the weather being snowy. The snow connotes danger in terms of accidents which occur in the snow. The location of where this is set from the start suggests about the genre that it may not be a horror but however because of what the snow connotes to suggest that any thing could happen at any moment. Especially as white connate ghosts this may suggest that the incident which happens is unpredictable because ghosts are unpredictable where stereotypically they are not visible so you will not be able to predict the outcome of the outcome. How many principle characters? 1 main character this expresses the importance of this character because he is the main and only character in the opening suggesting that he has a key role in the film. How is the story told? It is told chronological which again produces a good flow within the film when the sequence of events happen. What questions are you left with? Why is this character significant? -because he is shown on-screen first for a long period of time. When are the sequence of event going to start for the main plot to happen and how. The opening of this film relates to Todorov’s narrative theory where the opening is at an equilibrium and then a dramatic incident occurs to break the equilibrium the effect of this is that it is unexpected and starts to get the film going, in terms of the action and the plot of the film. Rolande Barthes narrative theory is used within this opening because the audience do not know much about the opening character and want to find out about the characters role and the importance of it. The importance of this theory is that the audience will still be interested in watching the rest of the film that why it is important not to give to much information at the beginning which this film does well but give enough so that the audience are to engaged into the film and interested.
Texas chainsaw of massacre (2006)- The Narrative Theory Who is the hero and who is the villain? How do you know? The opening of this film opposes the majority of Propp’s narrative theory because there are not none of his types of characters such as villains and helpers within the opening of this film apart from there being a victim. Where is the story set? What does this tell you about the genre of the film? On a farmyard but also in a location where the animals are killed. This has significance to the genre of the equipment within the allocation for example saws and axes which are potential usable weapons which can be used to kill someone. That suggest that this film is a horror and slasher. How many principle characters? 2 main characters from the start a middle aged female and man. How is the story told? Chronologically, the effect that this has is that in some events it can make most incidents which happen seem unpredictable because your watching the film in sequence where as flashbacks can give hints, so chronological showing leaves the audience pondering on the thought on what might happen next the majority of the time. What questions are you left with? Why did that event happen to the woman?- The death and what is the importance of that event. Rolande Barthes narrative theory is used vaguely in which there is not much questions the audience are left with but however not much goes on in the opening so the audience do not no much about what is going on, in terms of the plot of the film. Todorov’s narrative theory was not applied within this film because there was a death from the start where female character gave birth and died from it. So this film does not start at an equilibrium. Claude Levi Strauss narrative theory was used in the opening in terms of the woman being alive and within seconds dying, the effect of this is that life can taken way at any moment which makes it realistic because some people die from giving birth. So this makes the audience more scared and engaged because the event of the death can happen in real live and this catches the attention of the audience from the start because of the way the character died.
Halloween (2007)- The Narrative Theory Who is the hero and who is the villain? How do you know? There appears to be no villains or heroes in the opening It starts at a equilibrium which expresses that. But however with 1 of the characters wearing a mask may suggest that he is going to be the villain. In which the outcome that is seen to be true outside the opening of this film where the teenager is the villain. Where is the story set? What does this tell you about the genre of the film? Set in a house on a appeared to be village. The effect this has on the genre is that villages are small so then less people live there, which gives a sense that its a good location for potential villains to commit a murder which expresses that it is going to be a horror and slasher film because of the location and it suggests. Also in villages there will be less people to be able to witness a murder because of the minority which live in a village. How many principle characters? 4 characters together as a family, 2 teenagers a female and male along with the middle aged parents. How is the story told? Chronologically shown, at the start viewers are shown the date of when it starts from (August). The effect of this is that suggests to the audience that the film may have not started in the present and could potentially the film may consist flashbacks showing other days. This gets the audience wandering on what may had happened previously to the opening of the film and if its going to be revealed. This makes the audience want to watch more and get engaged into the film. What questions are you left with? What is going to happen on Halloween and how significant is the teenager going be in the event. How may the teenager commit a crime?- suggested by the mask suggesting that he is going to have an distorted image. This film starts as an equilibrium where the family is in a conflict as well as the house in looking messy adds to the thought that they shown as working class people which expresses that this consists with Todorov’s narrative theory because of the equilibrium within the opening where the conflict which is being shown on-screen happens in real life. Also with the audience left with question the opening of the film links to Rolande Barthes narrative theory the effect of this is that it makes the audience interested in the film and makes the them want to watch the rest of the film. This film opposes Propp’s narrative theory where there is not seen within the opening to be none of his types of characters such as villains or princess.
Creep- The Narrative Theory Who is the hero and who is the villain? How do you know? It is shown to there has been a villain, where there is a character dead lying down Where is the story set? What does this tell you about the genre of the film? In a claustrophobic area which suggests right from the start that it is a horror because when in a claustrophobic area it makes people feel that they are in danger zone and scared. How many principle characters? 1 within the first few minutes- middle aged woman How is the story told? Chronologically with flashbacks within the film. What questions are you left with? What has happened to this woman and why? Why is she seeing what she is seeing? The first few minutes of this film links to Rolande Barthes narrative theory where the audience are left to ponder on questions they want answering which makes them want to watch on and allows the audience to get into the film. Also Propps narrative theory is also linked to this film where the film screens a victim lying down dead. Todorovs narrative theory is opposed where the film does not start at an equilibrium , it gets straight to action. Claude Levi Strauss narrative theory is used with sharp fluorescent light and dark light was used within the opening of the film maybe suggesting there is to sides to the opening character.