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A Data Commons in the Exchange Space
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A Data Commons in the Exchange Space

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  • 1. !!!!!!"#$%&!()&*+!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"!#$%$!&(()*!+)!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%,-!./0,$)1-!23$0-! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 45-1!6+778! 9:)7-5!$)7!&.;! 6$5-)!4+<<578!=5-*+7-)%! ! ! ! ! ! ! ,&)%&-.&*!/01!23/3! ! !
  •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
  •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`:!)*8<$%:!@&*$A&!<*8-!8)%$-$J$9F!=>$=LI%#*8?F#:!89!$%:!8E9!(9@!%#$*@!)(*%B!:$%&:a!(9@!-(J89`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
  •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• =*%+)1!"=>!c!%8!*&F?>(%&!S?(>$%B!8<!$9=8-$9F!*(E!@(%(!)8:%$9F:1!&CFC1!=89<$*-$9F!@(%(! :8?*=&:!(9@!L&&)$9F!*&@?9@(9%!)8:%$9F:!<*8-!&9%*B!%8!%#&!78--89:a! b!
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