Linked Data TutorialOpen Government Knowledge: AI Opportunities and Challenges (OGK2011)                      AAAI Fall Sy...
What isLinked Data?
Silos      $ cat foo.txt      | grep blah |      sort 1970sA neat little                        1980s           1990s     ...
SilosEmail   Databases   Proprietary                    containers
Universal Client              Ubiquitous,                             reusable applications                               ...
The Web of Documents• A global network of linked documents• A place where anyone can say   anything about anything• A vast...
Data Inflation     Megabyte (MB) = 220     Gigabyte (GB) = 230 Terabyte (TB) = 240 1,000GB  Petabyte (PB) = 250 1,000TBExab...
Universal Client              Ubiquitous,                             reusable applications                               ...
The Web of Data• A global network of linked statements• A place where anyone can say   anything about anything• A vast col...
We’ve Seen This Before
RDF:A data format for     the Web
RDF is ...• Resource Description Framework   http://www.w3.org/RDF/• A simple, powerful, data model• Used to define relatio...
Allow  anyoneto say anythingabout anything
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?        id=1969-059A
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?        id=1969-059A                              NASA - NSSDC - Space...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?        id=1969-059A                              NASA - NSSDC - Space...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?        id=1969-059A                              NASA - NSSDC - Space...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                                                    Apollo 11 Command andnmc/sp...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                    about   Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?     ...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                    about   Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?     ...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                    about   Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?     ...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                    about   Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?     ...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                    about   Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?     ...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                    about   Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?     ...
Spacecraft                    Name                        Mass      Launched     Launch Site1969-018A                     ...
Spacecraft                    Name                        Mass      Launched     Launch Site1969-018A                     ...
Spacecraft                    Name                        Mass      Launched     Launch Site1969-018A                     ...
Spacecraft                    Name                        Mass      Launched     Launch Site1969-018A                     ...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                    about   Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?     ...
Spacecraft                    Name                        Mass      Launched     Launch Site1969-018A                     ...
Spacecraft                    Name                        Mass             Launched         Launch Site1969-018A          ...
Spacecraft                    Name                        Mass             Launched         Launch Site1969-018A          ...
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                    about   Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?     ...
Apollo 11 Command and    Service Module          name                    Apollo 11 Command and Service Module   launched  ...
Apollo 11 Command and                              launchsite                                                             ...
ResourceApollo 11 Command and                              launchsite                                                     ...
ResourceApollo 11 Command and                              launchsite                                                     ...
ResourceApollo 11 Command and                              launchsite                                                     ...
Resources...• Represent things on the web, like web   pages — Information Resources• Represent things not on the web, like...
Literal Values...• Are values to work with and show   users• Can be just a string of text — Plain   Literals• Can have a l...
Predicates are...• Relationships between Resources• Named using URIs• Described in Schema  (or vocabularies, or ontologies)
Apollo 11 Command and   launchsite                    name      Cape Canaveral,                                     Cape C...
Apollo 11 Command and   launchsite                    name      Cape Canaveral,                                     Cape C...
Subject                   Predicate           Object  Apollo 11 Command and     launchsite                    name      Ca...
Statement or TripleSubject                   Predicate           Object  Apollo 11 Command and     launchsite             ...
Statement or TripleSubject                   Predicate              Object  Apollo 11 Command and     launchsite          ...
Apollo 11 Command and                              launchsite                                                             ...
ResourceApollo 11 Command and                              launchsite                                                     ...
Apollo 11 Command and                              launchsite                                                             ...
http://...Apollo 11 Command and                              launchsite      http://...                                   ...
http://...Apollo 11 Command and                              launchsite      http://...                                   ...
http://...Apollo 11 Command and                              launchsite      http://...                                   ...
Simple Rules for Merging• URIs name the resources we are  describing• Two people using the same URI are  describing the sa...
Simple Rules for Merging• Graphs from several different sources   can be merged• Resources with the same URI are   conside...
Linked Data can be merged withother Linked Data
No silos
RDF...• is a Graph data model    XML is a tree data model    RDBMS is a table data model•   can be easily distributed•   i...
The Future of Linked Data
YouTube           HDTV                 watch Betterwatch videos                    videosPublish videosShare videos Rate v...
Linked Data     RDBMS  Use data      Use data Publish data Share data  Rate data Discuss data
Coming SoonLinked Data warehousesLinked Data supply chainsLinked Data analytics
Further Reading     http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/http://3roundstones.com/linking-enterprise-data/http://3roundst...
Callimachus
Credits    Batman Treaty Signing      http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/       (public domain)         Ba...
Credits Head with 3D Glasses    Mark Chapman           http://www.flickr.com/photos/markchapmanphoto/5139429152/   (CC-BY l...
Thanks to• Rob Styles, Talis Group Ltd for his CC-BY  licensed “Two Day Introduction to the Web  of Data” slides and space...
This work is Copyright © 2011 3 Round Stones Inc.It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licens...
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
Linked data tutorial 20111102
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Linked data tutorial 20111102

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Linked data tutorial 20111102

  1. 1. Linked Data TutorialOpen Government Knowledge: AI Opportunities and Challenges (OGK2011) AAAI Fall Symposium David Wood 3 Round Stones Inc. November 2011
  2. 2. What isLinked Data?
  3. 3. Silos $ cat foo.txt | grep blah | sort 1970sA neat little 1980s 1990s Client-Server The Early Web package
  4. 4. SilosEmail Databases Proprietary containers
  5. 5. Universal Client Ubiquitous, reusable applications URL CurationUniversal Connection Web Universal File System
  6. 6. The Web of Documents• A global network of linked documents• A place where anyone can say anything about anything• A vast collection of human-readable knowledge (and opinion)• Documents are linked, but links are not qualified
  7. 7. Data Inflation Megabyte (MB) = 220 Gigabyte (GB) = 230 Terabyte (TB) = 240 1,000GB Petabyte (PB) = 250 1,000TBExabyte (EB) = 260 or 1,000PBZettabyte (ZB) = 270 or 1,000EBYottabyte (YB) = 280 or1,000ZB
  8. 8. Universal Client Ubiquitous, reusable applications URL Curation Logic andUniversal Connection interlinking Web of Data Universal Database
  9. 9. The Web of Data• A global network of linked statements• A place where anyone can say anything about anything• A vast collection of machine-readable knowledge (and opinion)• Statements are linked, and links are qualified
  10. 10. We’ve Seen This Before
  11. 11. RDF:A data format for the Web
  12. 12. RDF is ...• Resource Description Framework http://www.w3.org/RDF/• A simple, powerful, data model• Used to define relationships between things• Designed to work with the architecture of the web• The data model for the Web of Data
  13. 13. Allow anyoneto say anythingabout anything
  14. 14. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? id=1969-059A
  15. 15. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? id=1969-059A NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details title
  16. 16. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? id=1969-059A NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details title 23 November 2009 published
  17. 17. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? id=1969-059A NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details title 23 November 2009 published size 15702
  18. 18. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details title 23 November 2009 published size 15702
  19. 19. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ about Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details title 23 November 2009 published size 15702
  20. 20. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ about Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details title 23 November 2009 published size 15702 a Web Page
  21. 21. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ about Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details title 23 November 2009 published size 15702 a a Web Page Spacecraft
  22. 22. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ about Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A name NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details Apollo 11 Command and Service Module title 23 November 2009 published size 15702 a a Web Page Spacecraft
  23. 23. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ about Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A name NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details Apollo 11 Command and Service Module title launched 23 November 2009 16 July 1969 published size 15702 a a Web Page Spacecraft
  24. 24. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ about Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A name NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details Apollo 11 Command and Service Module title launched 23 November 2009 16 July 1969 published size mass 15702 28801.0 a a Web Page Spacecraft
  25. 25. Spacecraft Name Mass Launched Launch Site1969-018A Apollo 9 26801.0 1969-03-03 11969-030A Mariner 7 411.8 1969-03-27 11969-043A Apollo 10 28834.0 1969-05-18 11969-059A Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28801.0 1969-07-16 11969-059C Apollo 11 Lunar Module / EASEP 15065.0 1969-07-16 11969-099A Apollo 12 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28790.0 1969-11-14 11970-029C Apollo 13 Lunar Module/ALSEP 15196.0 1970-04-11 11970-029A Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28945.0 1970-04-11 1
  26. 26. Spacecraft Name Mass Launched Launch Site1969-018A Apollo 9 26801.0 1969-03-03 11969-030A Mariner 7 411.8 1969-03-27 11969-043A Apollo 10 28834.0 1969-05-18 11969-059A Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28801.0 1969-07-16 11969-059C Apollo 11 Lunar Module / EASEP 15065.0 1969-07-16 11969-099A Apollo 12 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28790.0 1969-11-14 11970-029C Apollo 13 Lunar Module/ALSEP 15196.0 1970-04-11 11970-029A Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28945.0 1970-04-11 1
  27. 27. Spacecraft Name Mass Launched Launch Site1969-018A Apollo 9 26801.0 1969-03-03 11969-030A Mariner 7 411.8 1969-03-27 11969-043A Apollo 10 28834.0 1969-05-18 11969-059A Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28801.0 1969-07-16 11969-059C Apollo 11 Lunar Module / EASEP 15065.0 1969-07-16 11969-099A Apollo 12 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28790.0 1969-11-14 11970-029C Apollo 13 Lunar Module/ALSEP 15196.0 1970-04-11 11970-029A Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28945.0 1970-04-11 1
  28. 28. Spacecraft Name Mass Launched Launch Site1969-018A Apollo 9 26801.0 1969-03-03 11969-030A Mariner 7 411.8 1969-03-27 11969-043A Apollo 10 28834.0 1969-05-18 11969-059A Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28801.0 1969-07-16 11969-059C Apollo 11 Lunar Module / EASEP 15065.0 1969-07-16 11969-099A Apollo 12 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28790.0 1969-11-14 11970-029C Apollo 13 Lunar Module/ALSEP 15196.0 1970-04-11 11970-029A Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28945.0 1970-04-11 1
  29. 29. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ about Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A name NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details Apollo 11 Command and Service Module title launched 23 November 2009 16 July 1969 published size mass 15702 28801.0 a a Web Page Spacecraft
  30. 30. Spacecraft Name Mass Launched Launch Site1969-018A Apollo 9 26801.0 1969-03-03 11969-030A Mariner 7 411.8 1969-03-27 11969-043A Apollo 10 28834.0 1969-05-18 11969-059A Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28801.0 1969-07-16 11969-059C Apollo 11 Lunar Module / EASEP 15065.0 1969-07-16 11969-099A Apollo 12 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28790.0 1969-11-14 11970-029C Apollo 13 Lunar Module/ALSEP 15196.0 1970-04-11 11970-029A Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28945.0 1970-04-11 1
  31. 31. Spacecraft Name Mass Launched Launch Site1969-018A Apollo 9 26801.0 1969-03-03 11969-030A Mariner 7 411.8 1969-03-27 11969-043A Apollo 10 28834.0 1969-05-18 1 ID Name1969-059A Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28801.0 1969-07-16 1 1 Cape Canaveral, United States1969-059C Apollo 11 Lunar Module / EASEP 15065.0 1969-07-16 1 2 Tyuratam (Baikonur Cosmodrome), U.S.S.R1969-099A Apollo 12 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28790.0 1969-11-14 1 3 Xichang Space Launch Center1970-029C Apollo 13 Lunar Module/ALSEP 15196.0 1970-04-11 11970-029A Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28945.0 1970-04-11 1
  32. 32. Spacecraft Name Mass Launched Launch Site1969-018A Apollo 9 26801.0 1969-03-03 11969-030A Mariner 7 411.8 1969-03-27 11969-043A Apollo 10 28834.0 1969-05-18 1 ID Name1969-059A Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28801.0 1969-07-16 1 1 Cape Canaveral, United States1969-059C Apollo 11 Lunar Module / EASEP 15065.0 1969-07-16 1 2 Tyuratam (Baikonur Cosmodrome), U.S.S.R1969-099A Apollo 12 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28790.0 1969-11-14 1 3 Xichang Space Launch Center1970-029C Apollo 13 Lunar Module/ALSEP 15196.0 1970-04-11 11970-029A Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM) 28945.0 1970-04-11 1
  33. 33. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ about Apollo 11 Command andnmc/spacecraftDisplay.do? Service Module id=1969-059A name NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details Apollo 11 Command and Service Module title launched 23 November 2009 16 July 1969 published size mass 15702 28801.0 a a Web Page Spacecraft
  34. 34. Apollo 11 Command and Service Module name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module launched 16 July 1969 mass 28801.0 a Spacecraft
  35. 35. Apollo 11 Command and launchsite Cape Canaveral Service Module name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 mass 28801.0 a Spacecraft
  36. 36. ResourceApollo 11 Command and launchsite Cape Canaveral Service Module name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 mass 28801.0 a Spacecraft
  37. 37. ResourceApollo 11 Command and launchsite Cape Canaveral Service Module name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 Literal mass 28801.0 a Spacecraft
  38. 38. ResourceApollo 11 Command and launchsite Cape Canaveral Service Module name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 Literal Predicate mass 28801.0 a Spacecraft
  39. 39. Resources...• Represent things on the web, like web pages — Information Resources• Represent things not on the web, like people and places — Non-Information Resources• Can represent anything at all• Named using URIs (usually)• May not have a name — Blank Nodes
  40. 40. Literal Values...• Are values to work with and show users• Can be just a string of text — Plain Literals• Can have a language assigned to the them using ISO codes• Can have a specific datatype assigned to them — Typed Literals
  41. 41. Predicates are...• Relationships between Resources• Named using URIs• Described in Schema (or vocabularies, or ontologies)
  42. 42. Apollo 11 Command and launchsite name Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral Service Module United States Statement or Triple
  43. 43. Apollo 11 Command and launchsite name Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral Service Module United States Statement or Triple
  44. 44. Subject Predicate Object Apollo 11 Command and launchsite name Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral Service Module United States Statement or Triple
  45. 45. Statement or TripleSubject Predicate Object Apollo 11 Command and launchsite name Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral Service Module United States Statement or Triple
  46. 46. Statement or TripleSubject Predicate Object Apollo 11 Command and launchsite name Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral Service Module United States Subject Predicate Object Statement or Triple
  47. 47. Apollo 11 Command and launchsite Cape Canaveral Service Module name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 mass 28801.0 a Spacecraft
  48. 48. ResourceApollo 11 Command and launchsite Cape Canaveral Service Module name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 Literal Predicate mass 28801.0 a Spacecraft
  49. 49. Apollo 11 Command and launchsite Cape Canaveral Service Module name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 mass 28801.0 a Spacecraft
  50. 50. http://...Apollo 11 Command and launchsite http://... Cape Canaveral Service Module /1969-059A /cape+cana... name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 mass 28801.0 a http://... Spacecraft /Spacecraft
  51. 51. http://...Apollo 11 Command and launchsite http://... Cape Canaveral Service Module /1969-059A /cape+cana... name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 http://... /cape+cana... mass 28801.0 a http://... Spacecraft latitude /Spacecraft N 28° 27 31 longitude W 80° 31 59
  52. 52. http://...Apollo 11 Command and launchsite http://... Cape Canaveral Service Module /1969-059A /cape+cana... name name Apollo 11 Command and Service Module Cape Canaveral, United States launched 16 July 1969 latitude N 28° 27 31 mass 28801.0 longitude W 80° 31 59 a http://... Spacecraft /Spacecraft
  53. 53. Simple Rules for Merging• URIs name the resources we are describing• Two people using the same URI are describing the same thing• The same URI in two datasets becomes one URI with all of the properties from both datasets• RDF data can use URIs from many different websites
  54. 54. Simple Rules for Merging• Graphs from several different sources can be merged• Resources with the same URI are considered identical• No limitations on which graphs can be merged
  55. 55. Linked Data can be merged withother Linked Data
  56. 56. No silos
  57. 57. RDF...• is a Graph data model XML is a tree data model RDBMS is a table data model• can be easily distributed• is easily mergeable• can say anything about anything• is not new the spec is from 1999 the idea, EAV, stems back to the late 1960s
  58. 58. The Future of Linked Data
  59. 59. YouTube HDTV watch Betterwatch videos videosPublish videosShare videos Rate videosDiscuss videos
  60. 60. Linked Data RDBMS Use data Use data Publish data Share data Rate data Discuss data
  61. 61. Coming SoonLinked Data warehousesLinked Data supply chainsLinked Data analytics
  62. 62. Further Reading http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/http://3roundstones.com/linking-enterprise-data/http://3roundstones.com/linking-government-data/ http://www.linkeddatadeveloper.com/
  63. 63. Callimachus
  64. 64. Credits Batman Treaty Signing http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/ (public domain) Batman_signs_treaty_artist_impression.jpg) Centro Universitario deCiencias Exactas e Ingenierías, http://proton.ucting.udg.mx/galeria/3D/WEB.jpg Universidad de Guadalajara (public domain) Spreadsheet Photo Casey Serin http://www.flickr.com/photos/sercasey/351617208/sizes/l/in/photostream/ (CC-BY licensed) LOD Cloud Diagrams Richard Cyganiak, Anja http://lod-cloud.net/ Jentzsch, (CC-BY-SA)Earth weather analysis image NASA Goddard SFC http://www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4662884851/ CC-BY Darkon Movie Poster, BBC screenshots, CAMC credit card image and book covers © their respective owners and used under Fair Use for educational purposesAll other photos and drawings © 2010-11 David Wood, released under a CC-BY-SA license
  65. 65. Credits Head with 3D Glasses Mark Chapman http://www.flickr.com/photos/markchapmanphoto/5139429152/ (CC-BY licensed) Chasm Photo Travis S. http://www.flickr.com/photos/baggis/3860802929/ (CC-BY-NC licensed) Supply Chain Image Kevin Krejci http://www.flickr.com/photos/kevinkrejci/6141829763/ (CC-BY licensed) Sharing Squirrels Image leezie5 http://www.flickr.com/photos/leeziet/5912219625/CC-BY-NC-ND licensed)
  66. 66. Thanks to• Rob Styles, Talis Group Ltd for his CC-BY licensed “Two Day Introduction to the Web of Data” slides and spacecraft example data.
  67. 67. This work is Copyright © 2011 3 Round Stones Inc.It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported LicenseFull details at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/You are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work to Remix — to adapt the workUnder the following conditions: Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.
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