When we consider higher education today, there are a few important perspectives to have in mind. First, we must consider the state of the world and the realities of today. Next, we need to consider the world of business today and how companies compete in an accelerating, dynamic, global market. Finally, we need to look at the impact on education.
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In University Relations, we focus on the intersection of Universities and their partners with the long-term interests of HP in the areas of recruiting and work-force development, research and intellectual engagement, philanthropy, sales, continuing education, and increasingly issues of public policy. <CLICK> For those of us who grew up in the ’60’s and ’70’s the idea of thinking globally and acting locally became engrained and second nature. <CLICK> Today, things have turned around, and inlight of globalization, we really must think locally but act against the global landscape. Clearly over the past five years, the emergence of China and India alone has changed economic expectations, opportunities, and success. And that ignores what ’s going on in Singapore, Tawain, Korea, Ireland, and a number of other countries. Clearly the balance of power is changing and it seems to be in direct relation with technical human resources and national systems of innovation that work. In the 1940 ’s, an Argentinia physists named Jorge Sabato invented a theory describing the necessary relationships between academia, industry, and government along with feed-back loops for constant improvement as prerequisite to an optimal system of innovation. He correctly said that if any of these paths in “Sabato’s triangle” were not strong, the national system of innovation would not function well. <CLICK> Development banks play a central role in creating systems at the national and sub-national level that work. Their partnership with industry, acedamia and governmental and non-governmental agencies is critical to getting beyond simple pilot projects into the realm of sustainable growth. <CLICK> At HP, we believe this works best against the backdrop of “enlightened self interest” where relationships are built on shared interests and mutual objectives and investments align to produce multiple, significant outcomes. This idea of “enlightened self interest”, not just self interest, creates partnerships that last, and have resilience and durability. When I talk about HP’s activities in this space, I’m focused today on the intersection of Universities with HP Lab’s more so than HP business or business strategies. What I want you to take away from this thinking about models, is that when multi-national companies like HP say they think “locally”, in the case of HP that means thinking about more than 170 countries. I don’t know if its true today, but at one point we had a statistic at HP showing that 2/3 rd of our revenue came from products introduced in the last two years. Clearly that shows the importance of invention and innovation to our bottom line and in today’s world “good business” means looking world-wide for the best ideas and competitive advantage. <CLICK>
Here is what I see going on today, just as a flash forward, because I don't think this has changed dramatically. You have got the North American innovation ecosystem there with government in that orange crowd and universities in the green one. What this is really trying to show is that the dominant share of funding, which comes from governments, and the processes and behaviors that are going back and forth are well understood. The difficulty is, in industry we have got global competitiveness issues. We have the opportunity to go out and get other research done. So the difficulty is, what is the strong attractor for us to work together. That still represents a serious issue. As Stan pointed out this morning, with more and more opportunities, people giving us money to go elsewhere and do the R&D and we keep the R&D, it is a pretty good deal. But clearly that isn't the total solution. That is something that neither HP nor IBM or any other company wants to use as its total solution.
The Knowledge Supply Chain is similar in concept to the material supply chain. HP and our university partners are engaged in a process of knowledge creation and transfer. Unfortunately, today the knowledge process is stratified between academia and industry. Both institutions generate knowledge and transfer knowledge, but in most cases there are major barriers between the two cultures that impact the ability of both to create new knowledge to satisfy society.
Outcomes for industry include more effective access to knowledge and reduced technology development and deployment cycles. For universities, the outcome includes increased funds and capacity for pursuing relevant basic research while insuring the long-term health of the academic research community.
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As an example, Singapore ’s rise to economic success was: - intentional - required significant investment - addressed the economy holistically - *** required universities, government and industry to work together, longterm, for the good of the country, on a visionary economic strategy
International Partnerships in various areas -Education of PhDs and Postdocs A*STAR has educational partnerships with many universities (Imperial, Cambridge, Oxford, Southampton, Karolinska, UIUC, Carnegie Mellon) Universities also have international partners (SUTD with MIT and Zhejiang, NUS has a Singapore –MIT Alliance) Cooperation with Industry SERC Aerospace Consortium (16 members currently, including key industrial players such as Rolls Royce, Boeing, and Pratt and Whitney) Recent Examples of International Partnerships involving Singapore IME and Stanford University to develop silicon nanowire circuits inspired by the brain (press release 21 July 2010) 4 companies (Rolls Royce, Vestas, SP PowerGrid and CEI Contract Manufacturing) partners with A*STAR to develop smart grid and distributed energy solutions (16 July 2010) GIS partners with Life Technologies Corporation (USA) to develop new DNA sequencing protocols (15 July 2010) Partnership between A*STAR ’s IME and NUH Heart Centre helped cut short the detection time for rare blood cells (endothelial progenitor cells) which is useful for the monitoring of abnormally high levels of these rare cells. Previously, detection using conventional flow cytometry required 4-5 hours, while the new method could ascertain the levels of these cells within 1 hour. *** Strategy + resources + sustained political will = a sustainable set of NEW opportunities it ’s the culture, stupid! Sabato ’s Triangle has been implemented and tuned for THEIR skills, situation and local need
Academic Track PhD talents who have keen interests in work relating to academia will be able to consider an academic track. There are three paths on the academia track: 1) Joint Appointments This pathway enables talents to focus on research conducted at A*STAR RIs while contributing a smaller portion of their time to teaching, supervision and academic service commitments at the university. Joint Appointees on this dual track will be considered for tenure or tenure track by the University whilst continuing with their research at A*STAR. 2) Secondment This pathway opens an avenue for scholars who show very strong inclination towards academia to be seconded full-time to the University on tenure track. 3) Adjunct Appointments This pathway associates scholars who are based full time at A*STAR RIs with the University faculty departments. Adjunct appointees contribute to academia through PhD supervision, A*STAR-university collaborations and other avenues. Startups -If you ’re in the electronics industry, you’ll be familiar with the problem of how the thin oxide films used to protect such devices are easily degraded as oxygen and water can seep through and penetrate the plastic barrier. The solution to this problem was developed by Terra-Barrier Films, a local company headed by two ex-researchers from A*STAR’s Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Dr Mark Auch and Mr Senthil Ramadas. Research -Please note that numbers in the slides are rounded off – Exact numbers are 13,068 papers published to date (FY2006-2010) and 952 primary patents applications filed to date (FY2006-2010) Industry -Please note that numbers in the slides are rounded off – Exact numbers are 851 A*STAR RSEs spun out to industry, including 155 RSEs to 102 SMEs through T-Up (2006 - 2009) -Photo of Dr Chow Keat Teng, Senior Manager, SPN International, Research fellow, A*STAR Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences; PhD, NUS, 2001. Dr Chow is heading a team that is trying to address the problem of computer hard disks crashing due to wear and tear using her expertise in chemical engineering. Research Leadership -An example of a researcher who have rose to research leadership positions is Prof Miranda Yap who helped to establish the Bioprocessing Technology Unit (BTU) in 1990, later renamed the Bioprocessing Technology Institute (BTI) in 2003. She went on to found two organisations, the Centre for Natural Product Research (now called Merlion Pharmaceuticals) and the Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Technology Center (now called A-Bio Pharma). -In 2006, Prof Yap was named a Foreign Associate to the United States National Academy of Engineering. She was also ED of the A*STAR Graduate Academy from 2006 -2009 and in 2009, was awarded the President ’s Science and Technology Medal. *** Faculty must be engaged in the new economy here are examples of opportunities, and the chance for new achievement, derived from partnerships
Investment in talent development and infrastructure Partnerships help to foster the exchange of ideas between local and foreign students, educators and researchers. Allows infusion of diverse viewpoints towards the solving of various problems encountered in R&D.
If there is one thing that we can do to make things better, it is to build strong relationships and partnerships between industry and universities. EC2000 was requested by industry and universities paid attention to this. < TALK ABOUT YOUR 19 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AT BOSTON UNIVERSITY >
The goal of the IEC will be to provide critical data and information products throughout the entire earthquake response cycle. Pre-Event Activities The pre-event part of the cycle includes planning and mitigation activities such as hazard mapping, risk assessment, and emergency preparedness. These activities takes place in the months to years before the event of an earthquake. Modelling of fault dynamics and understanding the potential for large and destructive earthquakes in a given area is part of this pre-event research. During Event These activities are triggered the moment an earthquake event has been detected. This includes early warning functions which can give 10s of seconds to minutes of warning to the public, allowing people to move into safe zones and for critical infrastructure (power, transportation, etc.) to be shut down. Other early warning functions include tsunami warnings following large off-shore earthquakes and volcano eruption warnings. Aftermath The aftermath activities occur in the immediate minutes and hours following an event, and can continue for years, depending on the amount of devastation and destruction caused by the earthquake. Actions taken during this phase are intended to provide emergency assistance for victims, to stabilize the situation and reduce the probability of secondary damage, and to speed recovery operations. These activities include crisis response and situational awareness of where the earthquake occurred, where the most damage is, the state of building and other infrastructure and where people are most impacted. The data that is collected, processed and provided here ranges from real-time damage assessments to longer term advice on re-building damaged infrastructure.
An increasing level of trust is developed in the partnership. Levels of engagement increasing as HP develops an increasing level of trust with a university. At the strategic partnership phase, the number of activities increases at all levels of the organization and the relationship becomes a holistic engagement since the level of trust has been developed.
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This is a tie-back to my chapter in an upcoming Glion Colloquium book. There are several partnership models, with increasing sophistication and value. 1-element situations are obvious – we won ’t talk about them. 2-element partnerships are quite common, and many of us have examples of these types of collaborations. 3-element partnerships are addressed within the model of Sabato ’s triangle, which we’ll talk about in the next slide. MegaCommunities represent a new model that enables multiple organizations to tackle complex problems that depend on collaboration among these organizations to achieve the desired goal.
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The model evolution that has been going on underneath … < USE TEXT IN SLIDE >
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< USE TEXT IN SLIDE > Also, mention HP Labs transition to Open Innovation and creation of Open Innovation Office
Sebato’s Triangle R edux: The PreferredM odel for Industry-University Partnership? Triple Helix Workshop “Building theEntrepreneurial University”Stanford UniversityTriple Helix Research GroupNovember 13, 2012 Wayne C. Johnson California Institute of Technology
Perspectives that Matter~ The State of the World ~ ~ The State of Business ~ ~ State of Education ~
The State of the World • Standards of Living • Economic Performance Globalization is here to stay, Driving Changes of Equilibrium in… • Educational Success
The State of Business Industry Adapts to Globalization • Explosive Growth (some regions) • Shrinking (others) + = • Rebalancing • Offshoring • Onshoring • Outsourcing • Insourcing • Downsizing • RightsizingUnrelenting Change
Sabato’s Triangle •Enlightened Self-Interest •Academia •S ab at ’so Tr •Foundations ian gl•Industry •Government e •National System of Innovation
Changing the Ecosystem:Opportunity For StrategicPartnership
Knowledge Supply Chain• Universities and industry generate knowledge and transfer knowledge.• Barriers between the two cultures impact the ability to create new knowledge to satisfy society.
The Knowledge Process of the Future• Outcomes for industry include more effective access to knowledge => reduced technology development cycles.• Outcomes for universities include increased funds and capacity for pursuing relevant basic research.
What is going on around the world? Developing nations are making significant investments in S&T and innovation for economic development10 25 Jan 2008
Transformation of Singapore’s200 Economy 10 Science &180 GDP 1960 US$0.7 bil Technology 9 2009 US$178 bil (254X) Plan 2010160 (2006-2010) 8 S$13.9 billion GERD 1978 S$37 mil140 Science & 7 2008 S$7.1 bil (192X) Technology GERD / GDP %120 Plan 2005 6 GERD/ 1978 0.2% National (2001-2005) Science &100 GDP % 2008 2.7% Technology Plan S$6 billion 5 2015 3.5% (1996-2000)80 S$4 billion 4 RSEs / 1990 27.7 National60 10K FTE 2008 87.6 (3.2X) Technology 3 Plan40 (1991-1995) 2 S$2 billion20 1 0 0 60 63 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 87 90 93 96 99 02 05 0819 19 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 Labour Skill Capital Technology Knowledge Based / intensive intensive intensive Intensive Innovation Driven
Partnerships in Talent Development Multiple Career Opportunities 13,000 papers published to date (FY2006-2010) 850 RSEs spun out to industry, including 150 RSEs to 100 SMEs 950 primary patents through T-Up to date (FY2006 – 2010) applications filed to date (FY2006-2010) Research Industry Start Ups Awarded President’s Science and Technology Medal in 2009 PhD RSEsA*STAR-Academia Pathway, Academia at A*STARUniversity Jointappointments,Adjunct appointmentsSecondment Research Leadership
Trends and IssuesCritical Success Factors• A clear, shared vision between partners• Sustained commitment to mutual goals• Investment in talent development and infrastructure• Policies that support R&D• Respect for intellectual property rights• Fluency in English• Ability to integrate across borders and disciplines14 25 Jan 2008
Universities Must Respond -Partnerships for the FutureNovember 8, 2012 17
Industry-Caltech interactions - 3 distinct levels Industry - University Relations Partnership Continuum Stra te gic Pa rtn e rs hip: Levels of Shared Aspirations Eng a g e m e nt Colla b o ra tion: Shared Ideas Level 3 Level 1 Extraction: Shared Tactics Level 2 Tra dition a l Eng a g e m e n t Holis tic Eng a g e m e nt 30 11 August 2010
Earthquake Disaster Management System Needs Pre-Event (months –years) • Risk Assessment • Emergency Preparedness • Risk Mitigation & Recovery Planning • Capacity BuildingAftermath (hours-years) During Event (seconds)• Emergency Response • Early Warning Alerts (10s• Situation Awareness of seconds)• Damage Assessment • Move to safe zone• Damage Mitigation • Shut down of critical infrastructure
IEC Strategic Partnerships Funding Model• Open collaboration benefitseveryone• Optimized investments forWin-Win-Win – Universities, industry and government – Improves ability to innovate in order to solve world-wide problems – Enhances international relationships and capabilities –Improved infrastructure and education benefits the world•Include otheruniversity/academic institutionsthat complement Caltech/JPLcapabilities
Models for Public Private tL o cal ly Ac Partnership in Higher a < -> lly ow … t Glo b ally lob is n -> Ac Education Th i nk G … oca lly < L ink Enlightened Self-Interest Th Academia Sa ba Foundations to ’s & T ria NGO’s ng le Industry Government National System of Innovation
The Partnership Continuum• An increasing level of trust is developed in the partnership.• The relationship becomes a holistic engagement in the strategic partnership phase.
“Innovation 3.0” “M vis io n is s im p ly this – the to p 5 0 -1 0 0 c o m p a nie s y a nd e ntre p re ne urs in A e ric a c o m e to g e the r a nd jo in m with g o ve rnm e nt a nd unive rs itie s to c re a te the ne x t e c o s y s te m p la tfo rm : s te e r the inve s tm e nts , m a na g e the c o m p le x ity , s o lve the p ro ble m s a nd is s ue s tha t a ris e , a nd wo rk to g e the r to c re a te the ne x t le ve l o f unbrid le d inno va tio n a nd p ro s p e rity . ” Wa y ne Jo hns o n Vic e Pre s id e nt, HP Unive rs ity Re la tio ns Wo rld wid e
“Today, the only remaining sustainable source of competitive advantage is implementation of new knowledge.” Lester ThurowNovember 8, 2012 26
Model Evolution• Over time, the higher-impact models have evolved from − 1-element (go-it-alone), − to 2-element partnerships, − and more recently to 3-element partnerships, − and finally Megacommunities
Vertically-Integrated Value Chains IBM Ideas, R&D , Circa: 70’s, 80’s for ICTs Pr oduct s, Technology Ser vices • Closed value-delivery systems (VDS) • Example: IBM in the early 70’s • “Go it alone” or, “Do everything yourself” philosophy • Little visibility to competencies “inside” the single VDS • Competitive at the “ends” of the model (Research, and Customer Delivery) • Essentially, a “black box” model, where something wonderful comes out at the end • Middle notes in VDS remain hidden from view, not exposed to competition, and relatively unoptimized
Partnered, Value Networks RaytheonIdeas, R&D , Pr oduct s, Technology Services Circa: late 80’s, early 90’s for ICTs Defense subcontractor • Beginning of transparent value-delivery systems (VDS) • Examples: Raytheon, defense subcontractors • Some outsourcing is taking place, along with selective insourcing and partnering (non-competitive) • Partners are still discouraged from working with competitors • Model is competitive at the “ends” (Research, and Customer Delivery), and co-operative in the middle • Distinctive competencies begin to emerge • Business leaders seek to gain leverage on the competencies the choose to keep “in-house”
The Emergence of Ecosystems … the Be g inning o f “O p e n” HP, Autodesk Pr oduct s,Ideas, R&D , Ser vices Technology Circa: late 90’s for ICTs Graphics Companies (ex. nVIDIA) • Optimization around distinctive (core) competencies • Examples: Boeing, HP, Autodesk, nVIDIA • Lines between “competitors” and “partners” begin to blur • All forms of cooperation are entertained • Model is both co-operative and competitive at each node in the VDS (“co- opetition”) • Disintermediation becomes the norm; spin-offs are common • Costs are driven down, efficiencies are gained, and the end-users and customers benefit significantly from increased contribution at much lower cost • Model decisions are managed and optimized on the 1st derivative – how things evolve and change over time (vs. static position, competitive position of today)
“Open” Value-Net based Ecosystems Pr oduct s,Ideas, R& D , Services Technology Circa: 2000+ for ICTs Olin student mfg. in China • Highly networked, multi-output, multi-stakeholder model • Examples: Individual entrepreneurs, Olin student • “Open Standards” enable rapid evolution, and intense competition • New value nodes are created and destroyed easily and frequently • World-class competencies are needed, in order to survive • One company’s deficiency becomes another company’s opportunity • Cross-discipline, cross-industry contributions are the norm • Cross-geography, cross-cultural “localizations” are the norm • Economies of scale are present, that are simply not possible in other models