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Sebato’s Triangle R edux: The PreferredM odel for Industry-University Partnership? Triple Helix Workshop “Building theEntrepreneurial University”Stanford UniversityTriple Helix Research GroupNovember 13, 2012 Wayne C. Johnson California Institute of Technology
Perspectives that Matter~ The State of the World ~ ~ The State of Business ~ ~ State of Education ~
The State of the World • Standards of Living • Economic Performance Globalization is here to stay, Driving Changes of Equilibrium in… • Educational Success
The State of Business Industry Adapts to Globalization • Explosive Growth (some regions) • Shrinking (others) + = • Rebalancing • Offshoring • Onshoring • Outsourcing • Insourcing • Downsizing • RightsizingUnrelenting Change
Sabato’s Triangle •Enlightened Self-Interest •Academia •S ab at ’so Tr •Foundations ian gl•Industry •Government e •National System of Innovation
Changing the Ecosystem:Opportunity For StrategicPartnership
Knowledge Supply Chain• Universities and industry generate knowledge and transfer knowledge.• Barriers between the two cultures impact the ability to create new knowledge to satisfy society.
The Knowledge Process of the Future• Outcomes for industry include more effective access to knowledge => reduced technology development cycles.• Outcomes for universities include increased funds and capacity for pursuing relevant basic research.
What is going on around the world? Developing nations are making significant investments in S&T and innovation for economic development10 25 Jan 2008
Transformation of Singapore’s200 Economy 10 Science &180 GDP 1960 US$0.7 bil Technology 9 2009 US$178 bil (254X) Plan 2010160 (2006-2010) 8 S$13.9 billion GERD 1978 S$37 mil140 Science & 7 2008 S$7.1 bil (192X) Technology GERD / GDP %120 Plan 2005 6 GERD/ 1978 0.2% National (2001-2005) Science &100 GDP % 2008 2.7% Technology Plan S$6 billion 5 2015 3.5% (1996-2000)80 S$4 billion 4 RSEs / 1990 27.7 National60 10K FTE 2008 87.6 (3.2X) Technology 3 Plan40 (1991-1995) 2 S$2 billion20 1 0 0 60 63 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 87 90 93 96 99 02 05 0819 19 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 Labour Skill Capital Technology Knowledge Based / intensive intensive intensive Intensive Innovation Driven
Partnerships in Talent Development Multiple Career Opportunities 13,000 papers published to date (FY2006-2010) 850 RSEs spun out to industry, including 150 RSEs to 100 SMEs 950 primary patents through T-Up to date (FY2006 – 2010) applications filed to date (FY2006-2010) Research Industry Start Ups Awarded President’s Science and Technology Medal in 2009 PhD RSEsA*STAR-Academia Pathway, Academia at A*STARUniversity Jointappointments,Adjunct appointmentsSecondment Research Leadership
Trends and IssuesCritical Success Factors• A clear, shared vision between partners• Sustained commitment to mutual goals• Investment in talent development and infrastructure• Policies that support R&D• Respect for intellectual property rights• Fluency in English• Ability to integrate across borders and disciplines14 25 Jan 2008
Universities Must Respond -Partnerships for the FutureNovember 8, 2012 17
Industry-Caltech interactions - 3 distinct levels Industry - University Relations Partnership Continuum Stra te gic Pa rtn e rs hip: Levels of Shared Aspirations Eng a g e m e nt Colla b o ra tion: Shared Ideas Level 3 Level 1 Extraction: Shared Tactics Level 2 Tra dition a l Eng a g e m e n t Holis tic Eng a g e m e nt 30 11 August 2010
Earthquake Disaster Management System Needs Pre-Event (months –years) • Risk Assessment • Emergency Preparedness • Risk Mitigation & Recovery Planning • Capacity BuildingAftermath (hours-years) During Event (seconds)• Emergency Response • Early Warning Alerts (10s• Situation Awareness of seconds)• Damage Assessment • Move to safe zone• Damage Mitigation • Shut down of critical infrastructure
IEC Strategic Partnerships Funding Model• Open collaboration benefitseveryone• Optimized investments forWin-Win-Win – Universities, industry and government – Improves ability to innovate in order to solve world-wide problems – Enhances international relationships and capabilities –Improved infrastructure and education benefits the world•Include otheruniversity/academic institutionsthat complement Caltech/JPLcapabilities
Models for Public Private tL o cal ly Ac Partnership in Higher a < -> lly ow … t Glo b ally lob is n -> Ac Education Th i nk G … oca lly < L ink Enlightened Self-Interest Th Academia Sa ba Foundations to ’s & T ria NGO’s ng le Industry Government National System of Innovation
The Partnership Continuum• An increasing level of trust is developed in the partnership.• The relationship becomes a holistic engagement in the strategic partnership phase.
“Innovation 3.0” “M vis io n is s im p ly this – the to p 5 0 -1 0 0 c o m p a nie s y a nd e ntre p re ne urs in A e ric a c o m e to g e the r a nd jo in m with g o ve rnm e nt a nd unive rs itie s to c re a te the ne x t e c o s y s te m p la tfo rm : s te e r the inve s tm e nts , m a na g e the c o m p le x ity , s o lve the p ro ble m s a nd is s ue s tha t a ris e , a nd wo rk to g e the r to c re a te the ne x t le ve l o f unbrid le d inno va tio n a nd p ro s p e rity . ” Wa y ne Jo hns o n Vic e Pre s id e nt, HP Unive rs ity Re la tio ns Wo rld wid e
“Today, the only remaining sustainable source of competitive advantage is implementation of new knowledge.” Lester ThurowNovember 8, 2012 26
Model Evolution• Over time, the higher-impact models have evolved from − 1-element (go-it-alone), − to 2-element partnerships, − and more recently to 3-element partnerships, − and finally Megacommunities
Vertically-Integrated Value Chains IBM Ideas, R&D , Circa: 70’s, 80’s for ICTs Pr oduct s, Technology Ser vices • Closed value-delivery systems (VDS) • Example: IBM in the early 70’s • “Go it alone” or, “Do everything yourself” philosophy • Little visibility to competencies “inside” the single VDS • Competitive at the “ends” of the model (Research, and Customer Delivery) • Essentially, a “black box” model, where something wonderful comes out at the end • Middle notes in VDS remain hidden from view, not exposed to competition, and relatively unoptimized
Partnered, Value Networks RaytheonIdeas, R&D , Pr oduct s, Technology Services Circa: late 80’s, early 90’s for ICTs Defense subcontractor • Beginning of transparent value-delivery systems (VDS) • Examples: Raytheon, defense subcontractors • Some outsourcing is taking place, along with selective insourcing and partnering (non-competitive) • Partners are still discouraged from working with competitors • Model is competitive at the “ends” (Research, and Customer Delivery), and co-operative in the middle • Distinctive competencies begin to emerge • Business leaders seek to gain leverage on the competencies the choose to keep “in-house”
The Emergence of Ecosystems … the Be g inning o f “O p e n” HP, Autodesk Pr oduct s,Ideas, R&D , Ser vices Technology Circa: late 90’s for ICTs Graphics Companies (ex. nVIDIA) • Optimization around distinctive (core) competencies • Examples: Boeing, HP, Autodesk, nVIDIA • Lines between “competitors” and “partners” begin to blur • All forms of cooperation are entertained • Model is both co-operative and competitive at each node in the VDS (“co- opetition”) • Disintermediation becomes the norm; spin-offs are common • Costs are driven down, efficiencies are gained, and the end-users and customers benefit significantly from increased contribution at much lower cost • Model decisions are managed and optimized on the 1st derivative – how things evolve and change over time (vs. static position, competitive position of today)
“Open” Value-Net based Ecosystems Pr oduct s,Ideas, R& D , Services Technology Circa: 2000+ for ICTs Olin student mfg. in China • Highly networked, multi-output, multi-stakeholder model • Examples: Individual entrepreneurs, Olin student • “Open Standards” enable rapid evolution, and intense competition • New value nodes are created and destroyed easily and frequently • World-class competencies are needed, in order to survive • One company’s deficiency becomes another company’s opportunity • Cross-discipline, cross-industry contributions are the norm • Cross-geography, cross-cultural “localizations” are the norm • Economies of scale are present, that are simply not possible in other models