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Katharine Ku


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  • 1. 42 Years Experience ofTechnology Licensing Katharine Ku Stanford University November 15, 2012
  • 2. Philosophy• Do what’s “best for the technology”• Foster good industrial relations• Be a business-driven office, not legally driven• Plant as many seeds as possible
  • 3. History• Started in 1970• Approx. 8,300 cumulative disclosures• Approx. 3,000 active cases• Executed over 3600 licenses• Approx. 1200 active licenses
  • 4. Notable Stanford Inventions 1970 – OTL Established 1971 - FM Sound Synthesis ($22.9M) 1974 – Recombinant DNA ($255M) 1981 – Phycobiliproteins ($46.4M), Fiber Optic Amplifier ($48.4M), MINOS ($4.1M) 1984 – Functional Antibodies ($318.9M) 1987 – Selective Amplification of Polynucleotides ($20.3M) 1990-1992 – DSL ($29.6M) 1993 – Microarrays ($2M), MIMO for Wireless Broadcast ($0.12M) 1994 – In vivo bioluminescent imaging ($7.2M) 1996 – Improved Hypertext Searching (GoogleTM)($337M) 2004 – Refocus Photography ($0.15M) 2013 – the next big thing ???
  • 5. The upside...• OTL has generated ~$1.47B in cumulative gross royalties• $920M were three big inventions• Over $1.2 billion stayed at Stanford/inventors• OTL has given $46.2M to the Research Incentive Fund
  • 6. Sobering Statistics• 3/9300 is a BIG WINNER (these three inventions generated 67% of the cumulative income)• 20 cases generated $5M or more• 68 cases generated $1M or more in cumulative royalties• $17.6M in unlicensed inventory• The University cannot count on royalties for university operating expenses
  • 7. 1970’s• First year $55,000• 50-70 disclosures a year• Inventions of note: • Music chip • FACS • Hybridomas• Staff of 3
  • 8. 1980’s• Dramatic increase in revenue – DNA cloning invention – Software – HIV, the “web”• Broke even after 15 years• Biotech emerging• equity discussions: conflicts of interest• 622 licenses/staff of 18/$14M
  • 9. 1990’s• Change in patent policy• New view of equity• Google, DSL technologies disclosed• Wireless inventions appearing• DNA patent expired• Income ~$25M-$61M-$40M• Staff of 24, $3M patent expenses
  • 10. 2000’s• Google IPO• Lots of start-ups at the beginning; the crash• Functional antibody royalties start• Interest in online education begins• Income growing ~$65M, 33 staff• $4M in patent expenses
  • 11. Present• Innovation is key – StartX, Biodesign, SPARK, Entrepreneurial classes• Acceleration to industry• Rise of China• Income: $76.7M, staff of 40, $8M patent expenses
  • 12. Future• More pressure to patent/more expenses• Pressure to do deals faster/streamline• More interest by entrepreneurs to start companies• Income cliff 
  • 13. Stanford “Best Practices”• Stay centered – Education and research come first• Do what’s best for the technology – Don’t chase the $$$ • The dollars will come if you do a good job• Plant as many seeds as possible – Some will bear fruit