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# ICP - Lecture 7 and 8

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### ICP - Lecture 7 and 8

1. 1. CSC 103 Lecture 7 & 8 Introduction to Computers and Programming
2. 2. The Decision Control 2  We need to alter our actions in the face of changing circumstances  If the weather is fine then I will go for a walk  If the highway is busy I would take a diversion  If the pitch takes spin, we would win the match  If I am feeling well then I will watch a movie  You can notice that all these decisions depend on some condition being met  C language too must be able to perform different sets of actions depending on the circumstances
3. 3. 3  Decision control instruction can be implemented in C using: (a) The if statement (b)The if-else statement (c)The conditional operators
4. 4. The if Statement 4  C uses the keyword if to implement the decision control instruction  Syntax is : if ( expression ) execute this statement ;  The keyword if tells the compiler that what follows is a decision control instruction  The expression following the keyword if is always enclosed within a pair of parentheses  if the expression is true then the statement is executed otherwise not
5. 5. 5  In general, the condition is expressed using C’s ‘Relational Operator’  Following are different relational operators:  != is inequality or not equals to operator  == is used for comparison of two quantities  = is an assignment operator
6. 6. Example 6 /* Demonstration of if statement */ main( ) { int num ; printf ( "Enter a number less than 10 " ) ; scanf ( "%d", &num ) ; if ( num <= 10 ) printf ( “The number is less than 10!" ) ; }
7. 7. 7  The general form of if statement is: if (expression) statement;  Here the expression can be any valid expression including a relational expression  We can use arithmetic expressions in the if statement e.g. if (3+5-2) printf(“ This works”); if (a=10) printf(“ Even this works”); if(-5) printf (“And even this works”);
8. 8. if-else Statement 8  Statements are executed when if condition is true  We also want to execute statements when condition is false if ( condition ) do this ; else do this ; if block else block
9. 9. Some if-else rules in C 9  else block should come immediately after if block  When if and else blocks contain only one statement  then we can drop pair of braces i.e. { }  Example:  Take two values from user and determine which one is smaller and which one is greater.  Solution:  First we draw a flow chart
10. 10. Making decisions in C  Sometimes your programs need to make logical choices.  Example: IF score is higher than 50 THEN grade is "pass" ELSE grade is "fail" 10
11. 11. Making decisions in C  Example: IF score is higher than 50 THEN grade is PASS ELSE grade is FAIL  In C, this corresponds to one statement with 3 parts: if (score > 50) { grade = PASS; } else { grade = FAIL; } 11
12. 12. Making decisions in C  Part 1 : the condition An expression that evaluates to TRUE or FALSE if (score > 50) { grade = PASS; } else { grade = FAIL; } 12
13. 13. Making decisions in C  Part 2 : the TRUE part A block of statements that are executed if the condition has evaluated to TRUE if (score > 50) { grade = PASS; } else { grade = FAIL; } True part 13
14. 14. Making decisions in C  Part 3 : the FALSE part A block of statements that are executed if the condition has evaluated to FALSE if (score > 50) { grade = PASS; } else { grade = FAIL; } if the condition evaluates to FALSE, the true part is skipped. False part 14
15. 15. Making decisions in C  If the true part (or false part) consists of only one statement, then the curly braces may be omitted.  Example: these two statements are equivalent: if (score > 50) { grade = PASS; } else { grade = FAIL; } if (score > 50) grade = PASS; else grade = FAIL; 15
16. 16. Making decisions in C  Sometimes there are more than two parts. In those cases you may use cascading (a.k.a. nested) if/else statements: if (score > 90) lettergrade = 'A'; else if (score > 75) lettergrade = 'B'; else if (score > 60) lettergrade = 'C'; else if (score > 50) lettergrade = 'D'; else lettergrade = 'F'; 16
17. 17. Making decisions in C  if(condition) statement;  if (condition) { statements; statements; … }  if (condition) { statements; statements;… } else { statements; statements;... } 3 forms of if statements; (note indenting) Note condition is always in parentheses, All TRUE parts and all FALSE parts are a single statement or a single block of statements {}17
18. 18. Some Valid if Statements in C 18 if ( 3 + 2 % 5 ) printf ( "This works" ) ; if ( a = 10 ) printf ( "Even this works" ) ; if ( -5 ) printf ( "Surprisingly even this works" ) ; “Condition is false only if expression evaluates to 0”
19. 19. Multiple Statements within if (Flowchart) 19
20. 20. Multiple Statements within if (C Language) 20 /* Calculation of bonus */ main( ) { int bonus, cy, yoj, yr_of_ser ; printf ( "Enter current year and year of joining " ) ; scanf ( "%d %d", &cy, &yoj ) ; yr_of_ser = cy - yoj ; if ( yr_of_ser > 3 ) { bonus = 2500 ; printf ( "Bonus = Rs. %d", bonus ) ; } }
21. 21. 21 #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int a,b; printf("Enter 1st Number: "); scanf("%d", &a); printf("Enter 2nd Number: "); scanf("%d", &b); if( a > b ) printf("%d is greater than %d", a, b); else printf("%d is greater than %d", b, a); getch(); }
22. 22. Some tests 22 Test No. Output Remarks 01 Enter 1st Number: 15 Enter 2nd Number: 25 25 is greater than 15 2nd number is greater than 1st number 02 Enter 1st Number: 35 Enter 2nd Number: 20 35 is greater than 20 1st number is greater than 2nd number 03 Enter 1st Number: 300 Enter 2nd Number: 300 300 is greater than 300 Both numbers are equal…..Logical Error!
23. 23. nested if-else 23 if ( condition ) do this ; else { if ( condition ) do this ; else do this ; } “Modify our flow chart to solve logical error”
24. 24. 24 #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int a,b; printf("Enter 1st Number: "); scanf("%d", &a); printf("Enter 2nd Number: "); scanf("%d", &b); if( a > b ) printf("%d is greater than %d", a, b); else { if( a == b ) printf("%d is equal to %d", a, b); else printf("%d is greater than %d", b, a); } getch(); }
25. 25. else if Statement 25  Every else is associated with its previous if  The last else goes to work only if all the conditions fail  In else if the last else is optional  The else if clause is nothing different, it’s just a way of rearranging the else with the if that follows it  e.g.
26. 26. Use of Logical Operators 26  C allows usage of three logical operators  &&, ||, !  These are to be read as AND, OR, NOT respectively  && and || are composed of double symbols  Don’t use the single symbols & , |  These single symbols also have meaning. These are bitwise operators  The && and || allow two or more conditions to be combined in an if statement
27. 27. 27 Write a program to calculate the division obtained by a student. The marks obtained by the student in 5 different subjects are input through the keyboard  There are two ways to solve this problem
28. 28. 28 /* Method – I */ main( ) { int m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, per ; printf ( "Enter marks in five subjects " ) ; scanf ( "%d %d %d %d %d", &m1, &m2, &m3, &m4, &m5 ) ; per = ( m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 + m5 ) / 5 ; if ( per >= 60 ) printf ( "First division n") ; else { if ( per >= 50 ) printf ( "Second divisionn" ) ; else { if ( per >= 40 ) printf ( "Third divisionn" ) ; else printf ( "Failn" ) ; } } }
29. 29. 29  This program uses nested if-else  Three disadvantages of this method  As the number of conditions go on increasing the level of indentation also goes on increasing. As a result the whole program creeps to the right.  Care needs to be exercised to match the corresponding ifs and elses.  Care needs to be exercised to match the corresponding pair of braces.  All these three problems can be eliminated by usage of ‘Logical operators’
30. 30. 30 /* Method – II */ main( ) { int m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, per ; printf ( "Enter marks in five subjects " ) ; scanf ( "%d %d %d %d %d", &m1, &m2, &m3, &m4, &m5 ) ; per = ( m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 + m5 ) / 5 ; if ( per >= 60 ) printf ( "First divisionn" ) ; if ( ( per >= 50 ) && ( per < 60 ) ) printf ( "Second divisionn" ) ; if ( ( per >= 40 ) && ( per < 50 ) ) printf ( "Third divisionn" ) ; if ( per < 40 ) printf ( "Failn" ) ; }
31. 31. 31  In the second if statement, the && operator is used to combine two conditions  ‘Second division’ gets printed if both conditions are true  Two advantages of this method  The matching of the ifs with their corresponding elses gets avoided  In spite of using several conditions, the program doesn’t expand to the right
32. 32. Solution Using else if 32 /* Use of else if */ main( ) { int m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, per ; printf ( "Enter marks in five subjects " ) ; scanf ( "%d %d %d %d %d", &m1, &m2, &m3, &m4, &m5 ) ; per = ( m1+ m2 + m3 + m4+ m5 ) / 5 ; if ( per >= 60 ) printf ( "First divisionn" ) ; else if ( per >= 50 ) printf ( "Second divisionn" ) ; else if ( per >= 40 ) printf ( "Third divisionn" ) ; else printf ( "failn" ) ; }
33. 33. Problem! 33  Find smallest and greatest number among three input numbers?
34. 34. The ! (NOT) Operator 34  The third logical operator is ! (NOT operator)  This operator reverse the result of an expression  If the result of an expression is TRUE, the ! operator will make it FALSE and vice versa  e.g.  !(y<10) it means that “not y less than 10”  if y is less than 10, the expression will be FALSE  the same condition can be written as (y>=10)  The NOT operator is often used to reverse the logical value of a single variable  if (!flag) is same as if(flag==0)
35. 35. Hierarchy of Operators Revisited 35  Since we have added the logical operators, so it’s time to review the priorities of these operators  The higher the position of an operator in the table, the higher is its priority
36. 36. Summary of Logical Operators 36  Following figure summarizes the working of logical operators X 1
37. 37. Logical Operators (Exercise) 37  A company insures its drivers in the following cases:  If the driver is married.  If the driver is unmarried, male & above 30 years of age.  If the driver is unmarried, female & above 25 years of age.  In all other cases the driver is not insured. If the marital status, sex and age of the driver are the inputs, write a program to determine whether the driver is to be insured or not.
38. 38. 38 // One way to solve the problem main( ) { char sex, ms ; int age ; printf ( "Enter age, sex, marital status " ) ; scanf ( "%d %c %c", &age, &sex, &ms ) ; if ( ms == 'M' ) printf ( "Driver is insured" ) ; else { if ( sex == 'M' ) { if ( age > 30 ) printf ( "Driver is insured" ) ; else printf ( "Driver is not insured" ) ; } else { if ( age > 25 ) printf ( "Driver is insured" ) ; else printf ( "Driver is not insured" ) ; } } }
39. 39. Solution by using Logical Operators 39 main( ) { char sex, ms ; int age ; printf ( "Enter age, sex, marital status " ) ; scanf ( "%d %c %c“, &age, &sex, &ms ) ; if ( ( ms == 'M') || ( ms == 'U' && sex == 'M' && age > 30 ) || ( ms == 'U' && sex == 'F' && age > 25 ) ) printf ( "Driver is insured" ) ; else printf ( "Driver is not insured" ) ; }
40. 40. The Conditional Operators 40  The conditional operators are ? and :  Sometimes called Ternary Operators since they take three arguments  The general form is: expression 1 ? expression 2 : expression 3  It means that if expression 1 is TRUE then the value returned will be expression 2 otherwise the value returned will be expression 3  e.g. int x,y; scanf (“%d”, &x); y=(x>5 ? 3 : 4)  This statement will store 3 in y if x is greater than 5 otherwise it will store 4 in y
41. 41. 41  Another example int x,y; scanf("%d", &x); y = (x >= 10 && x <= 50 ? 1 : 0);  Here if x>=10 && x<=50 evaluates to TRUE then y=1 otherwise y=0
42. 42. The following points may be noted about conditional operators 42  It’s not necessary that the conditional operators should be used only in arithmetic statements int i ; scanf ( "%d", &i ) ; i == 1 ? printf ("You have entered 1" ) : printf ( "Entered value is other than 1" ) ;  The conditional operators can be nested as shown below: int big, a, b, c ; big = ( a > b ? ( a > c ? 3: 4 ) : ( b > c ? 6: 8 ) ) ;
43. 43. 43  Check out the following conditional expression: a > b ? g = a : g = b ;  This will give you an error ‘Lvalue Required’. To remove the error just enclose the statement in : part within a pair of parenthesis a > b ? g = a : ( g = b ) ;  In absence of parentheses the compiler believes that b is being assigned to the result of the expression to the left of second =.  The limitation of the conditional operators is that after the ? or after the : only one C statement can occur
44. 44. What is the Output? 44 #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int a, b, g; a=10;b=5; a > b ? g = a : (g = b) ; g == 10 ? printf ( "true" ) : printf ( "false" ); getch(); }
45. 45. Some Rules 45  The default scope of the if statement is only the next statement.  So, to execute more than one statement they must be written in a pair of braces.  An if block need not always be associated with an else block.  However, an else block is always associated with an if statement.  && and || are binary operators, whereas, ! is a unary operator  In C every test expression is evaluated in terms of zero and non-zero values.  A zero value is considered to be false and a non-zero value is considered to be true.  Assignment statements used with conditional operators must be enclosed within a pair of parenthesis.
46. 46. Output of program! 46 main( ) { int a = 300, b, c ; if ( a >= 400 ) b = 300 ; c = 200 ; printf ( "n%d %d", b, c ) ; } main( ) { int x = 10, y = 20 ; if ( x == y ) ; printf ( "n%d %d", x, y ) ; }
47. 47. 47 main( ) { int i = 4, j = -1, k = 0, y, z ; y = i + 5 && j + 1 || k + 2 ; z = i + 5 || j + 1 && k + 2 ; printf ( "ny = %d z = %d", y, z ) ; }