Cartilage and bone by adnan
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Cartilage and bone by adnan






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  • Periosteum around bones = dense irregular fibrous tissue - tough stuff around ribs when you eat them <br /> Blood diffuses out of canal thru canaliculi into lacunae to osteocytes <br />

Cartilage and bone by adnan Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Skeleton: constructed of two types of connective tissues: bone and cartilage • • • • • • support protection system of levers storage of lipids and many minerals (calcium) site for hematopoesis (red bone marrow blood cell production)
  • 2. Cartilage (chondro-) Also called soft Tissue.Present around the bone. Cells: • Chondroblast - actively mitotic cartilage cell • Chondrocyte - mature cartilage cell, in lacunae Three types of cartilage: • Hyaline • Elastic • Fibrocartilage
  • 3. Hyaline Cartilage • most common type of cartilage (gristle) • matrix = bluish-white if unstained • very fine fibers (not visible with light microscope) • contains lacunae (chambers) with chondrocytes (mature cartilage cells) • locations: articular surface of bones (ends of bones at movable joints), end of nose, fetal skeleton, trachea, costal cartilage • functions: support and lubrication
  • 4. Elastic Cartilage • matrix contains numerous, visible elastic fibers (resilience and flexibility) • densely clustered lacunae with chondrocytes • locations: ear pinna, epiglottis, Eustachian tube (auditory tube) • functions: support and give shape • Colour : yellowish in color
  • 5. Fibrocartilage • collagenous fibers are dominant feature of matrix • thick compact parallel bundles with wavy appearance • locations: intervertebral disks, pubic symphasis, knee menisci • functions: strong compression and tension forces. • Type of protein present in matrix is chondryomucoprotein.
  • 6. Bone (osteo-) • • • • • • support protection movement mineral storage hematopoesis (blood cell formation) contains vesicles, collagen fibers, protein matrix, organic and inorganic materials • Cells: – osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast
  • 7. Histology of Bone Tissue Cells: Osteoblast –it is site for production of mature bone cell (osteocyte) Osteocyte - mature bone cell, present in lacunae Osteoclast – related to macrophages, secrete HCl to break down calcium and phosphorous • Compact Bone - dense, outer layer, found in diaphysis • Spongy Bone (cancellous bone) - internal, spongy layer, found in epiphysis
  • 8. Microscopic Examination of Compact Bone • functional unit of compact bone = osteon (Haversian system) • core of osteon = central canal (Haversian canal) • central canal contains blood vessels to supply bone cells • within osteon = osteocytes (mature bone cells) within lacunae (chambers) • thin tubes called canaliculi run between lacunae and nearby capillaries • rings called lamellae
  • 9. Compact Bone - 400x magnification.
  • 10. Microscopic Examination of Spongy Bone • honeycomb of small needle-like pieces called trabeculae • open spaces between trabeculae are filled with red and yellow bone marrow • each trabecula contains several layers of lamellae and osteocytes in lacunae, but is too small to contain osteons or vessels of its own
  • 11. Spongy (Cancellous) Bone The osteocytes are located within chambers (lacunae) inside the trabeculae. Red bone marrow fills the spaces between trabeculae. 100x magnification.