Social Darwinism: This grew out of Charles Darwin’s theory of biological evolution. In 1859, he published, On the Origin of Species, where he described the process of natural selection. 1850 1859 1860 1861Vanderbilt Family: George Pullman: An Urbanization: ThisAmerican family who American was the growth ofbecame socially industrialist and cities during the 19thprominent during the inventor who was century and beyond.first half of the 19th known for thecentury. There invention of thefamily fortune was Pullman Sleepingestablished in the Car. He was alsoshipping and known for violentlyrailroad industry, suppressing strikersThe Vanderbilt’s are in the company townthe seventh he created, Pullman,wealthiest family in which later becamehistory. part of Chicago Illinois.
Transcontinental Railroad: This was the railroad system that connected the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States. This was completed in the year 1869. 1864 1869 1869 1869Sand Creek Massacre: Political Machine: Kickback: This is anNovember 29, 1864 This was an illegal payment forColonel John Chivington organized group that services. This isand his troops descended controlled the what politicalon the Cheyenne and activities of a machines would useArapaho Indian tribe which political party in a to get people to votecontained about 200 city. for that party orwarriors and 500 women support them. Theyand children who camped would “kickback”at Sand Creek. The attack money tooccurred at dawn on the supporters.29th and killed over 150inhabitants.
George Westinghouse: He was an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railwayTammany Hall: This air break.was New York City’s Westinghouse wasmost powerful also a great pioneerDemocratic political of the electricalmachine. industry. 1869 1869 1869 1871 Tweed Ring: This Long Drive: The overland was a group of transport of animals corrupt politicians where a trail boss and led by Boss Tweed his crew would take their in defrauding New cattle on a “long drive” York City between that usually lasted about the years 1869 to three months. A typical 1871. drive consisted of one cowboy for every 200 to 300 head of cattle; a cook who also drove the chuck wagon and set up camp; and a wrangler who cared for the extra horses .
John D. Rockefeller: He established the Standard Oil Co. The company joined with competing companies in trust agreements. Rockefeller used these trust agreements to gain total control of the oil industry in America. In 1870 his company only processed 2 or 3%of the Country’s oil, by 1880 it controlled 90% of the refining business. He kept most of his assets, but he still gave away over $500 million, establishing the Rockefeller Foundation, providing funds to found the University of Chicago, and creating a medical institute to find a cure for yellow fever. 1871 1872 1872 1873Mark Twain: Samuel Southern Alliance: Mail Order Catalog:Langhorne Clemens This was a group This was a catalogwas a novelist and that sympathized that was companieshumorist. Twain with many farmers. would produce andinspired a host of The Southern send out via mailother young writers Alliance was the (postal service) forand authors when largest and they people to look athe declared his sent lecturers to and place ordersindependence of towns to educate from. By the mid“literature and all people about lower 1990’s more than 13that bosh.” interest rates on billion catalogs filled loans and Americans government control mailboxes. over railroads and banks.
George Armstrong Custer: Colonel Custer reported that the Black Hills had gold. From that point on the Gold Rush had begun. 1873 1873 1874 1874Segregation: Laws Patronage: The Trust: These werethat separate white giving of agreements whereand black people in government jobs to the participantspublic and private people who had turned their stockplaces. helped that over to a group of candidate get trustees and in elected. return the companies were entitled to dividends on profits earned by the trust.
Battle of Little Big Horn: Also known as Custer’s last stand. This battle occurred on June 25th and 26th, 1876 near the Little Big Horn River in eastern Montana territory. It was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Alexander Graham inspired by the visions of Bell: The inventor of Sitting Bull. The total casualty the telephone in count was 268 dead and 55 1876. injured. 1876 1876 1876 1876Buffalo Soldiers: Thomas A. Edison: HeThese men were became a pioneer on theoriginally members new industrial frontierof the U.S. Calvary when he established theRegiment formed on world’s 1st researchSept. 21, 1866 at laboratory in Menio Park,Fort Leavenworth, NJ in 1876. There heKansas. The nick preferred thename was given to incandescent light bulbthe “Negro Cavalry” which was patented inby the Native 1880 and later inventedAmerican Tribes the an entire system forfought. producing and distributing power.
Ellis Island: This is where immigrants from mainly European countries entered the United States. About 20% of immigrants at Ellis Island were detained for a day or more before being inspected but only about 2% were denied entry. An estimated 17 million immigrants passed through the island. 1876 1876 1877 1877Telephone: Invented Civil Service: Chief Joseph: The leader of thein 1876 by Government Nez Perce Indian Tribe, theAlexander Graham Administration. Wallowa band. He and his tribeBell. This changed traveled 1170 miles acrossthe speed of the Oregon, Washington, Idaho,world forever. Wyoming and Montana while fighting against General Howard and his opposing cavalry. Finally after a 5 day battle during the freezing weather conditions with no food or blankets, Chief Joseph formally surrendered to General Nelson Appleton Miles on October 5th, 1877.
Nez Perce: An Bessemer Process: This wasIndian tribe that was developed independently byforced off of their the British manufacturer Henryland in Wallowa Bessemer and American ironCounty, Oregon in maker William Kelly around1877 that returned 1850. This technique involved120 years later. In injecting air into molten iron to1999 the number of remove the carbon and otherNez Perce in impurities. By 1880, mostOregon was at American manufacturers werearound 3,000. Chief using this new method toJoseph was the best produce 90% of the nation’sknown Nez Perce. steel. 1877 1880 1880 1880 Wild Bill Hickok: He Ragtime: A blend of was a legendary African American figure who served as spirituals and a scout and spy European musical during the Civil War forms,. Ragtime then later a marshal originated in in Abilene, Kansas. southern saloons He was a violent and led later to jazz, man who shot a rhythm and blues, man who was and rock and roll. holding a pair of aces and a pair of eights, this hand is still known as a “dead mans hand.”
Sitting Bull: A member of the SiouxIndian Tribe he earned the name ofsitting bull after a fight with the Crow.He led his people by the strength ofhis character and purpose. He was awarrior, spiritual leader, and medicineman. He was determined that whites Melting Pot: Ashould leave Sioux territory. His most mixture of people offamous fight was at the Little Big Horn different culturesRiver. After his surrender to the federal and races whogovernment in 1881, his dislike of blended together bywhites did not change. He was killed abandoning theirby a Native American Police in Dec. of native languages1890. and customs. 1881 1881 1883 1883 Booker T. Washington: A Joseph Pulitzer: A prominent African American Hungarian immigrant educator that believed that who had bought racism would end once the New York World blacks acquired useful labor in 1883, and skills and proved their pioneered popular economic value to the innovations, such as society. He graduated from a larger Sunday Virginia’s Hampton Institute . edition, comics, By 1881 he headed the sports coverage, Tuskegee Normal and and women’s news. Industrial institute. The institute aimed to equip African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills.
Dawes Act: Congress passed this aiming to “Americanize” the Native Americans. The act broke up the reservations and gave some of the reservation land to Samuel Gompers: individual Native He led the Cigar Americans- 160 Makers International acres for every head Union to join with of household and 80 other craft unions in acres to each 1886. unmarried adult. 1884 1886 1886 1887Mugwumps: A group Jane Addams: Sheof Republican very stronglyactivists who believed inSupported settlement houses.Democratic She cofoundedCandidate Grover Chicago’s HullCleveland in the US House in 1889. ShePresidential election was also an antiwarof 1884. activist, a spokesperson for racial justice and an advocate for quality of life issues. In 1931 she was a co- winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Literacy Test: These test the reading ability of African Americans to ensure Poll Tax: An annual that they couldn’t tax that had to be vote. paid before qualifying to vote. 1888 1888 1888 1888George Eastman: Grandfather Clause:He sold the first roll- This stated thatfilm camera. He even if a man failedcalled it the Kodak. the literacy test or could not afford poll tax, he was still entitled to vote if he, his father or his grandfather had been able to vote prior to January 1st, 1867.
Ghost Dance: When the Sioux continued to suffer poverty and disease the turned to a Palute prophet who promised that if the Sioux performed a ritual called the Ghost Dance, Native American lands and way of life would be restored. This Sherman Antitrust movement spread rapidly among act: This made it the 25,000 Sioux on the Dakota illegal to form a trust Reservation. Military leaders saw that interfered with this as a threat and order the free trade between arrest of Sitting Bull. In Dec of states and other 1890 he was shot while police countries. were trying to arrest him. 1888 1890 1890 1890Jim Crow Laws: This Wounded Knee: On Dec 28, 1890 thewas the nickname Seventh Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment)for segregation laws rounded up 350 starving and freezingbecause of an old Sioux and took them to a camp atminstrel song that Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota.ended in the words The soldiers demanded that the Native“Jump, Jim Crow.” Americans give up all of their weapons. A shot was fired, from which side was unknown, but the cavalry responded with a deadly cannon fire and within minutes they had slaughtered as many as 300 mostly unarmed Native Americans and left their dead bodies laying on the ground.
Eugene Debs: He attempted to form the American Railway Union. Most of the union’s members were unskilled or semiskilled laborers. In 1894 the Union won a strike for higher wages. 1891 1891 1894 1895Collective Jacob Riis: He was W. E. B. Dubois:Bargaining: This a social reformer, The first Africanwas negotiation “Muckraking” American to earn abetween journalist, and a doctorate fromrepresentatives of social documentary Harvard. Helabor and photographer. He founded the Niagaramanagement, to was known as one Movement whichreach oral of the fathers of insisted that blacksagreements on photography should seek a liberalwages, hours and because of his arts education soworking conditions. discovery of the use that the African of flash. American community would have well- educated leaders.
William Jennings Bryan: He may be considered a patron of loss causes. He was the nominee for the Democratic candidate for the presidential election of 1896. 1895 1896 1896 1899Vaudeville: Settlement House: Andrew Carnegie:Performances that Community centers He was one of theincluded song, in slum first industrialdance, juggling, neighborhoods that moguls to make hisslapstick comedy, provided assistance own fortune. Byand sometimes to people in the 1899 the Carnegiechorus lines of area, especially Steel Companyfemale performers. immigrants. manufactured moreMany black steel than all theperformers factories in Greatentertained here. Britain. He sold his business in 1901 and his companies produced by far the largest portions of the nations steel.
Angel Island: Where Chinese immigrants came into the US in California. 1901 1902 1903 1910Monopoly: Complete Debt Peonage: A The Wright Brothers:control over its system that bound Created the firstindustry’s laborers into slavery. airplane in Kittyproduction, wages Hawk, NCand prices.