LOCATION• Turkey is the only country in the world that is on two continents. Turkey is on both Asia and Europe.• Bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria.
LOCATION• It is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest, Greece to the west, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east, and Iraq and Syria to the southeast.
NATIONAL FLAG & EMBLEM • Red with a vertical white half moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five- pointed star centered just outside the half- moon Used only in embassies & opening. Ministry of • Turkey does not have an Foreign Affairs. official national emblem. The symbol on the cover page of Turkish passports is simply the star and Half -moon t as found in the flag of Turkey.Seal of the President of Turkey. The 16 stars symbolize Designed in 1925,the 16 Turkish states in history. but was never approved.
SYMBOL• In the language of flowers, tulips have their own meaning and symbolism. In general the tulip flowers mean perfect love and a true.• And of course, tulip flowers are always associated with spring. Blooming in a multitude of colors timeless symbol of spring.• The tulip flower is the 11th wedding anniversary flower. The tulip flower is also unofficially the emblem of Holland and the national flower of Iran and Turkey.
FACTS• Population :75.6 million(Turkstat, Turkish Statistical Institute, 2012 )• Official Language : Turkish• Administrative Type : Democratic Republic• Capital City :Ankara,but most populated city is Istanbul.• Currency: Turkish Lira• Official HolidaysReligious• Feast of Ramadan. ( 3 days )• Feast of the Sacrifice.( 4 days )Other holidays• New Years Day (1st January)• National Sovereignty & Childrens Day (23rd April)• Ataturks Commemoration & Youth and Sports Day (19th May)• Victory Day (30th August) Istiklal Avenue• Republic Day (29th October 1923)
FACTS• Time difference: UTC+2. (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)• Daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Monday in March; ends last Sunday in October• Working Days: From Monday to Friday• Ethnic Groups : Turkish, Laz,Zaza Kurdish , Greek , Turkmen• Life expectacy : 72• Sufferage :18• Mean Age : 28.8 years• Religions :Secular Republic Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)• Urban population: 70% of total population (2010).
HISTORYThe Turks and the Ottoman Empire• Turkey has been the home of many civilisations. Ancient people who lived in the area include the Hittites of Hattusha, Phrygians and Lydians. The Persians ruled between 545-383 BC, followed by the Greeks (333-30BC) and the Romans(30BC-395 AD).• In the 10th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became the new homeland of Oğuz Turkic tribes following the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt) in 1071.• In the fifteenth century it was conquered by the Ottoman arm (the capital city was renamed Istanbul).
HISTORY• Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic whose political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the after World War I.• Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizationssuch as ; The Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies.• Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
HISTORYWho is Atatürk?• He was born in Selanik 1881 and died 1938.• Hero of Gallipoli Battle fields in the World War I.• Atatürk is the starter of war of the independence.• Establisher and first minister of Turkish Republic. Also known as “Father of the Turks.” Mustafa Kemal ATATURK
HISTORY• Atatürk did many radical reforms to being modernise and develop more. Political ------>Democracy Law ------> Swiss Law Education andculture ----->Latin Alphabet Economic ------>I.and II. development plan Social life ------> Civil and political rights to woman .
HISTORY He died on the "10th of November, 1938. His mausoleum is in Anıtkabir, Ankara
GEOGRAPHY Blacksea Marmara Eastern Anatolia Central Anatolia Agean Southeastern Anatolia Mediterranean Turkey is subdivided 7 regions . . Turkey is subdivided 7 regionsTurkey has 81 provinces.Most populated ones are Istanbul,Ankara,Izmir ..Turkey has 81 provinces.Most populated ones are Istanbul,Ankara,Izmir
GEOGRAPHYTurkey is surrounded by sea on three sides, by the Black Sea in the north, the Mediterranean in the south and the Aegean Sea in the west .Coast line : 7,200 km.
GEOGRAPHY• Turkeys diverse regions have different climates because of irregular topography.• In the Eastern region of Anatolia, the elevation of mountains exceeds 2500-3000 m.• Northern Black Sea Mountains and Caucasian Mountain hold the rain clouds, and therefore the area is affected by the continental climate with long and very cold winter.
GEOGRAPHY• While the coastal areas enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau experiences extremes of hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.• Turkey receives most of the rainfall in the winter season.• But summer rainfall is very limited and could not be enough to remove water .
GEOGRAPHY Tempeture• In Istanbul and around the Sea of Marmara the climate is moderate (winter 4°C and summer 27°C).• In winter however the temperatures can drop below zero. In Western Anatolia.• There is a mild Mediterranean climate with average temperatures of 9°C in winter and 29°C in summer.• The climate in the Black Sea area is wet, and humid (summer 23°C, winter 7°C).• Eastern Anatolia region there is a long winter, and snow remains on the ground from November until the end of April (the average temperature in winter is -13 °C & in summer 17 °C).
POLITICAL STRUCTURE• Politics of Turkey are exercised in frame of strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic.• Turkish political system is modeled off separation of powers.• Grand National Assembly of Turkey holds legislative power.• Judiciary is free of executive and legislature.• Turkey’s current constitution went into effect on 7 November 1982 .
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Executive branch• Duty of head of state is carried out by president.• President is elected every five years on basis of universal suffrage.• President is not required to be MP, but he or she has to be older than 40 years old and have bachelor’s degree.• Current president Abdullah Gül was elected by Parliament on 28 August 2007.• President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers are in charge of executive power.• Current PM is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, whose conservative Justice and Development Party gained majority of parliament seats in 2011 general election.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Legislative branch• Legislative power is exercised in 550-seat Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), with 81 provinces represented.• Its members are elected to term of four years through mitigated proportional representationwith election.
POLITICAL STRUCTUREGrand National Assembly of Turkey• Normally known simply as the Meclis (parliament).• Unicameral Turkish legislature.• Founded 23 April 1920 amid Turkish War of Independence.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Political laws of truth in Turkey• Turkey’s constitution and most mainstream political parties are structured on these principles: • Kemalism • Laicism • Modernization• Other political ideas have also influenced Turkish politics and modern history. Of special significance are: • Conservatism • Neo-liberalism • Islamism • Pan-Turkism • Socialism • Communism • Anarchism
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Abdullah GUL• Born 29 October 1950 in Kayseri.• 11th and current President of Turkey since 28 August 2007.• Was previously PM for four months (18 November 2002-14 March 2003) and Minister of Affairs and Deputy PM for four years (14 March 2003-28 August 2007 and 28 March 2003-28 August 2007, respectively). President of Turkey
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN• Born 26th February 1954 inIstanbul .• PM of Turkey 14th March 2003 & Chairman of the governing party Justice & Development Party(AK Party ).• Served as mayor of Istanbul from 1994-1998. Prime Minister of Turkey
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN• Graduated from Marmara University (Commercial Science ) .• Founded Justice & Development Party in 2001 .• Acquired 2/3 of seats in Parliament in 2002 general election creating 1st single party government for 9 years.• Interest rates lowered with per capita growing significantly. Prime Minister of Turkey
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Republican People’s Party• Kemalist and social-democratic political party.• Is Turkey’s oldest political party and is currently main opposition party in Grand National Assembly.• Portrays itself as “a modern social- democratic party, which is faithful to founding principles and values of the Republic [of Turkey]”.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Justice and Development Party• Centre-right conservative political party.• The Biggest party in Turkey, has 327 MPs.• Its leader, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, is PM; fellow member and ex-party leader Abdullah Gül is President.• Ak also means “white” in Turkish.• Founded 14 August 2001 by members of numerous existing parties; won landslide victory in 2002 general election by winning more than two-thirds of parliamentary Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN seats.
POLITICAL STRUCTUREPeace at home peace in the world (Turkish motto ) M.Kemal ATATURK Left Wing & Right WingKemal KILICTAROGLU Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN
POLITICAL STRUCTURE3 main Political issue in Turkey ;• Armenian Conflict .• Cyprus.• Kurdish Conflict :20% of Turkey’s population is Kurdish. →More than 35,000 people have died in the Kurdish conflict since the PKK turned to terrorism in 1984. →Abdullah Ocalan, leader of rebel terrorist group (PKK)