0 Since reflected light is what photographic films/sensors use to create images, lighting is clearly a key element in all kinds of photography.0 Light sources are divided into two major categories; natural and artificial.0 Natural light sources are sunlight, moonlight and reflected light. Artificial light sources are: flash, lamps and studio lights. Note that natural light is not necessarily outdoor, nor is artificial light exclusively indoor.
There are four of theseclassifications for light (natural or artificial).1. Overhead2. Front3. Back4. SideAnother characteristic of light is the quality, oftendefined as "hard" or "soft." Hard light is very bright,resulting in sharp shadows, while soft light is diffused,displaying better range of details.
Photography in sunlight0 If you are photographing in sunlight, try to position yourself so that the sun hits your subject from the side, this will give you nice modeling and help create a 3D effect in the picture.0 Photography is all about light, the direction of the light falling on your subject is most important, you need to look at your subject carefully and watch how the shadows fall
Lighting Reflectors0 Faced with strong sunlight, the professional photographer will reach for his reflector.0 The reflectors come in a variety of surfaces, white, silver and gold are the most usual to see.0 The idea is to bounce some light into the shadow areas thereby reducing the overall contrast of the shot.0 By moving closer to the subject or further away you can fine tune the amount of contrast very accurately.
Using Flash0 If there is any light at all, then use as much of it as you can. Modern auto focus cameras tend to do this automatically, they use the widest aperture to let as much natural light in as possible and add the flash to bring the exposure up to what is necessary.
Studio Lighting0 Think of the two lights as a main light and a fill light, then light the object (or person) with the main light first.0 Move it around to get different effects and see how the shadows fall. Then use the second light, on a lower setting or further away to soften the shadows you have created with the main light but not eliminate them altogether.0 The important thing to remember is that, no matter how many lights you use, one is the main light and all the others are fills or effects, light the subject first with one light then add others as needed.
OUTDOOR LIGHTING0 As a photographer, you work with light to produce quality pictures.0 The color, direction, quantity, and quality of the light you use determine how your subjects appear. In the studio, with artificial light sources, you can precisely control these four effects; however, most of the pictures you make are taken outdoors.
OUTDOOR LIGHTING0 The old adage about keeping the sun at your back is a good place to continue our discussion of outdoor lighting.0 The type of lighting created when the sun is in back of the photographer is called front lighting.0 A photograph is only two-dimensional; therefore, to give an impression of form, depth, and texture to the subject, you should ideally have the light come from the side or at least at an angle.
OUTDOOR LIGHTING0 The case against over-the-shoulder lighting is it produces a flattened effect, doing nothing to bring out detail or provide an impression of depth.0 This over-the-shoulder lighting was probably the first photographic advice you ever received. This may seem to be a universal recipe for good photography. But it is not.
PHOTOGRAPHIC LIGHTING OUTDOOR LIGHTING0 Front lighting0 Side Lighting0 Backlighting0 EXISTING LIGHT0 Fluorescent Lighting
EXISTING LIGHTTips for existing light photography are as follows:0 Carry a flashlight so you can see to make camera settings.0 If you do not have an exposure meter or cannot get a good reading, bracket your exposure.0 Focus carefully; depth of field is shallow at the wide apertures required for existing light photography.0 When you have a scene illuminated by a combination of light sources, use the type of color film recommended for the predominant light source.0 For pictures of fireworks, support your camera on a tripod, focus at infinity, and aim the camera toward the sky area where the display will take place. Open the shutter for several bursts.
Source:http://photoinf.com/General/NAVY/Composition_and_B asic_shots_or_sequences.ht m